Scavenger Hunt Questions



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Scavenger Hunt Questions
Africa

Egypt
1. Who built the Great Pyramid? Pharaoh Khufu
2. What other famous landmark is near the Great Pyramid? The Sphinx – a statue of a mythical creature with the body of a lion and a human head.
3. Where is the Great Pyramid located? In the modern city of Giza.
4. Why did ancient Egyptians build the pyramids? Pyramids were built as tombs for Egyptian pharaohs and their queens.
5. How were the pyramids built? Archaeologists believe that the Egyptians designed huge ramps, and used wooden sleds to haul massive stone blocks up the sides of the pyramids.

Ethiopia
1. What is the oldest standing structure in Ethiopia? The Temple of Yeha, built around 700 BC by the biblical empire of Sheba.
2. What is a monolithic church? It is a church carved from a single, large piece of stone.
3. When were the monolithic churches in Lalibela built? Probably in the 12th century AD, just prior to conquest by the Ethiopian Empire.
4. What is the Bete Medhane Alem church? It is the largest monolithic church in the world.
5. Who was responsible for the “renaissance” of Ethiopian architecture that still influences the style modern buildings? Emperor Fasilides of the Ethiopian Empire in the 17th century AD. He built such iconic structures as the Fasil Ghebbi castle and the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion.

Gambia
1. How old are the Wassu Stone Circles? Their precise age is not known, but estimates range between the third century BC and the sixteenth century AD. The identity of the builders is also unknown.
2. Why are the Wassu Stone Circles UNESCO World Heritage cites? They present an important architectural feat because the builders had complex knowledge of the stones’ properties.
3. Which two major African empires dominated the area of modern Gambia prior to European invasion? The Mali Empire and the Songhai Empire
4. Which architect designed Arch 22, located in the Gambian capital of Banjul? Pierre Goudiaby, who designed other modern feats including Banjul International Airport and the African Renaissance Monument.
5. What event does Arch 22 commemorate? Arch 22 commemorates the bloodless coup d'etat in 1994 which brought President Yahya Jammeh to power.

Ghana
1. What language do the Krobo people speak? Klogbi, a variant of Dangme or Adangbi
2. What is the most common occupation of the Krobo people? Farming
3. Name two things that beads were once used for in Ghana. Money and a display of social status.
4. What are Krobo beads made of? Recycled glass
5. What is the Ghanian dollar called? The Cedi


Kenya
1. Which culture combined native and Muslim elements, giving Kenya unique art and architecture? Swahili culture
2. Where can you find beautiful Arabic carved wooden doors in Kenya? In the historic cities of Lamu and Mombasa
3. What is a “kanga?” A kanga is a traditional garment worn by men and women in Kenya for centuries. It is made from cotton fabric, patterned with a border around the outside and a colorful design in the center.
4. Which UNESCO World Heritage site in Kenya was built by the Portuguese? Fort Jesus
5. What is one of the final examples of Muslim architecture to be built before British colonization? The Lamu Fort

Mali
1. What building is the most significant example of historic West African architecture? The Great Mosque of Djenne
2. How was this building constructed? The Great Mosque of Djenne was built with sun-baked clay, covered with plaster, and supported by palm tree wood. Wooden struts, called “toron”, stick out two feet from the walls and help support the scaffolding for annual restoration.
3. Which emperor of the Mali Empire was responsible for constructing this building? Mansa Musa
4. Which city in Mali is home to the historic University of Sankore? Timbuktu
5. This city was also the capital for which major African empire? The Songhai Empire

Nigeria
1. Where is Nigeria located? West Coast of Africa
2. Can you describe the clothing/fashion of Nigeria? It is similar to the United States, but Nigeria also has traditional clothing and designs that are colorful, expensive, and unique.
3. What are some of the natural resources of Nigeria? Oil, natural gas, coal, tin (petroleum and raw minerals). Nigeria is the 5th largest supplier of oil to the U.S.
4. How big is Nigeria? 930,000 mi2; about the size of ____, California, and Oklahoma combined; 6 times the size of Georgia; twice the size of California
5. What city in Nigeria is the most outstanding example of contemporary Nigerian urban planning and architecture? Abuja, the capital

Togo
1. What is the official name of Togo, and which countries border it? The Togolese Republic is located in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin in the east, and Burkina Faso to the north.
2. Who were the first people to settle Togo? The Voltaic peoples and the Kwa were the earliest known inhabitants, followed by the Ewe in the 14th century who remain one of the most prominent current tribes.
3. Name some of the most common forms of art in traditional Togo culture. Statuettes, sculptures, hunting trophies, wood carvings.
4. What is the name of the traditional clay and straw dwellings built by ancestors of the Togo people? Taberma houses
5. What does Togo mean in the Ewe language? The house of the sea or shore.

Europe
Austria
1. Name three Austrian cities where the “old city center” is designated as a World Cultural Heritage site. Vienna, Salzburg, Graz
2. List some of the ways STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) and art combine in an urban setting. Buildings, street layout, gardens and parks, statues and monuments, bridges, churches
3. What are some STEM occupations that help to develop and expand cities? Urban planners, architects, engineers, contractors, craftsmen
4. What giant structure was built in Vienna in 1897? Riesenrad Ferris Wheel
5. What is the capital of Austria? Vienna

Czech Republic
1. Name two or more artistic elements of Gothic architecture used in St. Vitas Cathedral in Prague. Vaulted ceilings, pointed arches, grand height, flying buttresses
2. What does the word ossuary mean? It is the final resting place for human skeletal remains that is treated with special reverence.
3. Many examples of ossuaries exist throughout Europe. Can you describe at least one artistic element used in the architecture of the Sedlec Chapel? Chandelier made of bones, garland made of skulls, monstrances made of skeletons that flank the altar, coat of arms made of human bones
4. What Gothic bridge has an avenue of mostly baroque statues and statuaries? Charles Bridge
5. Describe an artistic element of Baroque style. Oval forms, opulent use of ornaments, frescoes, external façade

England
1. Passport stamp question: What is the name of the famous clock in London? Big Ben
2. What is the name of the tower that houses this clock? The Elizabeth Tower
3. Name the London palace in which the Queen resides. Buckingham Palace
4. Name the castle in which the TV series Downton Abbey was filmed. Highclere Castle
5. Who were the first people to build castles in England? Normans

France
1. France has one of the richest architectural legacies in the world. How many UNESCO World Cultural Heritage sites are in France? 104
2. Which bridge in Nîmes, France was one of the greatest architectural achievements of the Roman Empire? Pont du Gard
3. Nicknamed the “City of Light,” Paris has one of the highest concentrations of architectural wonders in the world. Name one famous Parisian structure and its architectural style. One of the following: Notre Dame (Gothic Cathedral), The Louvre (Renaissance Palace), Versailles (Renaissance Chateau), Arc de Triomphe (Neoclassical), Opera Garnier (Beaux-Arts), Eiffel Tower (Romantic), Sacré-Cœur Montmartre (Romantic)
4. Which iconic structure in Mobile, Alabama was built in the French colonial style? Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception
5. Why was the Eiffel Tower built? It was built for the 1889 World’s Fair to display France’s pride, power, and technological advancement to the rest of the world.
Germany
1. In what style was Neuschwanstein Castle built? Romanesque or Neo-Gothic
2. Why is Neuschwanstein known as the “castle of paradox?” It was built in a time when castles were no longer necessary as strongholds, and it contained modern technological comforts even though it was supposed to be in the medieval style.
3. What piece of American architecture was inspired by Neuschwanstein? Disney Land’s Sleeping Beauty Castle
4. In what time period were many of Germany’s iconic structures built? Acceptable answers: Romantic Period, Second Rococo Period, or Late 19th Century
5. What was the position of the people who ordered these works? Kings

Greece
1. The Greek temple is the most famous example of classical architecture. For what purpose were Greek temples built? To worship Greek gods and goddesses
2. Which Greek temple sits on the Acropolis, which overlooks Athens? The Parthenon
3. What type of classical Greek building allowed for plays to be performed? Theater or Amphitheater
4. What are the three Orders of Greek architecture? Ionic, Doric, Corinthian
5. Name three forms of classical art that teach us the most about the ancient Greeks. Mosaics, pottery, sculpture


Hungary/Romania
1. Where is the region of Maramures located? Northwest Romania, near Ukraine
2. What are the main cities of Maramures? Baia Mare, Sighetu Marmatiei
3. Have the people of Maramures preserved their rural culture and traditional Dacian craftsmanship, or have centuries of change and conflict in Eastern Europe caused them to modernize and build large cities? They are still rural and traditional, with small towns
4. What forms of architecture make Maramures inhabitants distinct? Unique wooden churches and carved wooden gates
5. In which towns can these structures be found?

Ireland
1. What is the capital of Ireland? Dublin
2. What do the colors of the Irish flag mean? Green: Irish Catholics. Orange: Irish Protestants. White: hope for peace between the two religions.
3. What structure in Ireland is older than the Egyptian pyramids? Newgrange – built in the monolithic era between 3500 and 2500 BC.
4. What famous ship was built in Ireland? The Titanic was built in Belfast.
5. Which is older, Dublin Castle or the Bunratty Castle? Dublin Castle is the oldest, built in 1220. Bunratty Castle was built in 1425.


Poland
1. What is the oldest Polish cathedral and when was it built? Archcathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, 10th Century
2. What is the most common material used in Polish Gothic architecture, making Poland unique from other countries? Brick
3. Which religion has contributed the most to the history of Polish architecture? Roman Catholic Church
4. What is the modern capital of Polish art and architecture? Katowice
5. What is a modern Polish structure that is used for the fine arts? The Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra building in Katowice
Russia
1. What is the name of the island in Lake Onega that is home to the 18th century wooden Transfiguration church that was build without hammer and nails? Kizhi
2. What is the official name of the St. Basil’s Cathedral that is located on the Red Square in Moscow? The Cathedral of the Intercession of the Virgin by the Moat
3. Why is the Moscow State University building considered one of the “Seven Sisters?” The Seven Sisters is the nickname for seven Stalin-era skyscrapers that dominated Moscow’s landscape until the modern International Business Center was built. Other “sisters” include three residential buildings, two hotels, and the Foreign Affairs Ministry.
4. Most people have heard of the Bolshoi ballet which is among the oldest and most

renowned ballet companies in the world, residing in the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow.



What does “Bolshoi” mean? Big: Bolshoi Theater means “Big” Theater and is a traditional name for Imperial Theater for opera and ballet, while the drama theater was called “Maly Theater, that is “Smaller” or “Lesser than Grand Opera Theater.” The Bolshoi Theater opened in 1825 and has been a Moscow landmark ever since. Its iconic neoclassical façade is featured on the Russian 100-ruble banknote. The Bolshoi Ballet Company also deserves its name being the largest in the world – it has more than 200 dancers.
5. How many people can the “Saucer” hotel accommodate? Also known as the Futuro house, it is located in a popular Russian ski resort and displays Russian space architectural style. 3

Scotland
1. How old is the earliest surviving house in Scotland? 950 years old
2. When were the first castles built in Scotland? In the 12th century with the introduction of feudalism.
3. What was the first major structure in Great Britain to be built with steel, and when was it built? The Forth Bridge, a cantilever railway bridge over the Firth of Forth, which opened in 1890.
4. What is the earliest example of art in Scotland? Highly decorated carved stone balls from the Neolithic period.
5. What is the Scottish Diaspora Project? A project consisting of artwork (needlework) honoring and featuring the wide expanse of Scottish heritage around the world, by Scottish people who immigrated from Scotland and their descendants.

Slovakia
1. Passport stamp question: What material was used to build the earliest churches in Slovakia? Wood
2. When was St. Elizabeth’s Cathedral in Kosice first built? Circa AD 1230
3. Like many cathedrals in Western Europe, St. Elizabeth’s Cathedral in Kosice (which is in Eastern Europe) was built in which architectural style? Gothic
4. What is the difference between a hrad castle and a zamuk castle? “Hrad” castles were built for protection and defense while “zamuk” castles were built for luxury living.
5. List three words to describe the aparment buildings which were constructed during the Communist occupation of Czechoslovakia (from 1948 to 1989 the Czech Republic and Slovakia were one country). Any words like "concrete, plain, straight, not fancy, solid, gray, boring, ugly...etc" to describe the Soviet Era building style.

Spain
1. Unlike other Western European countries, Spanish art and architecture was influenced greatly by which culture? Moorish or Islamic
2. What is one reason the Seville Cathedral is significant? Any of the following: Largest cathedral in the world, third largest church in the world, burial site of Christopher Columbus, UNESCO World Heritage Site.
3. What is the difference between a cathedral and a basilica? Cathedrals are essentially basilicas that house an Archbishop. They are architecturally identical.
4. Spain influenced the colonial architecture of which large world region? Latin America
5. Which building is one of the most important examples of modern architecture in the world? Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain

Switzerland
1. How long ago were the first structures built in Switzerland? Wooden stilt houses were first built 4,000 years ago.
2. Which Roman Catholic cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage site and houses the richest medieval library collection in the world? The Abbey of Saint Gall
3. What is a “façade?” A façade is the entry of a building which is decorated more than any other part, because it is the side that most people see. It is designed to inspire awe and wonder, and is most commonly used in the front of churches and government buildings.
4. How many different styles of architecture are represented throughout Switzerland? 9 (Roman, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical, Art Nouveau, Modern, and Post Modern)
5. What is one feature unique to the Baroque style? Any of the following: highly detailed/ornate façades, using lots of curves and 3-dimensional space, came after the Renaissance and before modern architecture.

Ukraine
1. What is the most prominent architectural element of Ukrainian churches? Domes
2. What does a single dome (cupola) over the center of a church represent? Christ
3. Who is the head of the Ukrainian Catholic church? Pope Francis
4. Christianity in Ukraine dates back to what year? 988
5. What is a Ukrainian Easter egg called? Pysanka

North America & Caribbean
Canada
1. Who were the first people to live in what is now Canada? Any of the following: Native Americans, Indians, Aboriginals, etc.
2. Which two European powers had the biggest cultural impact on Canada? France and Great Britain
3. What features are unique to “Canadian style” buildings? These are large, multistoried buildings with very steep triangular roofs, modeled after the French chateau style.
4. How tall is the CN Tower? 1,815 feet (553 meters)
5. Name one unique fact about the CN Tower. Any of the following: It was the tallest building in the world when it was completed in 1976; it is still the 3rd tallest tower in the world; it is the tallest free-standing structure in the Western hemisphere; it is one of the Modern Seven Wonders of the World; it has the second highest observation deck in the world; its observation deck has a glass floor for visitors to look straight down to the ground; and others.

Jamaica
1. When did the first European explorer arrive in Jamaica? Who was he? Christopher Columbus landed in Jamaica on his second expedition on May 13, 1494. He was an Italian explorer working for the Spanish Crown.
2. When was slavery abolished in Jamaica, and what caused it to happen? Slavery throughout the British Empire was abolished August 1, 1834 largely due to reports on the terrible conditions of slaves in Jamaica after the 1831 Baptist War.
3. What natural resources are found in Jamaica? Bauxite (aluminum), gypsum, limestone.
4. What major exports from Jamaica help its economy? Raw minerals, sugar, bananas, coffee
5. How was the island of Jamaica created? Jamaica and the other Antilles islands evolved from an arc of ancient volcanoes that rose from the sea millions of years ago. While the volcanoes were underwater, thick layers of limestone sediment were laid down over igneous and metamorphic rock.

Mexico
1. When was Teotihuacán inhabited, and what happened to it? It was most likely inhabited before 500 AD, and it was only occupied for a few hundred years before being mysteriously abandoned. Scholars now think the population left after drought and civil unrest.
2. Why is Chichen Itza important to Mexican heritage? It was a major Mayan city before the arrival of the Europeans, and it teaches us a lot about the history of the area because it is so well preserved.
3. What was Tenochtitlan? Tenochtitlan was the capital city of the Aztecs, located in the same place as modern Mexico City. It was an island in Lake Texoco containing many bridges and waterways. When Mexico City was built over it, much of the water was removed, leaving only a few canals left for us to imagine what the city was like.
4. The Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral is the largest cathedral in the Americas. What style was it built in, and how long did it take to complete? Gothic style, 150 years.
5. What is culturally significant about Mexico? Mexico has more UNESCO World Heritage sites than any country in the Americas.

Puerto Rico
1. Who built Castillo San Felipe Del Morro? Spanish colonists Juan de Tejada and Juan Batista
2. Where was “El Morro” built? San Juan, Puerto Rico
3. When did construction on El Morro begin, and how long did it survive? 1539, until destruction by US bombardment in 1898
4. Why was it built? To guard the entrance of San Juan Bay from seaborne attack
5. How tall and wide is El Morro? It has six stories that rise above sea level to 145 feet, and the grounds cover 70 acres.
6. Why is “El Morro” important? It provided a model after which all other 17th and 18th century Spanish colonial forts were built, and it is a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site.

United States of America
1. In what state is Mount Rushmore located? South Dakota
2. How many stars and stripes are on the U.S. flag and what do they symbolize? Thirteen red and white stripes represent the original 13 colonies, and 50 stars represent the states.
3. What country gave the Statue of Liberty to the U.S. as a gift? France
4. How many national parks are in the U.S.? 58
5. What animal is the national emblem of the United States? The Bald Eagle

Central America
Costa Rica
1. What is a basilica? It is a type of Christian church that has its origins in ancient Roman government buildings.
2. Who is the most significant figure in traditional Latin American culture? The Virgin Mary, also known as Our Lady of the Angels in Costa Rica, Our Lady Guadalupe in Mexico—many countries have unique names for her.
3. Where is the Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels? It is in the historic city of Cartago, which was originally founded in 1563.
4. What is the best preserved historic building in San Jose, the capital of Costa Rica? National Theater of Costa Rica
5. What are the basic features of Spanish colonial city centers? They can be found all throughout Latin America. A central plaza surrounded by a cathedral and government and commercial buildings.

El Salvador
1. What is the oldest architecture of El Salvador? Mayan architecture
2. Which is the principal architecture of the churches and public buildings of El Salvador? Colonial
3. Who built the colonial Churches of El Salvador? The Spaniards built them using Mayan laborers
4. What is the oldest colonial church in El Salvador? The Church of the Pilar in the city of San Vicente.
5. When was this church built and in what style was it built? It was founded in 1762 and it is considered baroque.

Guatemala
1. What is the national bird of Guatemala that shares a name with its currency? The Quetzal
2. What is the name of Guatemala’s beautiful volcanic lake? Lake Atitlan
3. Guatemala is the home of what major native civilization? Maya
4. Which native ruins were featured in the original Star Wars films? Tikal
5. Guatemala is known as the land of _________________________. Eternal Spring

Honduras
1. What is the capital of Honduras? Tegucigalpa
2. When was the Basilica of the Virgin of Suyapa built? 1954
3. What object is the Basilica dedicated towards? The statuette of Honduras’ patron saint, Our Lady of Suyapa
4. Who is the Virgin of Suyapa? She is the same person as the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus Christ. She is named “Suyapa” in Honduras because her statuette was found in Suyapa, a suburb of Tegucigalpa.
5. In what architectural style was the Basilica of the Virgin of Suyapa designed? Spanish colonial revival style.

Panama
1. What is the nickname of the BBA F&F Tower? El Tornillo (The Screw)
2. Why does it have this nickname? It looks like a screw, it is spiral-shaped.
3. How tall is this skyscraper? How many floors does it have? 236.4 meters, 57 floors
4. What materials were used to build it? Glass and steel-reinforced concrete.
5. Who designed the unique shape of the skyscraper? Pinzón Lozano

South America

Brazil
1. Brazil owes its cultural heritage to which three groups of people? Natives, Africans, Portuguese
2. What is the name of the Brazilian architect who helped develop modern architecture all over the world? Oscar Niemeyer
3. What is unique about Brasilia, the capital of Brazil? It is a planned city, meaning that it was all built at the same time for the purpose of being the new capital.
4. Describe the characteristics of prominent buildings in Brasilia. Alternating straight lines and curves, smooth surfaces, white color, non-symmetrical, futuristic.
5. Why was Brasilia designed like this? Oscar Niemeyer wanted the capital to look futuristic to display to the world Brazil’s status as a modern, developed country.

Chile
1. From where does Chile draw its architectural heritage? Chile’s main monuments reflect their geographical areas in which they were built. They also depend on the time period in which they were designed, including the Pre-Colombian era (before 1492) and the colonial neoclassic period of the 19th and 20th centuries.
2. Which Chilean monuments have been declared World Heritage sites? Isla de Pascua, Easter Island, Port of Valparaíso, various Chilean cathedrals
3. What are some of the most important buildings in Santiago, the capital of Chile? Church of Santo Domingo and Palace la Moneda
4. What materials were used to build these works? Stone and adobe (mud and straw) in the dry north, and tile and wood in the rainy south
5. What is the state of Chilean architecture today? Modern technology permits the construction of creatively designed buildings which is necessary to overcome the challenges to construction presented by seismic activity.

Colombia
1. What is considered the jewel of modern architecture in Colombia? The Cathedral of Zipaquira which is the most notable achievement of Colombian architecture.
2. What is the Cathedral of Zipaquira and where is it located? It is an underground Roman Catholic church built within the tunnels of a salt mine 220 yards underground in a halite mountain near the town of Zipaquira in Colombia.
3. How many visitors does the cathedral receive each Sunday? 3,000 visitors.
4. What movie was filmed in the salt mine of Zipaquira? The movie 33, which is about the 33 miners in Chile who were involved in the Chilean mining accident in 2010.
5. How was the geological formation of this salt mine created? Salt deposits in Zipaquira were formed around 250 million years ago, and rose above sea level during the late Tertiary period when the Andes were formed.


Ecuador
1. Which two major historical empires ruled Ecuador before its independence? The Inca and Spanish empires.
2. What is unique (and dangerous) about Quito, the capital of Ecuador? It is the only national capital in the world that sits at the base of an active volcano.
3. What is significant about the Church and Convent of St. Francis in Quito? It is the largest architectural ensemble among the historical structures of colonial Latin America.
4. In which Ecuadorian city do we see the most Spanish colonial art and architecture? Cuenca, the capital of the Azuay Province.
5. Why is the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception an example of the importance of architectural planning? In the planning stage, the architect overestimated the strength of the building’s foundation. The towers had to be shortened (“truncated”) to prevent the building from collapsing, so the towers are shorter than originally planned.

Peru
1. Where is the site of Machu Picchu? It is located in the Andes Mountains in Peru between the mountains of Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu at 2430m/8040ft above sea level.
2. Who built Machu Picchu? The Inca ruler Pachacutec in the mid-fifteenth century
3. Who discovered Machu Picchu? Hiram Bingham in 1911
4. How did the Inca build Machu Picchu? They used a dry stone technique, with no mortar holding the bricks together. The bricks were heavy granite stones that were perfectly carved to fit together like a puzzle.
5. Why is Machu Picchu special? It is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World and an impressive architectural feat. It is well preserved with beautiful scenery and holds an air of mystery, making it one of the top tourist destinations of the world.

Asia & Oceania
Australia
1. What is the capital of Australia? Canberra
2. In what year did the iconic Sydney Opera House open? 1973
3. Who is the Prime Minister of Australia today? Malcolm Turnbull
4. Two thirds of the country consist of desert landscape referred to as what? The Outback
5. What do the stars in the Australian flag symbolize? The Southern Cross or Crux constellation.

China
1. What animal is considered a National Treasure in China? Panda
2. What is the longest man-made structure in the world? The Great Wall
3. What country invented paper? China
4. Until recently, the world’s tallest building was in Shanghai. How tall is it, and how many floors does it have? The Shanghai Tower is 2,073 feet (632 meters) tall and has 127 stories above ground and 5 underground for a total of 132.
5. Passport stamp question: What is considered the highest form of visual art in China? Visual art (painting and calligraphy)

India
1. What type of ancient, dome-shaped structure was built in India to commemorate Buddhism? The stupa.
2. During what period were most classical Buddhist temples built? 200-1200 AD
3. What characteristics did most temples have during this period? The Indian temple was often a square-chambered sanctuary topped by a superstructure, tower, or spire, and enclosed within a rectangular court.
4. What is the Taj Mahal? It is a mausoleum, or tomb, built by Muslim Emperor Shah Jahan for his deceased wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
5. The Red Fort is a sister structure of the Taj Mahal because it was built nearby, around the same time, and is an equally important architectural achievement. Which ruling empire in India built these beautiful buildings? The Mughal Empire


Indonesia
1. On what island is the Borobudur temple located? Java
2. In what city is Borobudur located? Magelang
3. Borobudur was built to honor which religion? Buddhism
4. How many statues is Borobudur decorated with? 504
5. In what century was Borobudur built? 8th Century

Iran
1. Most examples of historic architecture in Iran were inspired by religion. What are the two prominent historical religions of Iran? Zoroastrianism and Islam.
2. Which empire left behind architectural ruins in the ancient cities of Persepolis, Susa, and Ecbatana? The Persian Empire
3. Which modern city is considered a cultural hub of fine art in Iran? Shiraz
4. Which work of modern architecture marks the western entrance to the capital of Tehran, and includes 8,000 blocks of marble? The Azadi Tower
5. Why is the Milad Tower significant? It is the 6th tallest telecommunications tower in the world and serves as the center of international business in Iran.

Iraq
1. What type of religious structure was common in ancient Mesopotamia? The ziggurat
2. What material was used to make these structures? Sun-baked clay
3. Which Babylonian structure was one of the original Seven Wonders of the World, and has been reconstructed in Berlin, Germany? The Ishtar Gate
4. Since the rise of Islamic nations and empires after the ancient period, what has become the most common type of religious structure? The mosque
5. Iraq has been ruled by over a dozen different empires and governments throughout its history. How do you think this has affected architecture in Iraq? Potential answers: 1) there are many different forms of architecture across Iraq, or 2) many historic buildings have been lost due to war, vandalism, or decay.

Israel
1. What does the term IDF stand for? Israel Defense Forces
2. Who was the first Israeli to receive a Nobel Prize? Shai Agnon
3. What is the name of the place with the lowest land elevation on Earth? The Dead Sea
4. Name three things that were invented in Israel. Cherry tomatoes, disk-on-key (USB flash drive), ReWalk (device that helps people walk)
5. Which Hollywood actress was born in Israel? Natalie Portman

Japan
1. What is the name of the world’s oldest surviving wooden structure? Horyuji Temple
2. In what city is this structure located? Nara
3. When was this structure built? 7th century AD
4. Which religion is this building devoted to? Buddhism
5. Which international organization named this as a World Cultural Heritage site? UNESCO

Korea
1. Pagodas were originally built as religious temples, but the style later became used for many different purposes. What are some other types of buildings built in the pagoda style? Any of the following: government buildings and palaces, fortresses, gatehouses, monuments, decorative sculpture, and even fountains.
2. What is one of the earliest surviving examples of Korean Buddhist pagodas? The Mireuksa Temple
3. In recent history, pagodas have been built primarily from wood. What material were most early pagodas constructed with? Stone
4. Why is the Bulguksa Temple registered as a UNESCO World Heritage site and a Korean national treasure? It is considered a masterpiece of medieval Korean Buddhist art.
5. What is the Dongdaemun pagoda? It is one of the largest of eight great gatehouses built around the capital of Seoul during the middle ages. Now it is a central landmark of the city.

Lebanon
Passport stamp question: What is the capital city of Lebanon? Beirut
1. What Lebanese city contains some of the most well preserved Roman ruins? Baalbeck
2. What Lebanese religious statue overlooks the city of Beirut? Our Lady of Lebanon
3. In what Lebanese city did our current alphabet originate? Byblos
4. What palace in Lebanon is considered the jewel of Lebanese architecture? Beiteddine
5. What ancient port city in Lebanon has an island sea castle? Sidon

Nepal
1. How long have people inhabited Nepal? The earliest discovered inscriptions are dated to over 2,000 years ago.
2. Nepal is a small country located in between which two large countries? China and India
3. Architecture in Nepal is mainly a unique combination of styles from which two major religions? Buddhism and Hinduism
4. What is the oldest temple in Nepal, and how old is it? The Changu Narayan Temple, and construction began in the 5th century AD.
5. Which historic city in Nepal has a reputation for unique architecture, pottery, and sculpture? Bhaktapur

New Zealand
1. What is a kiwi? Not a fruit, but a flightless bird native to New Zealand. Also a slang term for a New Zealander.
2. Who is Sir Edmund Hillary and what is he known for? A New Zealander who was the first man to reach the peak of Mount Everest, and is pictured on the New Zealand $5 bill.
3. What is the capital of New Zealand? Wellington, and it is the southernmost national capital in the world.
4. What is the name of the war dance performed by the Maori tribe? Haka
5. What is the name of a native bird of New Zealand that was recorded as one of the largest birds in history, standing up to 3.6m (12 feet) tall and weighing 300kg (660 lbs)? The Moa

Philippines
1. Who built the Banaue Rice Terraces? The native people of the Philippines. Their modern descendants are sometimes called “Ifugaos” (named after the province in which they live). Ifugaos still work the rice terraces today!
2. How old are the Banaue Rice Terraces? 2,000 years
3. What is a Bahay Kubo? Also called a Nipa Hut, it is a style of silt house that serves as a unique symbol of traditional Philippine society.
4. What materials are used to make a Bahay Kubo? Old huts used bamboo for the walls and support structure, covered by a steep roof made of palm and bamboo leaves. Newer huts still used today include wood and concrete.
5. What is a Jeepney? It is a unique vehicle to the Philippines used for public transportation. Jeepneys are surplus World War II trucks that have been retrofitted and repainted in bright colors to carry passengers, luggage, and even serve as restaurants.

Tahiti
1. Tahiti is located in what body of water? Pacific Ocean
2. What is the capital of Tahiti? Pape ete’
3. What is the national sport of Tahiti? Va’a – in English, outrigger canoe, a paddle sport
4. What Tahiti festival is celebrated every July? The Heivā festival in Papeete that celebrates Polynesian culture, and the commemoration of the storming of the Bastille in Paris.
5. What country has complete civil and political authority over Tahiti? France

Taiwan
1. What is the name of the island that is home to Taiwan? Formosa
2. Which religious traditions inspired Taiwan’s traditional architecture? Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism
3. What is Taipei 101? It was the world’s tallest skyscraper for five years after it was completed in 2004. It is located in the center of Taiwan’s capital, Taipei.
4. How tall is Taipei 101? 1,671 feet
5. What are the major architectural achievements of Taipei 101? It is the world’s tallest “green” building, has a superfast elevator which can travel over 80 floors in under a minute, and is built to withstand typhoons and earthquakes.

Thailand
1. What type of house is traditionally built in Thailand? The stilt-house, in order to avoid flooding during monsoons (much like beach houses on the Gulf Coast).
2. What is the most influential religion in Thai art and architecture? Buddhism
3. What is a Wat? Wat is the name for Thai Buddhist temples which are unique from other Buddhist temples throughout Asia. Wat comes from the ancient local word “vata” meaning enclosure.
4. Who were the first people to build Wats? The Khmer Empire between about 800AD and 1300AD.
5. What is special about the Marble Temple? Technically called Wat Benchamabophit, the Marble Temple was built much later than the historic wats. It was constructed with Italian marble (the same material used to build ancient Roman monuments), and is a major tourist attraction in Bangkok, capital of Thailand.


Vietnam
1. What do vernacular Vietnamese buildings look like? They have a massive wooden framework, rather than the lightweight “stilt” method used elsewhere. Nearly all vernacular buildings were single-story, with heavy flat-tiled roofs to withstand typhoons.
2. Where is the “One-Pillar Pagoda” located? This is one of the most ancient structures of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam.
3. One structure that became common to most towns and villages in Vietnam is still prevalent to day. What is this architecture called? Communal house
4. What types of houses did Vietnamese people once live in (as depicted in the bronze Dong Son drums) that can still be found in Vietnam today? The Vietnamese people have used stilt-houses since prehistoric times.
5. Under periods of Chinese domination, much of the written work was in Classical Chinese. What script, created around the 10th century, allowed Vietnamese writers to combine Chinese characters with their native language, and briefly became the official written script? Nôm
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