a. When analyzing a drill, the developer must determine if a new drill needs to be created or if an existing drill can be modified to fill a training gap. If a product review resulting from OIL identifies a revision requirement, then a drill must be revised. Use figure 5-1 to determine some considerations for determining if a new drill is necessary.
b. Drill requirements include a drill identification number and a drill title:
(1) Drill identification number. Drills are numbered for identification and for Army-wide automation of drill production.
(a) Number drills in the same manner as collective tasks; however, the identification number for a drill begins with a "D." Figure 6-1 shows an example of a correctly formatted drill number.
Figure 6-1. Drill ID number format
(b) To number a drill, assign the proponent ID number to the first position. Assign the echelon ID number to the second position. If the proponent ID number is a single digit, begin it with a zero so that the proponent ID is two digits; for example, 7 becomes 07. See figure 5-2 for proponent and echelon numbers.
(c) Assign the drill identification number to the last four digits. Begin with the letter "D" to identify it as a drill, and follow with a four-digit sequential number.
Note: Drill identification numbers range from D0001-D9999.
(2) Drill title. The drill title must consist of one approved, present tense, action verb and object only. The use of conjunctions or "/" must be avoided and the drill title must be stated in terms that will be directly understood by anyone reading the title. Include no qualifiers or parenthetic statements other than for the purpose of abbreviation. An example of an appropriate drill title is React to Indirect Fire.
6-3. Design the drill
a. Condition statement. A drill condition statement must provide the general information required to allow multiple units and echelons to perform a drill based on a common doctrinal basis. As such, the condition statement does not limit drill performance by including unnecessary equipment or environmental requirements. The drill condition must include a trigger or cue indicating why the drill is to be performed and include appropriate aiding and limiting factors to set the stage for the conduct of the drill. A drill condition is concise and written in paragraph format. Figure 6-2 gives further guidance on writing condition statements. The condition statement should include all applicable elements, but only in the context that they support the drill.
F igure 6-2. Considerations for writing drill conditions b. Elements of condition statements. There are eight elements to consider when writing a drill condition statement:
(1) Trigger or cue. A drill condition must include a trigger or cue indicating why the drill is to be performed and the aiding and limiting factors appropriate to set the stage for the conduct of the drill. The training developer must state what triggered the need to perform this drill. This is the only mandatory required entry. Without the trigger, the condition statement is incomplete.
(2) Current actions or situation. This includes what the echelon is currently doing.
(3) Historical information. Describe important (first order) activities that have been completed prior to the start of this mission or task.
(4) Enemy. Include current information about strength, location, activity, and capabilities that impact performing the drill.
(5) Terrain and weather. Note any terrain and weather conditions that will affect training regarding ground maneuver, precision munitions, air support, and sustainment operations.
Examples: This task will be performed under all environmental conditions; higher HQ analysis of the AO is available; field expedient and natural shelters are available; some iterations of this task should be conducted during limited visibility conditions.
(6) Troops and support available. Note the quantity, training level, and psychological state of friendly forces if they impact training the drill.
(7) Time available. Note the time available for planning, preparing, and executing the mission if it impacts training the drill.
(8) Civil considerations. Identify the impact of civil considerations (civilian populations, culture, organizations, and leaders within the AO) for training the drill.
Note: Elements (3) through (8) can be written as either aiding or limiting factors.
c. Drill standards. The drill standards statement provides the quantitative and qualitative criteria for determining the minimum acceptable level of drill performance. The criteria must not restrict the leader’s ability to manage varied unit configurations and to respond to varied METT-TC. Drill standards statements are composed of several sentences that describe actions. The drill standard must be concise, written in the present tense, and include a quantitative or qualitative remark. Figure 6-3 provides considerations for writing drills standards statements.
F igure 6-3. Considerations for drill standards statements
The training developer can choose to develop the various sections of the drill in almost any order in the CAC-approved automated development system. The development sections in this chapter appear as aligned in the drill synopsis report. The drill synopsis report itself is described in paragraph 6-5, at the end of this chapter.
a. Develop performance measures. In a drill, performance measures are actions that are objectively observable, qualitative or quantitative, and used to determine if performance is satisfactorily achieved. Performance measures are sequentially numbered in accordance with the CAC-approved automated development system. Performance measures are written in subject, past tense verb, and object format. The performance measures are past tense since the evaluator is concerned with determining if the step or steps comprising the measure were actually performed. The subject may be omitted if assumed or implied. When developing performance measures for a drill, ensure they are constructed using terms and equipment names that are not too restrictive or too specific for the units and proponents that perform the drill. Before adding a note to a performance measure, assess the applicability of adding the information to an existing performance measure or as an additional performance measure. Performance measures for drills include GO/NO GO/NA columns for the evaluator. If the measure does not apply at a particular echelon or is not observed during training of a particular unit, the evaluator can designate this in the NA column so as not to affect the GO/NO GO status of the unit. Adding the NA column also allows the developer to write the drill to the highest applicable echelon knowing that some steps do not apply at the lower echelons. Table 6-2 is an example of a partial list of performance measures from a drill.
5. Soldiers initiated self- or buddy-aid, as necessary.
6. The element identified the chemical agent using M8 chemical detector paper and the M256 detector kit.
7. The element leader reported the chemical attack to higher headquarters using the chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) 1 report.
8. Leaders determined if decontamination was required and requested support, as necessary.
11. The element moved and displaced, as appropriate, or continued its mission.
b. Develop performance statement (optional). A performance statement is an optional statement that can clarify when to evaluate a drill at the next higher proficiency level. For example, a drill performance statement might read, "When the Soldiers can perform the drill according to established standards, the unit leaders should evaluate the unit as a whole to determine unit proficiency in performing the drill."
c. Develop setup instructions. Setup instructions consist of all essential items needed to complete the drill. Setup should include resources such as training site requirements, personnel, maps with overlays, and equipment. Setup instructions should also include any unit-specific instructions such as, "The team leader will ensure all necessary convoy orders, site maps, signal operating instructions, and cryptography (crypto) are on hand." Figure 6-4 provides an example of setup instructions.
d. Develop talk-through instructions.
(1) Orientation. The orientation gives a short explanation of the mission and what the drill is intended to accomplish. The key factor for the success of the drill’s completion is that the drill must be accomplished to standard with little or no subsequent decision making process or orders from unit leaders. The orientation also gives a brief description of the conditions or situations under which the drill is executed.
(2) Demonstrations (optional). When used, a demonstration explains the critical actions being performed and why these actions are critical and essential to the performance of this training. A sample demonstration comment is, "If another team has mastered this drill, have them demonstrate it. Explain the actions of the demonstration team during the execution of this drill. Summarize the actions of the demonstration team."
(3) Explanation. Explanation information should strive to ensure that everyone knows his duties and responsibilities pertaining to each portion of the drill. Explanation information should include a sketch or diagram that explains the action required by each member in the squad or platoon. Explanation information must clarify all unsolved issues and questions of the unit members pertaining to the drill.
(4) Example. Figure 6-5 provides an example of talk-through instructions.
Figure 6-5. Talk-through instructions example
e. Develop walk-through instructions. Walk-through instructions must define how to move through the task deliberately to ensure that the unit is performing the drill and all of the task steps and performance measures to standard. The walk-through instructions begin with the initiating cue. The initiating cue can be written as a description of the signal that unit leaders give that causes the unit to perform the drill. The cue may also be written as a description of the trained response to an enemy action that causes the unit to perform the drill.
Examples: Refer to the performance measures and have each squad member perform his or her part slowly at first as the leader talks him or her through; The squad leader gives the order to conduct wash down after meeting the contaminated unit at the contact point.
f. Develop run-through instructions (optional). Run-through instructions include any additional instructions that are needed to perform the drill at the run level of proficiency.
Example: The Soldiers should practice this drill until they can perform the drill to the standards from memory. The initial run-through should be conducted slowly. The Soldiers should change positions in order to learn all steps and standards.
g. Develop a coaching point. A coaching point allows the drill developer to provide additional tips and hints to the drill manager on how to conduct a successful drill.
Example: Every member of the squad/platoon must know if the distance to cover is less than or greater than 50 meters. All members must know what driving technique to use when driving toward cover. Unit leader establishes rally points.
h. Supporting individual tasks. Supporting individual tasks are those tasks that are performed during the execution or are a direct prerequisite to the successful performance of the drill. Drills must have supporting individual tasks linked and, in most cases, drills should be linked to a collective task. Drills must be applicable to the majority of the target population. An example of task linkages for a drill is illustrated in figure 6-6.
Figure 6-6. Supporting task(s) for drills example
i. Equipment and materiel. Equipment and materiel are the resources that have relevance to the drill being trained. For drills, the inclusion of equipment and materiel items is limited to those that have relevance to the target population being trained.
j. TADSS. The training developer selects any appropriate TADSS to support drill training. If applicable, the TADSS title and numbers are required. TADSS are selected from a search menu in the CAC-approved automated development system and print out as part of the synopsis report. The training developer should identify trade-offs of training resources (such as equipment, ammunition, and others) in order to identify TADSS as cost-effective training enablers. When appropriate, the training developer links TADSS to support the training of the drill being developed. Resource information required to support TADSS training (such as contractor personnel requirements, special facilities unique to the TADSS) is pre-populated in the CAC-approved automated development system. The TADSS requirements information does not display for field users, but is used to determine TSS resourcing requirements. The CAC-approved automated development system links TADSS to the T&EO as appropriate to support drill training.
k. Safety and environmental statements. The training developer includes the safety and environment statements to alert trainers to their responsibilities regarding Soldier safety and environmental concerns during training. Leaders and trainers are required to perform a risk assessment using the current composite risk management worksheet. Training developers integrate safety, risk, and environmental protection considerations into training materials where appropriate. The training developer:
(1) Includes appropriate safety, risk, and environmental protection statements, cautions, notes, and warnings in all training products.
(2) Identifies the risk and assigns an initial risk assessment to every training product designated in the CAC-approved automated development system.
(3) Coordinates with and obtains approval from the branch safety manager for all training products regarding safety and risk management issues. Figure 6-7 shows the required safety and environmental statements that must appear in each drill. Additional safety or environmental issues may be addressed as additions to these statements.