Technology, Globalization, and Sustainable Development (envr e-172)



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Technology, Globalization, and Sustainable Development

(ENVR E-172)
Harvard Extension Program 2015

Syllabus dated 20 JANUARY 2015
Nicholas A. Ashford, PhD, JD

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Harvard School of Public Health

Copyright © 2015 Nicholas A. Ashford

TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION, and SUSTAINABILE DEVELOPMENT
Sustainable development includes not only a healthy economic base, but also a sound environment, stable and rewarding employment, adequate purchasing power, distributional equity, national self-reliance, and maintenance of cultural integrity. This course explores the many dimensions of sustainability and their relationship to economic growth, and the use of national, multinational and international political, legal, and economic mechanisms – including environmental and trade law, and economic incentives -- to further sustainable development.  The inter-relationship of global economic/financial changes, employment, and working conditions, and the environment in the context of theories of development, trade, and employment, and the importance of networks and organizational learning are examined. Mechanisms for resolving the apparent conflicts between development, environment, and employment are explored.
The course draws upon a new textbook: Technology, Globalization, and Sustainable Development: Transforming the Industrial State (Ashford and Hall, Yale University Press 2011) informed and augmented by both U.S. and international literature published in English. It is intended to stimulate discussion and critical thinking of the assigned reading materials. Students will be evaluated on the basis of their mastery of the materials evidenced by (1) short writing assignments and (2) class participation and attendance. There is no examination.

Professor Nicholas A. Ashford (nashford@mit.edu)

Professor of Technology and Policy

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and.

Visiting Scientist, Harvard School of Public Health

Professor Nicholas A. Ashford holds a Ph.D. in chemistry and a law degree from the University of Chicago where he received graduate training in economics. He directs research programs in environmental regulation, worker health & safety, the effects of regulation on technological innovation, environmental justice, and globalization, trade and sustainability.


Organization of this Course

This course and text is intended to provide a comprehensive perspective on the dynamics of industrial societies that contribute to unsustainability and to explore policy options to transform those societies – both developed and developing economies – into sustainable ones. The course is organized as follows. References are to the textbook Technology, Globalization, and Sustainable Development:


Preface

Overview
Part I: The Multidimensional Concept of Sustainability

Chapter 1: Concern for a Global Future

Chapter 2: The Developing Concept of Sustainability: History, Definitions, and Metrics OMITTED IN 2015


Part II: Economic Development, Globalization, and Sustainability

Chapter 3: Economic Development and Prosperity: Theory and Debate

Chapter 4: Globalization, Production, Trade Regimes, Capital Flows, & the International

Economy


Chapter 5: Globalization and Sustainability
Part III: Industrial Policy and the Role of the Firm in Pursuing Sustainable Development

Chapter 6: The Importance of Technological Innovation

Chapter 7: Organizational Innovation and Learning: The Role of the Industrial Firm in Achieving Sustainability

Chapter 8: Government Policies for Fostering Innovation, Economic Growth, and

Employment
Part IV: National, Regional and International Efforts to Advance Health, Safety, and the Environment

Chapter 9: Government Intervention to Protect the Environment. Worker Health & Safety, and Consumer Product Safety:

Chapter 10: Regional & International Regimes to Protect Health Safety, and the Environment
Part V: International Trade and Finance

Chapter 11: Trade Regimes and Sustainability

Chapter 12: Financing Sustainable Development OMITTED IN 2015
Part VI: Strategic Policy Design for Sustainable Transformations

Chapter 13: Reconciling the Apparent Conflicts Among Development, Environment,

and Employment
TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

DATE TOPIC AND ASSIGNMENTS

1st lecture 28 JAN COURSE INTRODUCTION (READ THE Preface and

Overview)
2nd lecture 4 FEB TOPIC 1: Concern for a Global Future (Read selections

from Chapter 1 and assigned articles)

3rd lecture 11 FEB TOPIC 3: Economic Development and Prosperity: Theory and Debate (Chapter 3 and assigned articles)

4th Lecture 18 FEB TOPIC 4: Globalization: Production/Technology,



Trade Regimes, Capital Flows, & the International Economy (Chapter 4)
5th lecture 25 FEB TOPIC 5: Globalization and Sustainability (Chapter 5)
6th lecture 4 MAR TOPIC 6: The Importance of Technological Innovation (Chapter 6)
7th lecture 11 MA TOPIC 7: Organizational Innovation & Learning: The Role of the Industrial Firm in Achieving Sustainability (Chapter 7).
8th lecture 25 MAR TOPIC 8: Government Policies for Fostering Innovation, Economic Growth, and Employment (A national perspective-Chapter 8)
9th lecture 1 APR TOPIC 9: Government Intervention to Protect the Environment, Worker Health & Safety, and Consumer Product Safety (the US)
10th lecture 8 APR TOPIC 10: Regional Regimes (the EU) to Protect the

Environment and Worker Health & Safety
11th lecture 15 APR TOPIC 10 International Environmental Law

12th lecture 22 APR TOPIC 11: Trade Regimes and Sustainability (Chapter 11)


13th lecture 29 APR TOPIC 12: The Energy/Global Climate Change Challenge

14th lecture 6 MAY TOPIC 13: Resolving the Apparent Conflicts Among Development, Environment, and Employment


15TH lecture 13 MAY WRAP-UP PRESENTATATIONS

ENVR E-172 SPRING 2015

5:30-7:30 WEDNESDAYS
TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

FIRST WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

Due at Class WEDNESDAY 4 February 2015


Write a two-part concise essay on (1) the meaning of sustainability in the context of development, drawing from the readings (and other material if you wish), and (2) how indicators of sustainability should be constructed to measure changes (progress or regress). These indicators should be useful, practical and capable of implementation. For example, surveys of "happiness" among the poor are unlikely to be useful. Sustainability factors should address stocks, flows and distributional effects. Note: do not delve into the extensive [not-assigned] literature on sustainability indicators to do this second part of the exercise. You will be sorry you ever did. That literature tends to be based on conventional economic indicators and obvious environmental measures. [two pages, single-spaced, 12 point font]
ENVR E-172 SPRING 2015

5:30-7:30 WEDNESDAYS


TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

SECOND WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

Due at class WEDNESDAY 25 MARCH 2015

Write a two-part concise essay on the effects that a national economic development and trade strategy that focuses on delivering needed goods and services to its people, while maintaining or achieving an environmentally sustainable environment might be expected to have on employment. Discuss both positive and negative effects. For example, it could be argued that (1) environmental burdens are costly to industry, leading to adverse affects on employment, or (2) environmental degradation has hidden costs on both physical and human capital which could be eliminated, or (3) environmental projects create employment etc. These are obvious, but there are other important consequences you should think of. Write this focusing on the effects on developed countries only. [two pages, single-spaced, 12 point font]
It is not intended that you choose one policy (like environmentally-sound manufacturing, or lowering energy use in transportation) but rather that you think through at least several areas which contribute to economic growth but could be focused on green or greener growth. You might want to revisit the overhead that lists the supply-side activities for a comprehensive list.
ENVR E-172 SPRING 2015

5:30-7:30 WEDNESDAYS


TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

THIRD WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

Due at class WEDNESDAY 22 APRIL 2015


How could international trade agreements administered by the WTO (the GATT and the TBT agreements) be used by the European Union (the EU) to prevent, tar-sand oil from being imported into the EU if the EU decided that the environmental and/or public health effects were undesirable? What must the EU prove to be successful under each agreement before a WTO panel and what defenses could the exporter of tar-sand oil (Canada or the US) offer under each agreement? Under what specific relevant legal authority in the GATT and, alternatively in the TBT, is the EU likely to be most successful? Least successful? Be sure to reference the findings of the relevant WTO cases you have studied in this course in defense of your answers. You should not go outside the assigned course materials in addressing these questions.
[three to four pages, single-spaced, 12 point font]

ENVR E-172 SPRING 2015

5:30-7:30 WEDNESDAYS
TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

FOURTH WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

Due at class 13 MAY 2015


The current model of development based on economic growth has been criticized on the basis of an obsession with increasing GDP and labor productivity as indicia of success. The so-called “degrowth” movement (see Kallis 2008 for a defense of degrowth and his description of skeptics’ concern); Chapters 4 and 8 of Jackson and Victor’s Green Economy at Community Scale (2013); and Borel-Saladin and Turok’s article The Green Economy: Incremental Change or Transformation? are responses to calls for transforming the unsustainable industrial state.
Kallis and Jackson/Victor advocate moving to green growth and argue that (1) reducing working time, (2) having people engage in more unpaid work, and (3) replacing private-sector funded economic activities with community-funded investments in more sustainable enterprises and banks are the key structural changes that are needed. Lorek and Spangenberg (2014) and others are doubtful that green growth will be adequate. Ashford and Kallis (2013) argue that a shorter workweek is worth trying, but emphasize the uncertainties associated with its outcomes.
To what extent does all this body of work give us practical, realistic blueprints for a more sustainable future? What specific policy recommendations are wrong-headed? What fundamental features of unsustainable economies remain unaddressed or inadequately addressed?
Viewing energy production and use both as a determinant of economic growth (with positive employment benefits) and a source of harmful environmental effects (both GHGs and air & water pollution & waste), describe an approach that governments might take to address this wicked problem: (how) can increasing economic growth be reconciled with improvements in environmental sustainability and employment with purchasing power? In your essay, address both developed and developing countries undergoing rapid economic growth like China and India.
[5-8 pages, single-spaced, 12 point font]

Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


INTRODUCTION
PREFACE and OVERVIEW in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainable Development Yale University Press 2011 (The Course Textbook)*

As a courtesy to beginning students, the first few chapters of the textbook are offered on-line, but that will cease shortly. Students are expected to purchase the course textbook.


On-line access to the beginning chapters of the textbook and required supplemental readings are or should be soon available for registered students: http://stellar.mit.edu/S/project/sustainharvard/

Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


TOPIC 1: CONCERN FOR A GLOBAL FUTURE


  1. McEntire, David A. (2005) “The History, Meaning and Policy Recommendations of Sustainable Development: A Review Essay” Int. J. Environment and Sustainable Development 4(2):106-118 (13 pages). PLUS THE ONE-PAGE COMMENTARY



  1. CHAPTER ONE: CONCERN FOR A GLOBAL FUTURE in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization, and Sustainable Development.




  • Introduction and Human Needs (pages 19-22).

  • The Measurement of (Human) Development (pages 22-33).

  • Consumption and Well-being (pages 33-35).

  • Employment (pages 35-41).

  • SKIP FOR NOW: The Impact of Technological Change on Wages and Employment (pages 42-52).

  • The Importance of Employment beyond the Creation of Purchasing Power (pages 52-54).

  • Human Needs and Sustainability (pages 54-56).

  • SKIP FOR NOW: SOCIAL JUSTICE (pages 56-73).

  • Living Beyond Our Ecological Means (pages 73-77).

  • Growth, Technology, and Substitution vs. a Steady-State Economy (pages 77-80).

Environmental Kuznets Curves (pages 80-86).

  • SKIP FOR NOW: Technological Optimism (pages 86-101).

  • Remainder




  1. Solow, Robert M. “Sustainability: An Economist's Perspective”. Economics of the Environment: Selected Readings. Eds. Robert Dorfman and Nancy Dorfman. New York: WW Norton and Co., 1991. 179-187.




  1. Daly, Herman. “Chap. 9: The Steady-State Economy: Alternative to Growthmania”. Steady-State Economics. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1991. 180-194.




  1. Bertram, Eva & Sharpe, Kenneth (2000) “Capitalism, Work, & Character”, The American Prospect September 11, 2000.


READ 15 below: Stiglitz on Inequality, NYTimes 13 October 2013

15. Stiglitz on Inequality, NYTimes 13 October 2013



Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


TOPIC 2: (Un) Sustainability (OMITTED IN 2015)
The writings that challenge neoclassical economics and the growth paradigm that are worth reading for the next section on Economic Development are Sanders (2.4) and Kosoy (2.6). Later, additional articles on “degrowth” are provided.



  1. (now 1.1 in the previous section): McEntire, David A. (2005) “The History, Meaning and Policy Recommendations of Sustainable Development: A Review Essay” Int. J. Environment and Sustainable Development 4(2):106-118 (13 pages).




  1. BACKGROUND: Hall, Ralph (2008) Sustainability Time Line (8 pages).




  1. CHAPTER TWO: THE EMERGENCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainability.




  1. Sanders, Richard (2006). “Sustainability: Implications for Growth, Consumption, and Employment” Int. J. Environment, Workplace and Employment (2)4: 385-401.



  1. SKIP: The Emergence of Sustainable Development – Ashford and Hall - Longer treatment.




  1. Kosoy, Nicolas et al (2012). “Pillars for a Flourishing Earth: planetary boundaries, economic growth delusion and green economy” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2012, 4:74–79.




  1. Review text from CHAPTER ONE on The Measurement of (Human) Development (pages 22-33) and Consumption and Well-being (pages 33-35).




  1. READ: Sections 1, 2, paragraphs 1 to 4 of section 5, and sections 6, 7, and 8 of Kubiszewski, I., R. Costanza, C. Franco, P. Lawn, J. Talberth, T. Jackson, and C. Aylmer (2013). “Beyond GDP: Measuring and Achieving Global Genuine Progress” Ecological Economics 93:57-68 (12 pages).


Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


TOPIC 3: Economic Development and Prosperity: Current Theory and Debate.


  1. Introduction to PART TWO (Chapters 3, 4 and 5) (1 page).




  1. CHAPTER THREE: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPERITY: CURRENTY THEORY AND DEBATE, in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainability, ­SKIP sections 3.2.1 thru 3.2.4. They are better handled in Gupta below.




  1. Gupta, M (2014) “A Political Economy Approach to Economic Growth: A Survey of the Literature” Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2478876




  1. Ayers, Robert (2006) “Turning Point: The end of Exponential Growth?” Technological Forecasting & Social Change 73: 1188-1203.




  1. Gordon (2012). Is US Economic Growth Over?




  1. Bergman, B. “Is Prosperity Possible Without Growth?”




  1. Brynjolfsson et al. (2013). Chapter 11 “The Implications of the Bounty and Spread” from The Second Machine Age, MIT Press.

Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


Topic 4: Globalization: Production/Technology, Trade Regimes, Capital Flows and the International Economy.
Readings:
1. CHAPTER FOUR: GLOBALIZATION: PRODUCTION/TECHNOLOGY, TRADE REGIMES, CAPITAL FLOWS AND THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainability. (See chapter 4 in 3.0)
2. Rodrik, Dani (2007). Chapter 9: Globalization for Whom in One Economics: Many Recipes Princeton University Press, pp. 237-255.
3. Kaplinsky, Raphael and Dirk Messner (2007). “Introduction: The Impact of Asian Drivers on the Developing World” World Development 36(2): 197-209.
4. Prasch, Robert (1996) “Reassessing the Theory of Comparative Advantage” Review of Political Economy 8((1): 37-55. READ conclusions pp.52-53.
5.”KOF Index of Globalization” Economic Globalization”
6. Acemoglu, D. and J, Robinson (2012). “Chapter 15: Understanding Prosperity and Poverty” in Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty (Crown Publishing Group, New York)
Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


TOPIC 5: Globalization and Sustainability


  1. Ashford and Hall, CHAPTER FIVE: GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY in Technology, Globalization and Sustainability.




  1. READ SECTIONS 1, 4 & 5 of van Ark, Bart, Robert Inklaar, Robert H. McGuken and Marcel Timmer (2003) ”The Employment Effects of The ‘New Economy’: A Comparison of the European Union and the United States” National Institute Economic Review 184; 86, available online at: http://ner.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/184/1/86




  1. Sinden, Amy (2007) The ‘Preference for Pollution’ and Other fallacies, or Why Free Trade Isn’t “Progress” in Progress in International Law R. Miller and R. Bratspies (eds), Martinus Nijhoff Press.




  1. Krugman, Paul (2012). “Robots and Robber Barons” NYTimes, December 9, 2012 (2 pages).




  1. Krugman, Paul (2013). “Sympathy for the Luddites” NYTimes, June 13, 2012 (2 pages).




  1. International Labour Office (2013). Excerpts from the Global Wage Report” 2012/2013 Geneva (7 pages)




  1. Ashford, N. A., R. P. Hall, and R. Ashford (2012). “Addressing the Crisis in Employment and Consumer Demand: Reconciliation with Financial and Environmental Sustainability.” The European Financial Review October-November 2012, pp. 63-68. Available at http://www.europeanfinancialreview.com/?p=5884



  1. In the context of governance, re-read: Acemoglu, D and J Robinson (2012) “Chapter 15: Understanding Prosperity and Poverty” in Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty (Crown Publishing Group, New York).

Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


Topic 6: The Importance of Technological Innovation





  1. Introduction to PART III (Chapters 6-9).




  1. Ashford and Hall, CHAPTER 6: THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION in Technology, Globalization and Sustainability.




  1. Review from CHAPTER ONE Section 1.13 Employment (pages 35-52).


Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


Topic 7: ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION AND LEARNING: THE ROLE OF THE INDUSTRIAL FIRM IN ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY




  1. Ashford and Hall, CHAPTER 7: ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION AND LEARNING: THE ROLE OF THE INDUSTRIAL FIRM IN ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY in Technology, Globalization and Sustainability. SKIP Section 7.3



  1. Faucheux, Sylvie, Isabelle Nicolai and Martin O’Connor. “Globalization, Competitiveness, Governance and Environment: What Prospects for a Sustainable Development?” Sustainability And Firms: Technological Change and the Changing Regulatory Environment. S. Faucheux, J. Gowdy and I. Nicolai, eds. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, Publisher, 1998, 13-39.




  1. van de Poel, Ibo.  On the Role of Outsiders in Technical Development. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2000, pp 383-397. 



  1. Charles Edquist, Leif Hommen, and Maureen McKelvey, Innovation and Employment: Process versus Product Innovation READ ONLY CH6 for now: Summary and Conclusions (pp. 115-129). CH 7 will be assigned in the Topic 8 materials.

Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


Topic 8: Public Policies for Advancing Economic Growth*


  1. CHAPTER 8: PUBLIC POLICIES FOR FOSTERING INNOVATION, ECONOMIC GROWTH, AND EMPLOYMENT in Ashford, N. A., Technology, Globalization and Sustainability.




  1. Luiten, Ester E.M. “Chapter 2: Government intervention and technology studies: Toward a framework.” Beyond energy efficiency: Actors, networks and government intervention in the development of industrial process technologies. 2001 (27 pages)




  1. Nehrt, Chad (1998) Maintainability of First Mover Advantages When Environmental Regulations Differ Between Countries, The Academy of Management Review, 23(1):77-97 (21 pages).




  1. Kleinknecht, Alfred. “Is Labour Market Flexibility Harmful to Innovation?” Cambridge Journal of Economics. Cambridge Political Economy Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, v. 22, n. 3, 387-396 (10 pages)




  1. Charles Edquist, Leif Hommen, and Maureen McKelvey, Innovation and Employment: Process versus Product Innovation READ CH7: Implications for Public Policy and Firm Strategy, pp.130-163 (34 pages).




  1. Charles, Tony and Franz Lehner. “Competitiveness and Employment: A Strategic Dilemma for Economic Policy.” Competition & Change. 1995, v. 3, 207-236 (30 pages). Malaysia: Overseas Publishers Association, 1998.




  1. Rodrik, Dani. (2007). Chapter 4: Industrial Policy for the Twenty-first Century, in One Economics: Many Recipes Princeton University Press, pp. 99-152.




  1. Re-read: Acemoglu, D and J Robinson (2012) “Chapter 15: Understanding Prosperity and Poverty” in Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty (Crown Publishing Group, New York)

* Note Policies for job creation and employment are only indirectly addressed in this Topic (see for example the chapter by Edquist). More direct and deliberate policies for increasing employment and earning capacity are discussed in Topic 13.



Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


Topic 9: Public Policies for Protecting the Environment, Worker Health & Safety, and Consumer Product Safety (National and Regional Approaches)

Readings:



READ: Introduction to PART FOUR (Chapters 9 and 10).

The U.S. Approach (an approach also used by other national governments). Read the slides that summarizes the very detailed sections 9.2.2 thru 9.2.7.


  1. CHAPTER 9: GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT. WORKER HEALTH & SAFETY, AND CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainability.



  1. Reijnders, Lucas “Policies influencing cleaner production: the role of prices and regulation” Journal of Cleaner Production 11, 2003, pp 333-338 (6 pages).




  1. Ashford, Nicholas and Ralph P. Hall (2011) “The Importance of Regulation-Induced Innovation for Sustainable Development” Sustainability 3(1): 270-292 (shorter excerpt)..


The European Union (a regional system likely to be emulated in other regions)


  1. CHAPTER 10: REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS TO PROTECT HEALTH, SAFETY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainability. Read the slides that summarize the very detailed sections 10.18 and 10.19. Read Section 10.4.



  1. SKIP: BACKGROUND ON EU SUSTAINABILITY GOVERNANCE: Ch3: (Treaty of Maastricht) by David Wilkinson and Ch 4: (Treaty of Amsterdam) by Andrew Jordan from Andrew Jordan (ed) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Actors, Institutions & Processes. 2001 Earthscan. Read pp. 37-60 (44 pages).




  1. SKIP, BUT MAY BE OF SPECIAL USE TO THOSE INTERESTED IN THE DETAILS OF THE EU IPPC AND EMAS DIRECTIVES: Gouldson and Murphy, Ch3 (IPPC) and Ch4 (EMAS), and excerpts from the country analyses: UK: pp. 83-89; 96-102; NL: 116-122; 128-134, from Regulatory Realities: The Implementation and Impact of Industrial Environmental Regulation. London: Earthscan Publications, 1998.



    Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015

Topic 10: International Regimes to Protect the Environment and Worker Health and Safety

Readings:



International Environmental Law


  1. CHAPTER 10 REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REGIMES TO PROTECT HEALTH, SAFETY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainability. Read the remainder of the chapter.


Environmental Regulation in Developing Countries


  1. Faure, Michael, Morag Goodwin, and Franziska Weber (2010). “Bucking the Kuznets Curve: Designing Effective Environmental Regulation in Developing Countries” Virginia Journal of International Law 51: 95-157. READ: Intro, pp. 97-100; IVA Integration, pp. 144-152; and Conclusion, pp. 155-157. Available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1711175




  1. SKIP United Nations Environment Program (1994). Government Strategies and Policies for Cleaner Production, Paris, 1994, ISBN 92-807-1442-2, 32 pp. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/1560


Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

    Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015

Topic 11: Trade Regimes and Sustainability

Readings:





  1. INTRODUCTION TO PART V (Chapters 11 and 12) (3 pages).




  1. CHAPTER 11: TRADE REGIMES AND SUSTAINABILITY in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainability. Work up especially, bring to class, and be prepared to discuss, the asbestos panel decision and its aftermath (pages 534-543 in Chapter 11 sections 11.2.2, 11.2.3, and 11.2.4.



  2. BACKGROUND: Howse, Robert (2002). “The Appellate Body Rulings in the Shrimp/Turtle Case: A New Legal Baseline for the Trade and Environment Debate”, 27 Columbia Environmental Law Journal 491 (19 pages of text).




  1. BACKGROUND: Winter, Ryan L. (2000). NOTE & COMMENT: “Reconciling the GATT and WTO with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: Can We Have Our Cake and Eat It Too?” 11 Colo. J. International Environmental Law & Policy 223, Winter 2000. (13 pages of text).




  1. BACKGROUND: Charnovitz, Steve (2002) “The Law of Environmental “PPMs” in the WTO: Debunking the Myth of Illegality” 27 Yale J. Int’l L. 59-110.




  1. BACKGROUND: Cors, Thomas A. (2001). “Biosafety and International Trade: Conflict or Convergence? Int. J. Global Environmental Issues 1(1):87-103 (17 pages).




  1. BACKGROUND: Lee. “Globalization and Labor Standards: A Review of Issues.” The Changing Nature of Work. pp. 105-108 (summary) (3 pages)




  1. BACKGROUND: Scott, Robert E. Excerpts/overheads from the Economic Policy Institute on NAFTA/WTO and employment (6 pages).




  1. BACKGROUND: Robert Howse and Makau Mutua (2000) “Protecting Human Rights in a Global Economy: Challenges for the World Trade Organization” International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development, Canada (26 pages).




  1. a. Monsanto GM Corn in the EU

b. “European Union moves towards GM corn approval” Food Navigator 7 November 2013.


  1. a. Canadian Tar Sands


b. Hansen, James “Game Over For the Climate” IHT 9May2012
c. Lewis, Ljunggren and Jones “Insight: Canada’s Oil Sand Battle with Europe” Reuters 10 May 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/10/us-oil-sands-idUSBRE8490OL20120510


  1. Airbus Dispute




  1. a1. China Solar Panel subsidies 8 November 2012

a2. EU imposes definitive measures on Chinese solar panels, confirms undertaking with Chinese solar panel exporters

b. EU challenges China’s rare earth export restrictions - Trade - European Commission 13 March 2012


  1. Hormones in Beef Trade Update




  1. a. “Trade Talks Raise Safety” Cheryl Hogue, Chemical and Engineering News pp, 28-29. August 5, 2013.

b. SKIP “EU and US Conclude Second Round of TTIP Negotiations in Brussels” (2013). European Commission

c. “Transatlantic and Investment Partnership: The Regulatory Part”. (2013). The European Commission

d. SKIP Pfotenhauer, Sebastian. (2013) “Trade Policy Is Science Policy” Issues in Science and Technology, pp. 83-83 Fall 2013, National Academy of Sciences

e. N. A. Ashford, Commentary on Pfotenhauer, letter to the editor, Issues in Science and Technology Winter 2014.
16. Copaldo, J. (2014) “The Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: European Disintegration, Unemployment and Instability.” GDAE Working Paper 14-03, October 2014. READ Executive Summary, Section 1, Sections 2.1; 2.2.3 and 5.
17. Q&A About TTIP
Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


Topic 12: Financing [Sustainable] Development OMITTED IN 2015

Readings:


  1. CHAPTER 12: FINANCING [SUSTAINABLE] DEVELOPMENT in N. A. Ashford and R. P. Hall, Technology, Globalization and Sustainability. You might first re-read section 4.6 from Chapter 4 for a brief overview of finance issues. This is a very long chapter. Don't get caught up too much in the details. Also do read the supplementary articles.




  1. Stiglitz, Joseph E. “A Fair Deal for the World” The New York Review of Books May 23, 2002 (5 pages).




  1. Friedman, Benjamin M. “Stiglitz’s Case” The New York Review of Books August 15,

2002 (6 pages).


  1. SKIP: Waygood, Steve (2011). “How do the capital markets undermine sustainable development” What can be done to correct this?” Journal of Sustainable Finance and Investment 1: 81-87. READ conclusions, p. 86. Available at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3763/jsfi.2010.0008




  1. Arner, Douglas W. and Ross P. Buckley (2010) “Redesigning the Architecture of the Global Financial System” Melbourne Journal of International Law 11(2): 1-55. READ Introduction pp. 2-4 and Conclusion pp. 52-55. Available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1758470




  1. The South Center (2010). The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Industrial Development of Least Developed Countries, The South Center Research Paper 28, May 2010. READ abstract (p.6) and executive summary (pp. 13-15).




  1. Gurtner, Bruno (2011), “The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries”, International Development Policy Series, pp. 189-213, The Graduate Institute, Geneva. READ Section 5.




  1. Karnani, A neel (2007). “Employment not Microcredit, is the Solution” Ross School of Business Working Paper Series, Working Paper No. 1065, January 2007. Available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=962941



  1. Benediktor, Roland (2012). “Social Banking and Social Finance: Building Stones Towards A Sustainable Post-Crisis Financial System?” European Financial Review February 15, 2012.




  1. Kelly, Marjorie (2012) Owning our Future: The Emerging Ownership Revolution, Prologue




  1. Ashford, R., R .P. Hall, and N. A. Ashford (2012). “Broadening Capital Acquisition with the Earnings of Capital as a Means of Sustainable Growth and Environmental Sustainability” European Financial Review pp. 70-74.




  1. Fullerton, John (2014). “Limits to Investment: Finance in the Anthropocene.” Great Transition Initiative Available at http://greattransition.org/images/GTI_publications/Fullerton_Limits_to_Investment.pdf



Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development Harvard Extension School Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015
Topic 13: Reconciling the conflicts between economy, environment and employment

Readings: IN PLACE OF DOING ALL THE READINGS 1-25, READ CHAPTER 13 which draws upon the concepts in aritcles 1-28. However, for those interested in a deeper treatment of various issues, they might want to read some of the individual articles.


Politics and Power


  1. Ismail, Razali. Agenda 21 and the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Keynote Address." In Global Accords for Sustainable Development: Symposium Report. pp. 26-32. E. McLaughlin, ed. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Natural Capital, Ecological Economics, De-materialization, and Cleaner Production




  1. Hawken, Paul. “Natural Capitalism.” Mother Jones. March/April (1997): 40-54 (12 pages).




  1. Gailbraith, James K, et al. “Responses to Paul Hawken.” Mother Jones. May/June (1997): 6-11 (5 pages).




  1. Daly, Herman E. “Fostering environmentally sustainable development: four parting suggestions for the World Bank.” Ecological Economics 10 (1994): 183-187.




  1. (a) Schmidt-Bleek, F. (2002) “Factor 10, The Mandatory Technological Choice.” Workshop on Technological Choices for Sustainability, Maribor, Slovenia, October 13 – 17, 2002, pp. 1-13 (7 pages).

(b) Reijnders, Lucas (1998). “The Factor X Debate: Setting Targets for Eco-Efficiency” Journal of Industrial Ecology 2(1):13-22. (10 pages).


(c) Pogosso, Zanette, Filho, Ometto, and Rozenfeld (2010). “Ecodesign Methods Focused on Remanufacturing” Journal of Cleaner Production 18: 21-31.


  1. McDonough, William and Braungart, Michael (1998) “The NEXT Industrial Revolution” The Atlantic Magazine 282(4):82-92, October 1998 (10 pages).




  1. Geiser, Ken and Oldenburg, Kristin “Pollution Prevention and...or industrial ecology? J. Cleaner Production 5(2), 1997, p. 103 (excerpt: 8 pages).


Disruptive Innovation and Changing the Nature of What is Sold


  1. Hart, Stuart L. and Milstein, Mark B. “Global Sustainability and the Creative Destruction of Industries” Sloan Management Review (1999) 41 (1) 23-33 (11 pages).




  1. Prahalad, C.K. and Hart, Stuart L.(2002) “The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid.” Strategy+Business, undated, pp 2-14 (7 pages). See also London, Ted and Hart, Stuart (2004) “Reinventing Strategies for Emerging Markets: Beyond the Transnational Model” Journal of International Business Studies 35:350-370, article updating Prahalad and Hart (2002) (not provided).
Beyond Environmental Devastation: Globalization and Public Health

10a and b: Yach, Derek and Bettcher, Douglas “The Globalization of Public Health (a) I and (b) II, American Journal of Public Health 88(5):735-742 plus commentary (13 pages).


10c. Pimentel et al (2007) “Ecology of Increasing Diseases: Population Growth

and Environmental Degradation” Human Ecology 35:653–668.


10d. Sasco, Annie J. (2007) “Cancer and Globalization” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy pp. 1-12 available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Consumption

11a. UNEP (2002). “Responsible Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Development: Facts and Figures.” Industry and Environment June-July, 2002, pp 4-10.


11b. Cohen, Maurie J., Halina Szelnwald Brown, and Philip J. Vergragt (2010). “Individual Consumption and Systemic Societal Transformation: Introduction to the Special Issue.” Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 6(2): 6– 12. Available at http://sspp.proquest.com
12 Tukker, Arnold (2006) “Identifying Priorities for Environmental Product Policy” Journal of Industrial Ecology 10(3):1-4 available at www.mitpressjournals.org/jie
13 Tukker, Arnold (2006) Part One. Product Services: The Context. Introduction in New Business for Old Europe pp. 1-19, Greenleaf Publishing.
14a Mont, O. and Lindhqvist, T. (2003) “The Role of Public Policy in Advancement of Product Service Systems”, Journal of Cleaner Production 11: 905-914 (10 pages).
14b Carlo Vezzoli, Fabrizio Ceschin, Jan Carel Diehl, Cindy Kohtala, (2012) “Why have ‘Sustainable Product-Service Systems’ not been widely implemented? Meeting new design challenges to achieve societal sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production 10: 1-3 (three pages)
14c Product-Service Systems and Sustainability, UNEP Workshop 2000
14d. UNCTD “The Fallacies of Green Growth” (2011). Read summary

e. SAVE FOR TOPIC 14: Hoffmann, Ulrich (2011). “Some Reflections on Climate Change, Green Growth Illusions, and Development Space” UNCTD Discussion Paper No.215, December 2011.

f. Lorek and Spangenberg (2014) “Sustainable Consumption Within a Sustainable Economy: Beyond Green Growth and Green Economics” Journal of Cleaner Production 65:33-44.


Innovation or Cost-reduction as a Basis for Revenue Enhancement?




  1. Charles, Tony and Franz Lehner. “Competitiveness and Employment: A Strategic Dilemma for Economic Policy.” Competition & Change. 1995, v. 3, 207-236. Malaysia: Overseas Publishers Association, 1998.

Reconciling Trade and Environmental Policies


  1. Steininger, Karl. “Reconciling trade and environment: towards a comparative advantage for long-term policy goals.” Ecological Economics 9 (1994): 23-42 (excerpts) (excerpt: 8 pages).



Trade Unions as Essential Stakeholders




  1. Baker, Jim. “Trade unions and sustainable development.” UNEP, Industry and Environment, April-June, 2002 pp 28-31.


Do Environmental Investments Increase Employment?
18a. Getzner, M. “The Quantitative and Qualitative Impacts of Clean Technologies on Employment.” abstract & excerpt. Journal of Cleaner Production 10 (2002) pp 305 & 318. (15 pages) Read abstract, first page and conclusion; SKIM Remainder :
18b. ETUC (2007) “Climate change and employment” short abstract (3 pages)
18c. REFERENCE: ETUC (2007) Summary, “Climate change and employment” (19 pages)
Reconciling Trade and Employment Policies


  1. Ehrenberg, Daniel S. “From Intention to Action: An ILO-GATT/WTO Enforcement Regime for International Labor Rights.” Human Rights, Labor Rights and International Trade. Eds. Lance A Compa and Stephen F Diamond. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996. 163-180.


Raising the Stature of the Environment in World Governance


  1. Charnovitz, Steve (2002) “A World Environment Organization” 27 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 323-362 (16 pages, references omitted).


Raising the Stature of Employment in World Governance


  1. (a) EU, “Trade and Development: The European Commission adopts strategy to promote core labour standards and social governance globally.” http://europa.eu.int/comm/trade/miti/devel/cls.htm, 18 July 2001. (1 page)

(b) Labour Standards [readings WTOh], WTO website, 2 pages



A Role for MNCs




  1. Wallace, David. “Chapter 7: Policy Levers for Developing Countries” & “Chapter 8: Conclusions.” Sustainable Industrialization. London: Earthscan Publications/Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1996. 73-87.



The Importance of Innovation

23a. Ashford, Nicholas, “Technological, Organizational and Social Innovation as Pathways to Sustainability, 2000 (manuscript) 44 pages. (SKIM).


23b. Jansen, Leo (2003) “The challenge of sustainable development” Journal of Cleaner Production 11: 231–245.
23c. Beddoe, Rachael, Robert Costanza, Joshua Farley, Eric Garza, Jennifer Kent, Ida Kubiszewski, Luz Martinez, Tracy McCowen, Kathleen Murphy, Norman Myers, Zach Ogden, Kevin Stapleton, and John Woodward (2009) “Overcoming systemic roadblocks to sustainability: the evolutionary redesign of worldviews, institutions, and technologies” PNAS 106(8): 2483–2489, February 24, 2009. Available at http://www.pnas.org_cgi_doi_10.1073_pnas.0812570106

PE

Products versus Process Innovation and Employment




  1. REVIEW (From Topics 7 and 8) Charles Edquist, Leif Hommen, and Maureen McKelvey, Innovation and Employment: Process versus Product Innovation CH6: Summary and Conclusions (pp. 115-129) and CH7: Implications for Public Policy and Firm Strategy (pp.130-163).

The Role of Law


  1. Dernbach, J. C. (2008). "Navigating the U.S. Transition to Sustainability: Matching National Governance Challenges with Appropriate Legal Tools." Tulsa Law Review, 44, 93-120.


Degrowth as an Emerging Paradigm


  1. Mantinez-Alier, Unai Pascual, Franck-Dominique Vivien, and Edwin Zaccai (2010) “Sustainable de-growth: Mapping the context, criticisms and future prospects of an emergent paradigm”, Ecological Economics 69:1741–1747.



  1. van den Bergh, CJM.(2011) “Environment versus Growth: A criticism of “degrowth” and a plea for “a-growth” Ecological Economics 70(5): 881– 891.




  1. Kallis, G. (2011) “In Defence of Degrowth” Ecological Economics 70(5): 873-880.

Technology, Globalization & Sustainable Development HARVARD EXTENSION SCHOOL

Nicholas A. Ashford, Ph.D., J.D. SPRING 2015


TOPIC FOURTEEN: Reconciling the conflicts among an energy-dependent economy, environment, and employment
o BACKGROUND: Pacala and R. Socolow (2004), “Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies” Science (2004) 305: 968-972 (5 pp.)
o BACKGROUND: Blok et al., (2012) “Bridging the Green-house Emission Gap” Advance Nature Online Publication available at www.nature.com/natureclimatechange

o BACKGROUND: Dernbach, John C. (2007) "Stabilizing and Then Reducing U.S. Energy Consumption: Legal and Policy Tools for Efficiency and Conservation" Environmental Law Reporter, Vol. 37, 2007 (29 pages) Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=957061


o Ayers, Robert (2006) “Turning Point: The end of Exponential Growth?” Technological Forecasting & Social Change 73: 1188-1203.
o Borel-Saladin and Turok (2013). The Green Economy: Incremental Change or Transformation? Environmental Policy and Governance 23: 209-220.
o Summary of The Fallacies of Green Growth (UNCTAG 2011): Summary

The paper is available at: www.unctad.org/en/docs/osgdp2011d5_en.pdf



and in the next reading.
A new UNCTAD Discussion Paper (No. 205) reviews the fallacies of green growth in coping with climate change and the implications for development space. Drawing on ample empirical data and examples, the paper analyses the environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency and social-political acceptability of the main elements in the green growth toolbox. The main results of the analysis can be summarized as follows:
Many economists and policy makers advocate a fundamental shift towards “green growth” as the new, qualitatively-different growth paradigm, based on enhanced material/resource/energy efficiency and drastic changes in the energy mix. “Green growth” may work well in creating new growth impulses with reduced environmental load and facilitating related technological and structural change. But can it also mitigate climate change at the required scale (i.e. significant, absolute and permanent decline of GHG emissions at global level) and pace? The UNCTAD Discussion Paper argues that growth, technological, population-expansion and governance constraints as well as some key systemic issues cast a very long shadow on the “green growth” hopes. One should not deceive oneself into believing that such evolutionary (and often reductionist) approach will be sufficient to cope with the complexities of climate change. It may rather give much false hope and excuses to do nothing really fundamental that can bring about a U-turn of global GHG emissions. The proponents of a resource efficiency revolution and a drastic change in the energy mix need to scrutinize the historical evidence, in particular the arithmetic of economic and population growth. Furthermore, they need to realize that the required transformation goes beyond innovation and structural changes to include democratization of the economy and cultural change. Climate change calls into question the global equality of opportunity for prosperity (i.e. ecological justice and development space) and is thus a huge developmental challenge for the South and a question of life and death for some developing countries.
o SKIM: Hoffmann, Ulrich (2012) ”Some Reflections on Climate Change, Green Growth Illusions, and Development Space” Discussion Paper No. 205, UN Conference on Trade and Development December 2011. READ closely the abstract, Part I-Introduction and Part III- Developmental Challenges; skim (don’t skip) the remainder.
o Morgan, Tim PART FIVE, THE PERFECT STORM: Energy, Finance and the End of Growth
o Ashford, N. A., R. P. Hall, and R. Ashford (2012). “Addressing the Crisis in Employment and Consumer Demand: Reconciliation with Financial and Environmental Sustainability” (2012). The European Financial Review October-November 2012, pp. 63-68. Available at http://www.europeanfinancialreview.com/?p=5884 For a deeper treatment see the next reading.
o OPTIONAL: Ashford, N. A., R. P. Hall, and R. Ashford (2012). “The Crisis in Employment and Consumer Demand: Reconciliation with Environmental Sustainability” (2012). N. A Ashford, R. P. Hall, and R.H. Ashford. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions. Volume 2, Issue 1 Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210422412000032
o Kallis, G. (2011) “In Defence of Degrowth” Ecological Economics 70(5): 873-880.
o Tim Jackson and Peter Victor (2013). “Green Economy and Community Scale” Metcalf Foundation November 2013 READ CHAPTERS 4 and 8.
o Lorek and Spangenberg (2014) “Sustainable Consumption Within a Sustainable Economy: Beyond Green Growth and Green Economics” Journal of Cleaner Production 65:33-44.
o Ashford & Kallis (2013). “A Four-Day Workweek”, European Financial Review April-May 2013 pp.53-58
TENTATIVE FINAL ASSIGNMENT
The current model of development based on economic growth has been criticized on the basis of an obsession with increasing GDP and labor productivity as indicia of success. The so-called “degrowth” movement (see Kallis 2008 for a defense of degrowth and his description of skeptics’ concern); Chapters 4 and 8 of Jackson and Victor’s Green Economy at Community Scale (2013); and Borel-Saladin and Turok’s article The Green Economy: Incremental Change or Transformation? are responses to calls for transforming the unsustainable industrial state.
Kallis and Jackson/Victor advocate moving to green growth and argue that (1) reducing working time, (2) having people engage in more unpaid work, and (3) replacing private-sector funded economic activities with community-funded investments in more sustainable enterprises and banks are the key structural changes that are needed. Lorek and Spangenberg (2014) and others are doubtful that green growth will be adequate. Ashford and Kallis (2013) argue that a shorter workweek is worth trying, but emphasize the uncertainties associated with its outcomes.
To what extent does all this body of work give us practical, realistic blueprints for a more sustainable future? What specific policy recommendations are wrong-headed? What fundamental features of unsustainable economies remain unaddressed or inadequately addressed?
Viewing energy production and use both as a determinant of economic growth (with positive employment benefits) and a source of harmful environmental effects (both GHGs and air & water pollution & waste), describe an approach that governments might take to address this wicked problem: (how) can increasing economic growth be reconciled with improvements in environmental sustainability and employment with purchasing power? In your essay, address both developed and developing countries undergoing rapid economic growth like China and India.
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