Trade-off da – gdi 2011 1 Earth Science D/A 2



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GEOSS ! – Biodiversity


GEOSS key to sustainable biodiversity globally
GEO 11 (Group on Earth Observations, Copyright 2011, http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss_bi.shtml, accessed 6-22-11, JG)

Biological diversity encompasses all of the Earth’s plants, animals and micro-organisms; the genetic variation within each species; and the diverse ecosystems in which living things – including human beings – form communities and interact with one another and with the air, water, and soil around them. The conservation and sustainable use of the world’s biological resources is central to promoting sustainable development. The Global Earth Observation System of Systems supports these goals by improving the quality and quantity of biodiversity information and analysis. GEOSS is linking together the world’s many stand-alone biodiversity monitoring systems and connecting them to other Earth observation networks that generate relevant data, such as climate and pollution indicators. It also helps to fill in gaps in taxonomic and biological information, generate updated assessments of global biodiversity trends, track the spread and retreat of invasive alien species, and monitor how biodiversity responds to climate change.
Biodiversity loss causes extinction
Diner 94 (David, Ph.D. Planetary Science and Geology, "The Army and the Endangered Species Act: Who's Endangering Whom?," Military Law Review, 143 Mil. L. Rev. 161, accessed 6-22-11, JG)

To accept that the snail darter, harelip sucker, or Dismal Swamp southeastern shrew 74 could save mankind may be difficult for some. Many, if not most, species are useless to manin a direct utilitarian sense. Nonetheless, they may be critical in an indirect role, because their extirpations could affect a directly useful species negatively. In a closely interconnected ecosystem, the loss of a species affects other species dependent on it. 75 Moreover, as the number of species decline, the effect of each new extinction on the remaining species increases dramatically. 4. Biological Diversity. -- The main premise of species preservation is that diversity is better than simplicity. 77 As the current mass extinction has progressed, the world's biological diversity generally has decreased. This trend occurs within ecosystems by reducing the number of species, and within species by reducing the number of individuals. Both trends carry serious future implications. 78 [*173] Biologically diverse ecosystems are characterized by a large number of specialist species, filling narrow ecological niches. These ecosystems inherently are more stable than less diverse systems. "The more complex the ecosystem, the more successfully it can resist a stress. . . . [l]ike a net, in which each knot is connected to others by several strands, such a fabric can resist collapse better than a simple, unbranched circle of threads -- which if cut anywhere breaks down as a whole." 79 By causing widespread extinctions, humans have artificially simplified many ecosystems. As biologic simplicity increases, so does the risk of ecosystem failure. The spreading Sahara Desert in Africa, and the dustbowl conditions of the 1930s in the United States are relatively mild examples of what might be expected if this trend continues. Theoretically, each new animal or plant extinction, with all its dimly perceived and intertwined affects, could cause total ecosystem collapse and human extinction. Each new extinction increases the risk of disaster. Like a mechanic removing, one by one, the rivets from an aircraft's wings, 80 [mankind may be edging closer to the abyss.


GEOSS ! – Economy


Climate observation key to our national economy
NTCS 5 (National Science and Technology Council, Executive Report, 4-6-05, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/eocstrategic_plan.pdf, accessed 6-22-11, JG)

In pure economic terms, studies show that national institutions that provide weather, climate, public health, and water services to their citizens contribute an estimated $20-$40 billion dollars each year to their national economies. 4 In the United States, weather- and climate-sensitive industries, both directly and indirectly, account for as much as 1/3 of our nation’s GDP—$2.7 trillion 5 — ranging from agriculture, energy, finance, insurance, transportation, and real estate, to retail and wholesale trade, and manufacturing. Economists have quantified the benefits of improved El Niño forecasts to be an estimated $265- 300 million annually, throughout El Niño, normal and La Niña years. Likewise, annual benefits in a small Northwest Coho salmon fishery are estimated at $250,000 to $1 million. 6 The return on our investments for Earth observations has brought great benefits to the general public. However, we can do much more.
U.S. economic collapse leads to global economic depression-
Mead 4 (Walter Mead, Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, March/April, 2004

“America’s Sticky Power”, Foreign Policy, Proquest, accessed 6-23-11, JG)

Similarly, in the last 60 years, as foreigners have acquired a greater value in the United States-government and private bonds, direct and portfolio private investments-more and more of them have acquired an interest in maintaining the strength of the U.S.-led system. A collapse of the U.S. economy and the ruin of the dollar would do more than dent the prosperity of the United States. Without their best customer, countries including China and Japan would fall into depressions. The financial strength of every country would be severely shaken should the United States collapse. Under those circumstances, debt becomes a strength, not a weakness, and other countries fear to break with the United States because they need its market and own its securities. Of course, pressed too far, a large national debt can turn from a source of strength to a crippling liability, and the United States must continue to justify other countries' faith by maintaining its long-term record of meeting its financial obligations. But, like Samson in the temple of the Philistines, a collapsing U.S. economy would inflict enormous, unacceptable damage on the rest of the world.
Extinction
Bearden 2k (Lieutenant Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel in the U.S. Army, www.cheniere.org/techpapers/Unnecessary%20Energy%20Crisis.doc) ET

Bluntly, we foresee these factors - and others { } not covered - converging to a catastrophic collapse of the world economy in about eight years. As the collapse of the Western economies nears, one may expect catastrophic stress on the 160 developing nations as the developed nations are forced to dramatically curtail orders. International Strategic Threat Aspects History bears out that desperate nations take desperate actions. Prior to the final economic collapse, the stress on nations will have increased the intensity and number of their conflicts, to the point where the arsenals of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) now possessed by some 25 nations, are almost certain to be released. As an example, suppose a starving North Korea launches nuclear weapons upon Japan and South Korea, including U.S. forces there, in a spasmodic suicidal response. Or suppose a desperate China - whose long range nuclear missiles can reach the United States - attacks Taiwan. In addition to immediate responses, the mutual treaties involved in such scenarios will quickly draw other nations into the conflict, escalating it significantly. Strategic nuclear studies have shown for decades that, under such extreme stress conditions, once a few nukes are launched, adversaries and potential adversaries are then compelled to launch on perception of preparations by one's adversary. The real legacy of the MAD concept is his side of the MAD coin that is almost never discussed. Without effective defense, the only chance a nation has to survive at all, is to launch immediate full-bore pre-emptive strikes and try to take out its perceived foes as rapidly and massively as possible. As the studies showed, rapid escalation to full WMD exchange occurs, with a great percent of the WMD arsenals being unleashed . The resulting great Armageddon will destroy civilization as we know it, and perhaps most of the biosphere, at least for many decades.






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