AB - ABSTRACT: A geochemical and isotopic study of lavas from Pichincha, Antisana and Sumaco volcanoes in the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) in Ecuador shows their magma genesis to be strongly influenced by slab melts. Pichincha lavas (in fore arc position) display all the characteristics of adakites (or slab melts) and were found in association with magnesian andesites. In the main arc, adakite-like lavas from Antisana volcano could be produced by the destabilization of pargasite in a garnet-rich mantle. In the back arc, high-niobium basalts found at Sumaco volcano could be produced in a phlogopite-rich mantle. The strikingly homogeneous isotopic signatures of all the lavas suggest that continental crust assimilation is limited and confirm that magmas from the three volcanic centers are closely related. The following magma genesis model is proposed in the NVZ in Ecuador: in fore arc position beneath Pichincha volcano, oceanic crust is able to melt and produces adakites. En route to the surface, part of these magmas metasomatize the mantle wedge inducing the crystallization of pargasite, phlogopite and garnet. In counterpart, they are enriched in magnesium and are placed at the surface as magnesian andesites. Dragged down by convection, the modified mantle undergoes a first partial melting event by the destabilization of pargasite and produces the adakite-like lavas from Antisana volcano. Lastly, dragged down deeper beneath the Sumaco volcano, the mantle melts a second time by the destabilization of phlogopite and produces high-niobium basalts. The obvious variation in spatial distribution (and geochemical characteristics) of the volcanism in the NVZ between Colombia and Ecuador clearly indicates that the subduction of the Carnegie Ridge beneath the Ecuadorian margin strongly influences the subduction-related volcanism. It is proposed that the flattening of the subducted slab induced by the recent subduction (<5 Ma?) of the Carnegie Ridge has permitted the progressive warming of the oceanic crust and its partial melting since ca. 1.5 Ma. Since then, the production of adakites in fore arc position has deeply transformed the magma genesis in the overall arc changing from "typical" calc-alkaline magmatism induced by hydrous fluid metasomatism, to the space- and time-associated lithology adakite/high-Mg andesite/adakite-like andesite/high-Nb basalts characteristic of slab melt metasomatism.
AB - ABSTRACT: The increasing attention paid to local soil knowledge in recent years is the result of a greater recognition that the knowledge of people who have been interacting with their soils for long time can offer many insights about the sustainable management of tropical soils. This paper describes two approaches in the process of eliciting local information. Case studies show that there is a consistent rational basis to the use of local indicators of soil quality and their relation to improved soil management. The participatory process used is shown to have considerable potential in facilitating farmer consensus about which soil-related constraints should be tackled first. Consensus building is presented as an important step prior to collective action by farming communities in integrated soil management at the landscape scale. Taking advantage of the complementary nature of local and scientific knowledge is highlighted as an overall strategy for sustainable soil management.
AB - ABSTRACT: This study describes an extensive sediment-wave field in the Magdalena Turbidite System, Caribbean Sea, Colombia, which occupies an area of at least 15 000 km (super 2) on the continental slope (3330->3800 m). The waves display wavelengths up to 1.9 km, wave heights up to 18 m, and crestlines that are aligned roughly parallel to the regional bathymetric contours. Preferential deposition on the upslope wave flank has led to upslope migration, in the manner of antidunes. The Magdalena sediment waves are interpreted as forming beneath unconfined turbidity currents, which may result from the downslope evolution of slumps and mass flows. The unconfined turbidity currents are derived from several point sources along the continental slope and spread laterally as they flow downslope. This has led to the formation of a laterally extensive sediment-wave field. Simple numerical modelling estimates that the turbidity currents responsible for wave generation were near- or super-critical, with flow thickness and velocity estimated at 40-160 m, and 36-82 cm s (super -1) respectively. However, later phases of wave growth were not dependent on specific flow conditions. The most important aspect of this study is that the entire sediment-wave unit, from the basal boundary to the present-day seafloor, has been investigated using ultra high-resolution seismic profiles. The sediment-wave unit rests upon an irregular discontinuity that marks a recent change in the sedimentary regime of the Magdalena Turbidite System, from channelised to unchannelised gravity flows. Above this boundary, the sediment waves display a growth pattern characterised by an increase in wave dimensions. In addition, the wave dimensions appear to become more regular through time. However, breaks of slope in the lower bounding surface of the wave field have produced variations in wave morphology that are still visible at the present-day seafloor. This indicates that there is a close relationship between variations in slope angle and turbidity current flow characteristics, which in turn leads to variations in wave morphology.
AB - ABSTRACT: The composition of the mantle plumes that created large oceanic plateaus such as Ontong Java or the Caribbean is still poorly known. Geochemical and isotopic studies on accreted portions of the Caribbean plateau have shown that the plume source was heterogeneous and contained isotopically depleted and relatively enriched portions. A distinctive feature of samples from the Caribbean plateau is their unusual Sr isotopic compositions, which, at a given Nd isotopic ratio, are far higher than in samples from other oceanic plateaus. Sr, O and He isotopic compositions of whole rocks and magmatic minerals (clinopyroxene or olivine) separated from komatiites, gabbros and peridotites from Gorgona Island in Colombia were determined to investigate the origin of these anomalously radiogenic compositions. Sequentially leached clinopyroxenes have Sr isotopic compositions in the range (super 87) Sr/ (super 86) Sr = 0.70271-0.70352, systematically lower than those of leached and unleached whole rocks. Oxygen isotopic ratios of clinopyroxene vary within the range delta (super 18) O = 5.18-5.35 per mil, similar to that recorded in oceanic island basalts. He isotopic ratios are high (R/R (sub a) = 8-19). The lower (super 87) Sr/ (super 86) Sr ratios of most of the clinopyroxenes shift the field of the Caribbean plateau in Nd-Sr isotope diagrams toward more "normal" values, i.e. a position closer to the field defined by mid-ocean ridge basalts and oceanic-island basalts. Three clinopyroxenes have slightly higher (super 87) Sr/ (super 86) Sr ratios that cannot be explained by an assimilation model. The high (super 87) Sr/ (super 86) Sr and variations of (super 143) Nd/ (super 144) Nd are interpreted as a source characteristic. Trace-element ratios, however, are controlled mainly by fractionation during partial melting. We combine these isotopic data in a heterogeneous plume source model that accounts for the diversity of isotopic signatures recorded on Gorgona Island and throughout the Caribbean plateau. The heterogeneities are related to old recycled oceanic lithosphere in the plume source; the high (super 3) He/ (super 4) He ratios may indicate that the source material once resided in the lower mantle.