The Maritime Revolution, to 1550

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Chapter 15 Test

The Maritime Revolution, to 1550

1. Sailing in the Indian Ocean was less difficult and dangerous than in other places because 415

A) it is shallow.

B) there is less wind.

C) the monsoon winds are predictable.

D) it isn't an ocean, but rather a large saltwater lake.

2. An early motivation for Portuguese maritime exploration was to 419

A) gain access to the sub-Saharan gold trade.

B) find buried treasure near Madagasacar.

C) discover the “New World.”

D) find the Christian kingdom of Prester John.
3. An important addition to the maritime revolution was 422

A) learning to speedily return by sailing northwest to ride westerly winds.

B) learning that the magnetic compass did not work while at sea.

C) recognizing that the caravel was unsuited for voyages of exploration.

D) understanding that the lost island of Atlantis was accessible via caravel.

4. The first financial return from the Portuguese voyages came from 422

A) the gold trade.

B) the slave trade.

C) the silk trade.

D) the spice trade.

5. In 1500, what did Portuguese mariners discover while attempting to find a favorable wind around Africa? 422

A) The east coast of South America

B) The west coast of North America

C) The North Pole

D) The Russian coast
6. The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the New World between 424

A) Islamic Africa and Christian America.

B) Spain and China.

C) Portugal and Malacca.

D) Spain and Portugal.
7.. The difference between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire was that 431

A) the motives of the Spanish were purely religious.

B) the Spanish Empire was a territorial empire, while the Portuguese Empire was a trading empire.

C) the motives of the Portuguese Empire were purely economic.

D) the Spanish Empire was a trading empire, while the Portuguese Empire was a territorial empire.

“In countries where there is a great scarcity of money, all other saleable goods, and even the labor of men, are given for less money than [in countries] where money is abundant. Thus we see by experience that in France (where money is scarcer than in Spain) bread, wine, cloth, and labor, are worth much less. And even in Spain, in [recent] times when money was scarcer than it is now, saleable goods and labor were given for much less.”

Martín de Azpilcueta Navarro, Spanish scholar, treatise, 1556
8. Navarro’s economic observations expressed in the passage above are best understood in the context of which of the following?

(A) The Spanish-Portuguese colonial rivalry in the Atlantic

(B) The influx of silver from the Americas into the Spanish economy

(C) The practice of governments devaluing their currencies by reducing the proportion of precious metals in their coins

(D) The beginning of large-scale importation of silver by China from Spanish mines in the Americas

9. What noble was responsible for initiating a series of expeditions along the African coast and outward to the Azores in the 15th century?

A) Prince Henry the Navigator

B) Cardinal Mazarin, regent of France

C) Hugh Dupuy, Count Marechal

D) Prince Henry of England

10. What region in the Americas was claimed by Portugal?

A) Mexico

B) Peru

C) Panama

D) Brazil

11. The island of Madagascar was settled by

A) Malayo-Indonesians.

B) Polynesians.

C) Lemurs.

D) both A and B.

12. How did the rise of medieval Islam give trade in the Indian Ocean an important boost?

A) The Muslim cities in the Middle East provided a demand for commodities.

B) Networks of Muslim traders tied the region together.

C) The Muslim traders shared a common ethic, language, and law.

D) Muslim traders actively spread their religion to distant trading cities.

E) All of these

13. The Ming Empire attempted to create new Indian Ocean contacts by

A) sending out seven imperial fleets between 1405 and 1433.

B) employing Mongol horsemen to travel the Silk Road.

C) attempting to defeat the Portuguese in the famous sea battle of Calcutta.

D) establishing maritime courts to deal with pirates and privateers.
14. Why did the Ming court suspend the voyages of Zheng He?

A) The Chinese had suffered great epidemics from their contacts in the Indian Ocean.

B) Zheng He's fleet was sunk by Portuguese naval might.

C) The government believed that little could be gained by exploring.

D) The unpredictable weather of the Indian Ocean made these voyages too unsafe.
15. Why didn't the Italian states take a lead in exploring the Atlantic?

A) Italy lacked warm water access and seafaring technology.

B) The ships of the Mediterranean were ill suited to the Atlantic.

C) The trading states of Venice and Genoa preferred a system of alliances with the Muslims.

D) Both B and C
16. Prince Henry of Portugal was known as Henry the Navigator because

A) he was the first person to round the Cape of Good Hope.

B) he devoted his life to promoting exploration.

C) he designed the compass.

D) he discovered America.
17. When Portugal began making a significant income from Africa, it began to issue

A) stock options.

B) private investment opportunities to sponsor maritime cargo and trade.

C) gold coins called cruzados.

D) military detachments to protect merchant ships laden with goods.
18. Which of the following changes best justifies the claim that the late 1400’s mark the beginning of a new period in world history?

A) The rise of the Inca and Aztec Empires

B) The economic recovery of in Afro-Eurasia after the Black Death.

C) The incorporation of the Americas into a broader global network of exchange.

D) The emergence of new religious movements in various parts of the world.

19. Some world historians have argued that the growth of European influence in the period 1450–1750 was due in large part to non-European inventions. The history of which of the following technological developments best supports this contention?

(A) The compass

(B) Silk weaving

(C) Steam power

(D) The stirrup

20. The Tribute system of the Aztecs differed from that of the Tang Dynasty in that the Aztecs:

A) demanded human heads delivered to their king.

B) used their tribute system as a pretext for invasion.

C) demanded payments of food, military equipment and sacrificial victims.

D) required only a symbolic gesture of tribute to the Aztec King.

21. The map above shows what significant economic developments?

(A) Trade connections that linked the Hellenistic and Mauryan empires to African cities from 300 through 150 B.C.E.

(B) Trading networks that promoted the growth of new cities from 600 C.E. through 1450 C.E.

(C) Chinese dominance of Indian Ocean trading networks because of the voyages of Zheng He in the 1400s C.E.

(D) Changes in Indian Ocean trading networks that resulted from technological innovations from 1450 C.E. through 1750 C.E.

22. Which of the following was the most important advantage that the Spanish had in their successful defeat of the Aztec and Inca Empires?

A. They had more soldiers than the natives

B. They had guns and steel swords

C. Their leaders had more military authority than native leaders did.

D. They had superior navies
23. Despite the fact that disease greatly helped Cortes in conquering the Aztecs

A. the Aztecs nearly defeated him in battle.

B. he also had reinforcements from other Amerindians hostile to the Aztecs

C. He was reinforced by Balboa and Pizarro.

D. He used siege warfare and starved the Aztecs into submission.

24. The wood-carving above represents which of the following?

A. This is the result of Aztec sacrifices

B. The spread of the black death in Europe.

C. Communication between the Aztec people.

D. The impact of small-pox on the Aztecs.

25. Which of the following was NOT a result of the European contact with sub-Saharan Africa after 1500?

A) Trade patterns in west Africa shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic

B) Trade shifted in west Africa from Muslim to European hands

C) Seizure of slaves for European use affected many regions deeply

D) Regional kingdoms lost all influence in west Africa and were replaced by European governments
26. Why did some Native Americans aid the Spanish in their initial invasion of the New World?

(A) Payment in gold and jewels

(B) A desire to learn about European culture

(C) A shared Christian faith

(D) To gain an advantage against their own enemies
27. Most historians agree that the fact that the sweet potato, domesticated in South America, became a staple in the Polynesian diet prior to arrival of Europeans

A. is an example of independent development

B. suggests that Polynesians were able to sail to South America and back

C. indicates that storm debris can float a long way and deposit seeds anywhere.

D. indicates that Thor Heyerdahl’s thesis regarding settlement from South America is correct.

28. Which of the following was the most immediate effect of the Portuguese establishment of a school for navigation in the 1400s?

(A) The development of overseas trade between West Africa and Europe

(B) The establishment of regular trade contact between Europe and the Americas

(C) The decline of Venetian control of the trade in Asian luxury goods

(D) The establishment of direct overseas trade links between India and Europe

29. Which of the following was a major long-term effect of Vasco da Gama’s voyage to India in the late 1490s?

(A) It led to the integration of European merchants into the Indian Ocean economy.

(B) It brought about the complete destruction of Muslim-controlled trade routes in the Indian Ocean.

(C) It spurred the Mughal Empire to invest resources in becoming a major naval power.

(D) It catalyzed the adoption of new European naval technology by states throughout the Indian Ocean basin.
* Letters written by Franciscan friars

*Pictorial records of the Mexica

*Statues produced by local artists in New Spain

*Histories written in Spanish and Nahuatl
30. A historian examining Mesoamerica in the sixteenth century would best utilize the sources above to analyze which of the following topics?

(A) The process of introducing the encomienda system

(B) How Christian ideas were communicated to and understood by Amerindians

(C) Conflicts between the Jesuits and the Franciscans

(D) The extent of the decline of the Amerindian population

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