Tr-41. 4-03-05-024 Telecommunications


Half-Channel Loss and Level Plan



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6.6Half-Channel Loss and Level Plan

6.6.1Overview


Developing a loss plan is generally a complex process, as the objective is to ensure a satisfactory overall loudness rating (OLR) for all connections types. To do this the loudness ratings of the end points (telephones), and the transmission loss between the end points, must be known for each connection type.

This is a trivial exercise in a purely packet telephony environment, if one assumes that the end points are digital telephones with an LR of 8 and 2 (in line with ITU-T Recommendations), and that no gains or losses are introduced in the digital transmission path. In this case the OLR for any digital telephone-to-telephone connection world-wide is 10 dB, which is the ITU-T objective.

The complexity is introduced when the packet telephony network connects to analog telephones and trunks. In this case the LR of the telephones, and the ELR of the trunks vary, although a loss-less digital transmission path can be maintained.

A half-channel loss plan for national and international packet telephony networks can be implemented based on the premise that only the LRs and ELRs vary, and that the packet network does not introduce any additional gain or loss.

Full-channel loss plans are still required for voice gateways, as voice gateways can also connect to existing analog and TDM based digital networks. These connections require losses to be defined on a port-to-port basis for technical and regulatory reasons. A half-channel loss plan can therefore be considered as a sub-set of a full-channel loss plan that is only applicable to packet network connections.

6.6.2Concept


The basic concept in the half-channel loss plan is to normalize all transmit levels on an packet telephony network to the same equivalent SLR (ESLR) - digital telephones provide the reference SLR of 8 dB by definition. This is not an original concept, as it is the basis of the European dBr reference system. The move to standardize the North American digital telephone LRs to the ITU-T recommended levels makes this practical for packet telephony networks.

The same basic concept could be applied to the current non-packet PSTN and private networks, but existing industry standards and may make it difficult to implement.


6.6.3Principle of Operation


  • The originating entity will set the ESLR of the sending end point to 8 dB at the ingress to the packet network. The ESLR at this point is defined as the iSLR.

  • The terminating entity will adjust the loss at the egress from the packet network to achieve the desired OLR at the receiving end point.

Note: The internationally recognized optimum OLR is 10 dB.

The advantage of this approach is that neither entity requires knowledge of the other, so loss planning becomes a local issue.


6.6.4Applicability


This loss plan applies to all kind of packet-based voice services, irrespective whether they provide:

  • real time conversational telecommunication between human subjects, or

  • listening-only telecommunication from a machine interface (stored speech) to a human subject, or

  • speaking-only telecommunication from a human subject to a machine interface;

The half-channel loss plan only applies to connections routed via packet networks, other voice gateway port-to-port connections are subject to the full-channel loss plan recommendations.

6.6.5Reference Level Point


The reference or zero-level point for packet telephony is defined as the point where a connection is made to a packet-based network. This is equivalent to the zero-level point in standard TDM circuit switched telephony.

Note: The reference level is defined as an iSLR of 8 dB, not a power level at 1004 Hz.

6.6.6Recommended Loss Ranges


The transmit and receive losses in Table 6 are the recommended nominal values.

Although there are no mandatory loss ranges associated with these values, it is desirable that the average 1 kHz loss fall within 0.5 dB of the nominal loss values given in Table 6.


6.6.7Packet Network Losses


It is critical for the operation of a half-channel loss plan that no gain or loss is inserted during transmission through the packet network. Any level changes due to transcoding for example, should be less than 1 dB.

Note: Transcoding refers to the conversion from one voice coding algorithm to another, e.g. G.726 to G.729.

6.6.8Half-Channel Loss Plan Table


Table 6 shows the North American voice gateway half-channel loss plan, given in loudness ratings and respective loss.

Table 6 - Voice Gateway Half-Channel Loss Plan












WAN/PAL






















Zero-Level Point










































a

b

c




d

e

f




g










a + b










c + d + e




8 + d + e




ESLR

Tx

iSLR




ERLR

Rx

OLR




Assumed







Loss










Loss







OLR

ONS

8

0

8




-6

9

11




11

OPS

11

-3

8




-3

6

11




11

DGS

8

0

8




2

0

10




10

WAN

8

0

8




2

0

10




10

PAL

8

0

8




2

0

10




10

DAL

8

0

8




2

0

10




10

FXO

20

-6

14




6

0

20




14

FXD

17

-3

14




3

3

20




14

ATT

13

0

13




-1

3

15




10

Column a shows the ESLR of the telephones and trunks at the connection point to the VG.

Column b shows the transmit loss required to achieve the required iSLR at the zero-level point.

Column c shows the resulting ESLR (iSLR) at the zero-level point (WAN/PAL).

Column d shows the ERLR of the receive side.

Column e shows the receive loss required to achieve the desirable OLR, based on the ERLR shown in column d, and an assumed iSLR of 8 dB.

Column f shows the resulting OLR.

Column g shows the assumed OLR, based on an iSLR of 8.

Notes:


  1. Losses have been selected as multiples of 3 dB, assuming that this simplifies the implementation.

  2. It is not possible to achieve the optimum iSLR of 8 dB for connections from analog networks due to the potential for DTMF signaling overload. See Annex B.4 ‘DTMF Overload on Analog Trunks’.

  3. The OLR values shown in the table are as perceived by the listener, i.e. this is shown as a one-way connection.

6.6.9Network Stability


There is a potential for instability in connections involving 2-to-4 wire conversions if the open loop gain of the 4-wire loop approaches 0 dB.

Additional losses are inserted in public and private analog and digital TDM-based networks to ensure they are unconditionally stable, and the resultant high OLRs are accepted for mixed 2-wire and 4-wire networks.

The use of this approach for a half-channel plan would result in unacceptable OLRs for some connection types. Fortunately, the requirement for unconditional stability is not required in packet-based networks as a digital 4-wire loop will only oscillate when the hybrids at both ends of the loop are unterminated, and under these conditions the 4-wire loop would not be connected to any analog loops that could be affected by digital loop oscillation.

Notes:


  1. Oscillation in a 4-wire loop has shown to cause harm to analog frequency division multiplexing (FDM) transmission systems by affecting the FDM equipment's signal level management. There is no potential for such harm in purely digital systems.

  2. See Annex B.5 for further information on open loop loss and network stability.

6.6.9.1Stability Loss


ITU-T Recommendation G.122 specifies the minimum stability loss for national systems required to prevent instability on international calls. The stability loss of each national system represents one half of the open loop loss (OLL) of the 4-wire loops required to establish an international connection. This is equivalent to the voice gateway loss on either side of an packet network connection. A stability loss of 6 dB at all frequencies between 200 and 3600 Hz will ensure that the G.122 requirements are met. However, stability losses of between 6 dB and 0 dB will formally comply with the present requirements of G.122.

This need not be a requirement for purely packet-based connections for the reasons discussed above.




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