Trade-off da – gdi 2011 1 Earth Science D/A 2



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Orion Shell


Space leadership is critical to overall US hegemony- provides intelligence and warfighting capabilities.
Young 8 (Thomas, Chair for the Institute for Defense Analyses Research Group, “Leadership, Management, and Organization for National Security Space”. July 2008. http://www.armyspace.army.mil/ASJ/Images/National_Security_S pace_Study_Final_Sept_16.pdf) AV

Today, U.S. leadership in space provides a vital national advantage across the scientific, commercial, and national security realms. In particular, space is of critical importance to our national intelligence and warfighting capabilities. The panel members nevertheless are unanimous in our conviction that, without significant improvements in the leadership and management of NSS programs, U.S. space preeminence will erode to the extent that space ceases to provide a competitive national security advantage. Space technology is rapidly proliferating across the globe, and many of our most important capabilities and successes were developed and fielded with a government technical workforce and a management structure that no longer exist. U.S. Leadership in Space is a Vital National Advantage Space capabilities underpin U.S. economic, scientific, and military leadership. The space enterprise is embedded in the fabric of our nation’s economy, providing technological leadership and sustainment of the industrial base. To cite but one example, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is the world standard for precision navigation and timing. Global awareness provided from space provides the ability to effectively plan for and respond to such critical national security requirements as intelligence on the military capabilities of potential adversaries, intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) program proliferation, homeland security, and missile warning and defense. Military strategy, operations, and tactics are predicated upon the availability of space capabilities.
Heg collapse causes nuclear war

Khalilzad 95 [Zalmay, Former RAND Fellow, Current US Ambassador, “Losing the Moment?” The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2, pg. 84, Spring, Lexis]

a world in which the United States exercises leadership would have tremendous advantages. First, the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -- democracy, free markets, and the rule of law. Second, such a world would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems, such as nuclear proliferation, threats of regional hegemony by renegade states, and low-level conflicts. Finally, U.S. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival, enabling the United States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers, including a global nuclear exchange. U.S. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system.

Orion UQ – $ Now


Orion is being funded but its not guaranteed
Leone 6/14 (Dan, writer @ SpaceNews.com, http://www.spacenews.com/civil/110614-memo-marks-end-constellation.html) JPG

A senior NASA official has signed the formal death warrant for the Constellation deep space exploration program even as work proceeds on one of Constellation’s legacy development efforts and agency officials continue to ponder the fate of another. “I have signed the letter to close out the Constellation Program,” Douglas Cooke, associate administrator for NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, wrote in a June 10 memo. With Constellation’s demise now official, the Constellation project office, which “has already scaled back in size significantly,” will be charged “with transitioning contracts, etc. to the new [Space Launch System] and [Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle] programs,” Cooke wrote in the memo. NASA spokesman Michael Braukus confirmed June 10 that the letter came from Cooke. The fate of some Constellation contracts remains unclear, as NASA has not decided whether to use those contracts to build the Space Launch System, a heavy-lift rocket with a 130-ton lift capacity that Congress ordered the space agency to construct in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010.
Orion is being funded, but it’s not secure
Hannaford 6/17 (Alex, writer @ Sunday Telegraph, http://www.ottawacitizen.com/technology/Shuttling+this+mortal+coil/4966577/story.html) JPG

Nevertheless, as it ends its shuttle program, NASA finds itself at a crossroads. A period of uncertainty now looms over the future of manned U.S. space flight. The organization is retiring what some feel is a perfectly operational vehicle in favour of … what. Nothing has been readied to replace it. Plans are in the works to build a new crew exploration vehicle, Orion, but this isn’t even at the test phase. The other thing still to be decided: where it’ll go when it is built.


Orion is being funded
Houston Chronicle 5/31 (http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/editorial/7589494.html#ixzz1Qgpj0xf5)

Now the approaching end of the shuttle program and the Obama administration's decision to cancel plans to return to the moon struck at the center's long-term future. The subsequent decision not to send a decommissioned shuttle here simply amplified that feeling of growing irrelevance in plans for the nation's spacefaring enterprise. Last week, however, we got a bit of good news from NASA for JSC and the Houston area. As the space agency firms up plans for eventual manned flights to a near-Earth asteroid, it has revived a component of the canceled moon missions, the Orion capsule now renamed the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. Under construction by Lockheed Martin, it will have the capacity to carry four astronauts on three-week missions and will return to Earth by way of parachute-assisted ocean splash-downs, much like the Mercury and Apollo capsules. It also guarantees a purpose and presence of astronauts training at JSC in the coming decades.


Orion is being funded
Stier 6/10 (Caitlin, contributor @ NewScientist, http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2011/06/preparing-for-the-next-generat.html) JPG

As the shuttle programme draws to a close, NASA has contracted Lockheed Martin to develop a next-generation vehicle for deep space exploration. Here, the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), unveiled in May, is undergoing tests at the Lockheed Martin Vertical Test Facility in Colorado to ensure it can withstand the harsh conditions of deep space expeditions. Whereas the shuttle programme focused on low Earth orbit, the new spacecraft is designed to explore further afield possibly to an asteroid or Mars. Lockheed Martin was commissioned after the Obama administration scrapped the moon-bound Constellation programme, and MPCV resurrects designs from the Orion capsule, affiliated with Constellation.



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