Training development in support of the operational domain

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1. Purpose

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Chapter 1

1-1. Purpose

This pamphlet provides detailed and amplifying guidance supporting U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Regulation (TR) 350-70 and amplifying guidance on procedures for producing unit training products. This guide utilizes the instructional system design model often referred to as the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE) process. This pamphlet is directed at developers, contractors, commissioned officers, and senior noncommissioned officers (NCOs) (E7–E9) within TRADOC proponent institutions, and associated Active Army (AA), Army National Guard (ARNG), and United States Army Reserve (USAR) agencies and directorates who design and develop products to support unit training.

1-2. References

Appendix A lists required and related publications and referenced forms.

1-3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms

Abbreviations and acronyms used in this pamphlet are explained in the glossary and spelled out the first time they are used. A separate glossary, TRADOC Pamphlet (TP) 350-70-15, explains terms used in this pamphlet and the TP 350-70 series.

1-4. Scope

This pamphlet provides "how-to" guidance for the generating force to create and revise unit training products for use by the operational force. This pamphlet explains mission analysis and the unit task list (UTL), as well as acknowledges Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN) and the Mission Essential Task List (METL). This pamphlet then provides guidance for analyzing, designing, and developing unit training products including combined arms training strategies (CATS), warfighter training support packages (WTSPs), collective tasks, drills, individual tasks, and Soldier training publications (STPs). It also discusses management and resources for the aforementioned products.

1-5. Generating force support for unit training

a. Background. The purpose of the generating force is to support the Army by providing mission-focused and outcome-based training and education to Soldiers and Army civilians who protect this nation.  This is accomplished by synchronizing training in the operational, institutional, and self-development domains to provide an effective overall training strategy. Effective Army training and education serve as the cornerstone of success in decisive action. Through training and education, Soldiers, Army civilians, and units achieve the tactical and technical competence that builds confidence and agility. These characteristics allow Army forces to conduct successful operations across the spectrum of conflict.

(1) Training in the operational domain encompasses activities that units, organizations, and individuals undertake. Unit training reinforces individual Soldiers' foundations established in the institutional training domain and introduces additional skills needed to support collective training and organizational performance. Unit training develops and sustains an organization's readiness by achieving and sustaining proficiency in performing mission-essential tasks (METs). Unit training focuses on performing tasks to identified standards under certain conditions. Unit training:
(a) Prepares forces for decisive action.
(b) Incorporates conditions that realistically replicate the projected operational environment as much as possible.
Note: As such, achieving the desired outcome of the performance standard is paramount. Chapter 2 provides more details of generating force support for unit training, including the top-down analysis process.
(2) Operational domain training development follows a systematic process that determines what is trained; who gets the training; and how, how well, and where the training is presented. The process also determines the training support resources required to develop, distribute, implement, and evaluate the training products.
b. Requirements. The requirements of generating force support to operational domain training development are:
(1) Ensure compliance with TR 350-70, using approved Army and/or Combined Arms Center (CAC)-approved automated development system.
(2) Incorporate current and relevant doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) changes into operational domain training products.
(3) Ensure changes in any specific training product reflect systematically throughout all related products.
c. Characteristics of unit training.
(1) Performance-oriented and standards-based.
(2) Sustains learning provided in the institutional domain.
(3) Executed by leaders at all echelons across the operational domain.
(4) Continuously revised to sustain relevance in accordance with observations, insights, and lessons (OIL).
(5) Prepares organizations of all levels and sizes for missions and tasks they are expected to perform.
(6) Executes at a level appropriate to the experience of the unit (see Field Manual (FM) 7 0).
(7) Conducted in live, virtual (including gaming), and constructive training environments.
(8) Replicates the operational environment conditions.

1-6. Operational domain training development products

a. This pamphlet briefly describes operational domain training products below and then details them in the noted chapters. CATS, WTSPs, collective tasks, drills, individual tasks, and STPs are the products that must be delivered for implementation by the operating force. Training products are being transformed from a paper-based system to automated systems to improve effectiveness and efficiency. This transformation requires the developer to use the CAC-approved automated development system for developing operational domain training products and the Digital Training Management System (DTMS) for delivering training products to the operational force.

b. CATS. CATS are the Army’s overarching strategies for training the force. The basis of the CATS program is a series of proponent-developed unit strategies describing training events, frequencies, and resources required to train to standard. CATS are descriptive unit training strategies that suggest a path for a unit to achieve and sustain training proficiency. As described in chapter 3, CATS provide a means for unit commanders to develop their unit training plans. The CATS identifies the collective tasks to be trained and the supporting resources to train them.
c. WTSP. A WTSP is a complete, stand-alone, exportable training package that integrates all training products, resources, and materials necessary to support operating force training. It meets the broader scope of what the collective training community requires for training events. WTSPs may vary greatly in size and depth of content depending on the events to be trained, training environment, audience, and available training aids. A WTSP provides variable levels of detail for describing a unit training event for use in live, virtual (including gaming), and constructive environments, or any combination thereof. As noted in chapter 4, a WTSP contains the information needed to plan, prepare, execute, and assess an event including the following elements: WTSP identification, overview, tactical materials, control materials, setup materials, evaluation plan, administrative materials, and references.
d. Collective tasks. Collective tasks are clearly defined, observable, and measurable activities or actions that require organized team or unit performance, leading to the accomplishment of a mission or function. Collective task accomplishment requires the performance to standard of supporting individual or collective tasks. A collective task also describes the performance required of a unit under the conditions identified by the training developer to replicate the anticipated operating environment. The output of the development of the collective task is the training and evaluation outlines (T&EOs). These provide summary information concerning collective task training, as well as individual and leader training tasks that support the successful execution of collective training. T&EOs also provide information concerning evaluation standards applicable to a training situation. As described in chapter 5, collective tasks are primarily performed in the operational domain. As such, the emphasis is on unit performance.

e. Drills. A drill is a collective action or task performed without the application of a deliberate decision making process. A drill is initiated on a cue, such as enemy action or a simple leader command, and is a trained response to the given stimulus. A drill requires minimal leader orders to accomplish, is usually performed by lower echelons and battle staffs, and is standard throughout the Army. A drill is used to train one action, one way. Development of drills is explained in chapter 6.

f. Individual tasks. An individual task is a clearly defined, observable, and measurable activity accomplished by an individual. It is the lowest behavioral level in a job or duty that is performed for its own sake. An individual task supports one or more collective tasks or drills and often supports another individual task. As denoted in chapter 7, an individual task must be specific and have a definite beginning and ending. It is generally performed in a relatively short time; however, there may or may not be a specific time limit.
g. STPs. An STP is an Army-wide Doctrine and Training Literature Program (ADTLP) publication that contains critical tasks and other training information used to train Soldiers. STPs serve to standardize individual training for the whole Army; provide information and guidance in conducting individual training in the unit; and aid the Soldier, NCO, officer, and commander in training critical tasks. STPs consist of Soldier's manuals (SMs) and Soldier's manual and trainer's guides (SM-TGs). As noted in chapter 8, STPs are used by unit trainers to train and sustain both leader and Soldier task proficiency.

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