“In countries where there is a great scarcity of money, all other saleable goods, and even the labor of men, are given for less money than [in countries] where money is abundant. Thus we see by experience that in France (where money is scarcer than in Spain) bread, wine, cloth, and labor, are worth much less. And even in Spain, in [recent] times when money was scarcer than it is now, saleable goods and labor were given for much less.”
Martín de Azpilcueta Navarro, Spanish scholar, treatise, 1556
8. Navarro’s economic observations expressed in the passage above are best understood in the context of which of the following?
(A) The Spanish-Portuguese colonial rivalry in the Atlantic
(B) The influx of silver from the Americas into the Spanish economy
(C) The practice of governments devaluing their currencies by reducing the proportion of precious metals in their coins
(D) The beginning of large-scale importation of silver by China from Spanish mines in the Americas
9. What noble was responsible for initiating a series of expeditions along the African coast and outward to the Azores in the 15th century?
A) sending out seven imperial fleets between 1405 and 1433.
B) employing Mongol horsemen to travel the Silk Road.
C) attempting to defeat the Portuguese in the famous sea battle of Calcutta.
D) establishing maritime courts to deal with pirates and privateers.
14. Why did the Ming court suspend the voyages of Zheng He?
A) The Chinese had suffered great epidemics from their contacts in the Indian Ocean.
B) Zheng He's fleet was sunk by Portuguese naval might.
C) The government believed that little could be gained by exploring.
D) The unpredictable weather of the Indian Ocean made these voyages too unsafe.
15. Why didn't the Italian states take a lead in exploring the Atlantic?
A) Italy lacked warm water access and seafaring technology.
B) The ships of the Mediterranean were ill suited to the Atlantic.
C) The trading states of Venice and Genoa preferred a system of alliances with the Muslims.
D) Both B and C
16. Prince Henry of Portugal was known as Henry the Navigator because
A) he was the first person to round the Cape of Good Hope.
B) he devoted his life to promoting exploration.
C) he designed the compass.
D) he discovered America.
17. When Portugal began making a significant income from Africa, it began to issue
A) stock options.
B) private investment opportunities to sponsor maritime cargo and trade.
C) gold coins called cruzados.
D) military detachments to protect merchant ships laden with goods.
18. Which of the following changes best justifies the claim that the late 1400’s mark the beginning of a new period in world history?
A) The rise of the Inca and Aztec Empires
B) The economic recovery of in Afro-Eurasia after the Black Death.
C) The incorporation of the Americas into a broader global network of exchange.
D) The emergence of new religious movements in various parts of the world.
19. Some world historians have argued that the growth of European influence in the period 1450–1750 was due in large part to non-European inventions. The history of which of the following technological developments best supports this contention?
(D) To gain an advantage against their own enemies
27. Most historians agree that the fact that the sweet potato, domesticated in South America, became a staple in the Polynesian diet prior to arrival of Europeans
A. is an example of independent development
B. suggests that Polynesians were able to sail to South America and back
C. indicates that storm debris can float a long way and deposit seeds anywhere.
D. indicates that Thor Heyerdahl’s thesis regarding settlement from South America is correct.
28. Which of the following was the most immediate effect of the Portuguese establishment of a school for navigation in the 1400s?
(A) The development of overseas trade between West Africa and Europe