Standard 1: The Great Experiment Name: Standard 1 Because of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed in

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Standard 1: The Great Experiment


Standard 1.1
1. _____Because of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed in

A. New England

B. the Middle Atlantic region

C. the South

D. the upper Mississippi River valley

2. _____The British policy of salutary neglect toward the American colonies contributed to

A. a decline in colonial manufacturing

B. the decline of slavery in the northern colonies

C. a decrease in French and Spanish influence in North America

D. the development of independent colonial trade practices
3. _____The principal purpose of the thirteen original colonies was to provide Great Britain with

A. naval bases

B. raw materials and markets

C. workers and manufactured goods

D. military recruits

4. _____The policy of salutary neglect toward American colonies was based on the desire of Great Britain to

A. treat all English people, including colonists, on an equal basis

B. benefit from the economic prosperity of the American colonies

C. encourage manufacturing in the American colonies

D. ensure that all mercantile regulations were strictly followed
5. _____What was the primary reason that slavery became more widespread in the South than in the North?

A. The abolitionist movement was based in the North.

B. The textile industry was controlled by southern merchants.

C. Opposition to slavery by the Anglican Church was stronger in the North.

D. Geographic factors contributed to the growth of the southern plantation system.
6. _____During the first half of the 1800s, geographic factors influenced the economy of New England by

A. encouraging the establishment of large plantations

B. promoting the growth of trade and manufacturing

C. increasing the region’s reliance on slave labor

D. supporting rice and indigo farming

7. _____The British benefited from their relationship with the American colonies primarily by

A. supporting the growth of colonial industries

B. prohibiting colonists from fishing and fur trading

C. taking large amounts of gold and silver from the southern colonies

D. buying raw materials from the colonies and selling them finished products
8. _____In which area did good harbors, abundant forests, rocky soil, and a short growing season most influence the colonial economy?

A. Southern colonies

B. Middle Atlantic region

C. Northwest Territory

D. New England colonies

9. _____Climatic conditions in the southern colonies most directly influenced the development of

A. democratic institutions

B. a canal system

C. the plantation system

D. the coal industry

10. _____The presence of which pair of geographic conditions discouraged the development of a plantation economy in the New England colonies?

A. wide coastal plain and absence of good harbors

B. rocky soil and short growing season

C. numerous rivers and humid climate

D. flatlands and lack of forests

11. _____ New England colonies developed around all of the following economic activities EXCEPT what?

A. shipbuilding
B. exporting cash crops

C. commercial fishing

D. lumbering

12. _____The Puritans were intolerant of dissenters who challenged the Puritans’ belief in the relationship between what?
A. religion and government

B. farming and shipbuilding

C. slavery and the King of England

D. plantation owning and farming

13. _____The Middle colonies developed economies based on what?

A. plantations that grew cash crops to be exported to Europe

B. shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, and manufacturing

C. small-scale subsistence farming, hunting, and trading

D. shipbuilding, grain harvesting, and trading

14. _____What were two examples of the religious groups in the middle colonies?

A. Hindus and Christians

B. Puritans and Protestants

C. Quakers and Catholics

D. Jews and Evangelists

15. _____Which of these traits did NOT develop as part of the plantation economy?

A. landed aristocracy
B. township system

C. indentured servitude

D. cash crops

16. _____Which of the following plantation laborers worked to relieve their debts?

A. headrighters

B. speculators

C. slaves

D. indentured servants

17. _____What religions correctly fill in the blanks?

Pennsylvania: ___________
Maryland: ___________

A. Quakers, Catholics

B. Quakers, Puritans

C. Puritans, Catholics

D. Catholics, Puritans

18. _____What was the main crop produced in the South Carolina colony?

A. furs

B. tobacco

C. fishing

D. rice

19. _____In the 1700s, the triangular trade led directly to the

A. middle colonies’ role as the chief importers of agricultural products

B. rapid industrialization of the southern colonies

C. decline of the New England economy

D. increased importation of enslaved Africans to the Western Hemisphere

Standard 1.2
20. _____The Mayflower Compact and the Virginia House of Burgesses are examples of what?

A. equal opportunities for women during the colonial period

B. steps toward representative government

C. economic agreements between the colonists and Native American Indians

D. limitations placed on colonial Americans by the British government
21. _____The Mayflower Compact, New England town meetings, and the Virginia House of Burgesses are examples of

A. early colonial efforts in self-government

B. colonial protests against British taxation

C. governments imposed by Parliament

D. attempts to limit democracy

22. _____Which heading best completes the partial outline below?

I. __________________________
A. Magna Carta

B. House of Burgesses

C. Town meetings

D. John Locke

A. Ideas of Social Darwinism

B. Basis of British Mercantilism

C. Contributions to American Literature

D. Influences on United States Government

23. _____Why is the Mayflower Compact considered an important step in the development of democracy?

A. established the principle of separation of church and state

B. provided a basis for self-government in the Plymouth Colony

C. defined relations with local Native American Indians

D. outlawed slavery in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
24. _____Representative government during the colonial period can be attributed to which of the following?

A. a dominance of the church of England as the established church in the American colonies

B. a shift from the system of mercantilism to a free market economy

C. the expansion of colonial settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains into the Ohio River valley

D. a strong foundation provided by the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Mayflower Compact
25. _____How did the Mayflower Compact influence representative government in America?

A. It was the first negotiated peace treaty between colonists and Native Americans.

B. It replaced the charter the Virginia Company had given the Pilgrims.

C. It gave the Pilgrims a way to govern themselves and established majority rule.

D. It specified the fundamental rights of all people and gave the vote to on-church members.
26. _____What did the Virginia House of Burgesses establish for the colonists?

A. the colony of Virginia

B. independence for the colonists

C. federalism in colonial America

D. the first elected government in America

27. _____Which American document provided the basis for later written constitutions?
A. Mayflower Compact C. Declaration of Independence
B. Magna Carta D. Federalist Papers

28. _____How did the Magna Carta influence our system of government in America?

A. it granted certain civil rights to citizens

B. it created the concept of civil disobedience

C. it taxed citizens without their consent

D. it limited voting rights of English citizens

29. _____American colonists showed their opposition to the British taxation of the 1760s primarily by

A. supporting the French against the British

B. boycotting products from Great Britain

C. overthrowing the royal governors in most of the colonies

D. purchasing additional products from Native American Indian tribes
30. _____British American “proprietary” charters contained a provision for what?

A. an assembly of freemen gathered in one place

B. representatives in the colony

C. an assembly of freemen voted by all white males over 18

D. virtual representation in London
Standard 1.3
31. _____The Declaration of Independence, was influenced most by John Locke’s idea of

A. due process of law

B. natural rights

C. the rights of the accused

D. the right to privacy

Use this chart to answer the next question.

Magna Carta

English Bill of Rights

English document

Restricted power of King

King must now follow the law

Gave Parliament right to tax and make laws

Landowners have right to trial by jury

All citizens right to speedy trial and jury of peers

Private property protected

Right to petition government

32. _____How did the above documents influence U.S. history?

A. They led to the removal of the monarch in England.

B. They provided the opportunity to colonize the Americas.

C. They provided a foundation for the development of the Constitution.

D. They inspired Lincoln's arguments in the Gettysburg Address.
33. _____Which heading best completes the partial outline below?

I. ____________________________________
A. Committees of Correspondence

B. Boston Tea Party

C. First Continental Congress

A. Protests Against Slavery in the American Colonies

B. British Parliamentary Actions to Punish Colonial Americans

C. Colonial Responses to British Mercantile Policies

D. Colonial Attempts to End the British Policy of Salutary Neglect

34. _____ The principles Thomas Jefferson included in the Declaration of Independence were influenced by

A. John Locke’s social contract theory

B. Adam Smith’s ideas of free enterprise

C. Louis XIV’s belief in divine right

D. William Penn’s views on religious toleration

35. _____ An argument for independence found in the Declaration of Independence was that the British

A. stopped participating in the slave trade

B. refused to sell products to Americans

C. deprived Americans of their natural rights

D. censored American representatives in Parliament

36. _____ Which statement is most accurate about the movement for independence in the thirteen colonies?

A. The independence movement began soon after the founding of the Plymouth Colony.

B. Protests against British colonial policies gradually led to demands for independence.

C. The King of England required the colonists to become economically self-sufficient.

D. The movement for independence was equally strong in all of the colonies.
37. _____According to the Declaration of Independence, the fundamental purpose of government is to

A. protect people’s natural rights

B. equalize opportunities for all citizens

C. provide for the defense of the nation

D. establish a system of free public education

38. _____ One of the principles stated in the Declaration of Independence is that government should

A. guarantee economic equality among citizens

B. have unlimited power to rule the people

C. be based upon the consent of the governed

D. be led by educated citizens

39. _____In the Declaration of Independence, the argument for freedom is based primarily on the

A. theory of divine right expressed by James I

B. economic principles set forth by Adam Smith

C. social contract theory of government developed by John Locke

D. belief in a strong central government expressed by Alexander Hamilton
40. _____ John Locke’s theory of natural rights, as reflected in the Declaration of Independence, states that

A, government is the source of all individual rights

B. power should be concentrated in the monarchy

C. power to govern belongs to the people

D. individual liberties are best protected by a strong government
41. _____Which document included John Locke’s idea that people have the right to overthrow an oppressive government?

A. Mayflower Compact

B. Northwest Ordinance

C. Declaration of Independence

D. Bill of Rights

42. _____The Declaration of Independence has influenced people throughout the world because it

A. guarantees universal suffrage

B. establishes a basic set of laws for every nation

C. provides justification for revolting against unjust governments

D. describes the importance of a strong central government
43. _____ The main purpose for writing the Declaration of Independence was to

A. declare war on Great Britain

B. force France to support the Revolutionary War

C. convince Great Britain to abolish slavery

D. state the colonists’ reasons for separating from Great Britain

44. _____The authors of the Declaration of Independence used the phrase “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” to identify:

A. natural rights

B. States rights

C. legal rights

D. economic rights

45. _____What did the universal ideals of the Enlightenment and American Revolution lead to the spread of?

A. absolute monarchies, vassal lords, and land-bound serfs

B. warrior ruler, efficient bureaucracy, and occupied people’s tribute

C. local city-states, homogeneous populations, and uniform religion

D. nationalism, religious tolerance and consent of the governed
46. _____Which of the following best represents a view supported by the Enlightenment followers?

A. justice will come from equality

B. the best and brightest should rule

C. people are good and want the same things

D. people can govern themselves in a republic

47. _____ "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" are basic rights that are listed in which document?

A. U.S. Constitution

B. Articles of Confederation

C. Gettysburg Address

D. Declaration of Independence

Standard 1.4
48. _____Which of the following quotes from the Declaration of Independence supports the idea that the government receives its authority from the people?

A. "...all men are created equal..."

B. "...that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights..."

C. "...deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed..."

D. "...governments are instituted among men..."
Use the following quotes to answer the following question.

New Congress to Have Two Houses”

Slaves to Count as Three-Fifths of a Person”

President to be Chosen by Electoral Vote”

49. _____ Which conclusion about the Constitutional Convention is best supported by these headlines?

A. The framers of the Constitution were able to compromise on important issues.

B. States that were small in area would lose power in the new Constitution.

C. States with large populations controlled the outcome of the convention.

D. The president and Congress would have equal power under the new constitution.
50. _____ During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the plans for Congress proposed by delegates from New Jersey and Virginia differed mainly over the issue of

A. life terms of office or short terms of office

B. appointed legislators or elected legislators

C. equal state representation or proportionate state representation

D. power to check other branches or power limited to lawmaking
51. _____To address the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, the Constitutional Convention agreed to

A. eliminate the slave trade

B. increase the powers of the central government

C. decrease the number of states

D. allow states to set tariff rates

52. _____ During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the major disagreement between the large and small states occurred over the issue of

A. continuation of slavery

B. guaranteeing States rights

C. representation in Congress

D. control of interstate commerce

53. _____ The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was important because it

A. established suffrage for all males over the age of twenty-one

B. ended the controversy over slavery

C. created a single-house national legislature

D. balanced the interests of states with large and small populations
54. _____ Which describes a characteristic of the government established by the Articles of Confederation?

A. A Supreme Court had the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.

B. The national government controlled interstate commerce.

C. The president maintained exclusive control over foreign policy.

D. A system was created where the states held the most power.
55. _____ The government created by the Articles of Confederation was unsuccessful at solving many major problems because

A. unlimited power was given to the Supreme Court

B. most power remained with the state governments

C. members of Congress were elected according to each state’s population

D. political parties prevented the passage of legislation

56. _____ The first amendment guarantee of freedom of speech was added to the United States Constitution primarily because its supporters believed it was essential to

A. discourage criticism of government policies

B. ensure the functioning of democracy

C. limit political debate in Congress

D. encourage more candidates to run for office

57. _____ A major weakness of government under the Articles of Confederation was that

A. the large states received more votes in Congress than the small states did

B. the national government could not enforce its laws

C. too much power was given to the president

D. state governments could not coin money
58. _____ To address the concerns of many Anti-federalists during the debate over ratification of the Constitution, the Federalists agreed that

A. political parties would be formed

B. states would retain control of interstate commerce

C. slavery would be eliminated by an amendment

D. a bill of rights would be added

59. _____ During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the Great Compromise resolved a conflict over

A. presidential power

B. the issue of nullification

C. representation in Congress

D. taxes on imports

60. _____ What was the primary reason for holding the Constitutional Convention of 1787?

A. outlaw slavery in both the North and the South

B. place taxes on imports and exports

C. revise the Articles of Confederation

D. reduce the power of the federal government

61. _____ The major reason Anti-federalists opposed the Constitution was because they believed

A. amending the Constitution was too easy

B. too much power was given to the states

C. a federal court system would be too weak

D. individual rights were not adequately protected

62. _____ The Great Compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention settled a dispute over how

A. state boundaries would be determined

B. the states would be represented in Congress

C. power would be divided between the states and the national government

D. a leader would be selected for the executive branch
63. _____ The adoption of the Bill of Rights addressed Anti-federalist criticism of the new Constitution by

A. providing for an indirect method of electing the president

B. protecting citizens from abuses of power by the national government

C. allowing the national government to coin money

D. establishing a process for impeaching federal officials
64. _____ During the debate over the ratification of the Constitution, Anti-federalists argued that

A. the new Constitution left too much political power to state governments

B. a strong national government would gain respect from European nations

C. checks and balances were unnecessary in a federal government

D. the new Constitution would threaten the rights of individual citizens
65. _____ The conflict over representation in Congress was addressed at the Constitutional Convention by

A. creating a two-house legislature

B. limiting the terms of lawmakers to four years

C. giving Congress implied powers

D. ending the importation of enslaved persons

66. _____ A major criticism of the Articles of Confederation was that too much power had been given to the

A. British monarchy

B. House of Burgesses

C. state governments

D. national government

67. _____ Delegates at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 agreed to the Three-fifths Compromise to solve a dispute directly related to

A. the power of the presidency

B. representation in Congress

C. a decision by the Supreme Court

D. the addition of a bill of rights

68. _____ One accomplishment of the national government under the Articles of Confederation was the passage of legislation establishing

A. a central banking system

B. a process for admitting new states to the Union

C. the president’s right to put down rebellions

D. the ability of Congress to tax the states effectively

69. _____ Disagreement at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 over the Virginia and New Jersey plans was resolved by a compromise that

A. guaranteed continuation of the slave trade for at least twenty more years

B. limited the power of the federal government to wage war

C. provided for construction of a new national capital in the south

D. created a Congress made up of a Senate and a House of Representatives
70. _____ A major reason the Anti-federalists opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution was because the Constitution

A. created a national bank

B. lacked a provision for a federal court system

C. failed to provide for the direct election of members of the House of Representatives

D. changed the balance of power between the state and national governments

71. _____ At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, which problem was solved by the Great Compromise?

A. developing the method of electing a president

B. designating control of interstate commerce

C. outlining the structure of the federal court system

D. establishing the formula for representation in Congress
72. _____ In order to win ratification of the United States Constitution, supporters agreed to

A. add a bill of rights

B. admit new states to the Union

C. establish an electoral college

D. give the Senate the power to ratify treaties

73. _____ The main reason the Articles of Confederation were replaced as the basis of the United States government was that they

A. lacked provision for a national congress

B. declared that political protests were unconstitutional

C. placed too many restrictions on the activities of state governments

D. failed to give the central government enough power to govern effectively
74. _____ Shays’ Rebellion of 1786 was significant because it

A. showed that the English still had influence after the American Revolution

B. convinced many Americans of the need for a stronger national government

C. revealed the increased threat from rebellious Native American Indians

D. endangered the lives of many recent immigrants
75. _____ The Great Compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention resulted in the

A. formation of the Supreme Court

B. creation of a bicameral legislature

C. development of a two-party system

D. ban on the importation of enslaved Africans

76. _____ Building support for the ratification of the United States Constitution was the purpose of the

A. Farewell Address of George Washington

B. Albany Plan of Union

C. Mayflower Compact

D. Federalist Papers

77. _____ Why did the authors of the Articles of Confederation create a weak central government?

A. They lacked an understanding of state problems.

B. They anticipated the threat of foreign invasion.

C. They relied on advice from royal governors.

D. They feared the kind of rule experienced under the British monarchy.
78. _____ The Three-fifths Compromise was included in the Constitution to resolve a conflict over the

A. counting of enslaved persons in relation to taxation and representation

B. reimbursement of plantation owners for runaway slaves

C. number of votes needed to approve a treaty in the Senate

D. number of states needed to ratify a proposed amendment
79. _____ What is one feature of the political system created by the original Constitution of the United States?

A. guaranteeing equal legal rights to all persons

B. requiring the federal government to maintain a balanced budget

C. dividing powers between the national and state governments

D. granting more power to the executive branch than to the other branches of government
80. _____ At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates agreed that Congress should have the power to

A. declare laws unconstitutional

B. levy and collect taxes

C. select the president

D. eliminate slavery in the states

81. _____ Which of the following was part of the Articles of Confederation?

A. Congress had unlimited powers of taxation

B. a national bank was established

C. each state had one vote in Congress regardless of size

D. it provided for a strong president
82. _____ Which of the following were considered weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

1. It lacked the power to tax.

2. It lacked the power to regulate interstate commerce.

3. The national government possessed all of the power.

4. Large states possessed more power than small states.

A. 1 and 3

B. 1 and 2

C. 2 and 4

D. 1, 2, and 4

83. _____ Under the Articles of Confederation, what was true of the national government?

A. could tax states to pay for internal improvements

B. could not establish a national currency

C. could disband state legislatures

D. could not raise an army

84. _____ Shays Rebellion established which of the following as an action that could be carried out by the federal government?

A. pass unreasonable laws or taxes

B. effectively guarantee peace outside the United States

C. use local riots as an excuse to take over states

D. stop local rebellions before they turned deadly
85. _____ Which one of the following was NOT a weakness of the Articles of Confederation?

A. issue of presidential power

B. issue of slave labor

C. issue of judicial power

D. lack of a strong central government

86. _____ What did the Articles of Confederation share with the United States Constitution?

A. a national legislature to make laws

B. federal control of commerce between the states

C. federal power to impose and collect taxes

D. abolition of slavery

87. _____ Which of the following helped to correct a weakness of the Articles of Confederation?

A. The creation of three branches of government

B. Giving greater power to the state governments

C. Providing a clear definition of states’ rights

D. Granting the right to vote to all white males

88. _____ Which of the following was a strength of the Articles of Confederation?

A. Could wage war and make peace

B. states provided money and soldiers

C. could levy taxes or tariffs

D. could control interstate commerce

89. _____ Which of the following is a reason the Articles of Confederation failed?

A. lack of a powerful central government

B. influence of the British government

C. high taxes paid by the state governments

D. unity of the states

90. _____ What issue was resolved by the Great Compromise?

A. provided equal representation to every state

B. provided representation based on a state’s population

C. provided for popular election of both houses of the Congress

D. provided for two houses, one to represent the states, the other to represent the states’ populations
91. _____ What did Anti-Federalists believe?

A. a national Bill of Rights was necessary

B. a strong national government should share some power with states

C. a strong national government was necessary to facilitate interstate commerce and to manage foreign trade, national defense, and foreign relations

D. a national Bill of Rights would be redundant because the Constitution itself protected basic rights
92. _____ Which one of the following describes the Great Compromise from the Constitutional Convention?

A. all states have two houses with equal representation in both houses of Congress.

B. each state have a Senate with two senators and a House with representation based on population

C. each state have one house with representation based on the basis of wealth

D. each state to have one house with one vote in Congress regardless of the state's number of delegates.
93. _____ How did the delegates settle the issue of representation in Congress during Constitutional Convention in 1787?

A. Three-Fifths Compromise

B. The Great Compromise

C. the Virginia Plan

D. the New Jersey Plan

94. _____ How did the Constitutional Convention settle the issue of representation in congress?

A. all states would be represented equally in both houses of Congress

B. each state would have two senators and to have representation in the House determined by population

C. the states would be represented on the basis of wealth

D. each state would have one vote in Congress regardless of the state's number of delegates
95. _____ One of the major arguments between delegates at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was how to balance what?

A. needs of eastern and western states

B. powers of the state and national governments

C. demands of business and labor

D. conflicts between industrialists and farmers

96. _____ What was one of the major hurdles that the delegates had to contend with during the Constitutional Convention of 1787?

A. hostility of the Federalists toward the anti-federalists

B. disagreement over representation in Congress

C. controversy over the separation between church and state

D. delegates' lack of talent and lack of government experience
97. _____ What did the Federalist Papers try to persuade people to support?

A. a bill of rights

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