(bSt Louis, 8 Jan 1960). American jazz drummer. He began working in New York clubs in the early 1980s, displaying a funk-jazz style reminiscent of Steve Gadd and Billy Cobham, and also showing the jazz influences of Peter Erskine and Buddy Rich. In 1983 he played for the Simon and Garfunkel reunion tour and then did studio work in New York, demonstrating his abilities in a variety of genres. Notable early recordings were Why not? (King, 1985), with the Latin-jazz pianist Michel Camillo, and Step It (Evidence, 1984) with the fusion guitarist Bill Conners. In 1985 Weckl joined the Chick Corea Elektric Band, which showcased Weckl’s emerging personal style that featured absolute metric precision of complex rhythmic subdivisions, even at the fastest tempos. Weckl also performed with the Chick Corea Akoustic Band, displaying a lighter and less technical side of his style. In the early 1990s he released three solo albums on the GRP label containing his own compositions, which featured heavily sequenced music and extremely complex drumming. After leaving Corea in 1992, he worked again with Camillo, and from 1995 to 1997 he played with the guitarist Mike Stern, recording the album Between the Lines (Atlantic, 1996). During the early 1990s Weckl and other drummers performed with the Buddy Rich Big Band at several concerts and on the album Burnin’ for Buddy (Atlantic, 1994). In the mid-’90s Weckl’s drumming evolved to a more relaxed, flowing style, evidenced by the 1997 album Dave Grusin Presents ‘West Side Story’ (NZK, 1997). In the following year Weckl released Rhythm of the Souls (Stretch, 1998) which featured a loose, New Orleans funk style with more groove and less technical display.
(b Dresden, 1643; d ?Leipzig, 1680). German musician, son of Matthias Weckmann.
(b Niederdorla, nr Mühlhausen, ?1616; d Hamburg, 24 Feb 1674). German composer and organist. His surname appears in almost all autograph documents as Weckman. He probably ranks first among the many carefully trained pupils of Heinrich Schütz who went on to make important contributions to the musical life of Protestant Germany. His relatively few surviving compositions include several exceptionally fine sacred works and impressive sets of chorale variations.
3. The autographs.
Weckmann was probably born in 1616 or even in 1615 (see Ortgies, 1991), but in any case before April 1619. He was the son of Jacobus Weckmann, an erudite clergyman and poet, and Maria Weckmann (née Cyriacus). Because of his musical inclination, evident at an early age, his father brought him (probably in 1627 or 1628) to Heinrich Schütz, director of the Dresden electoral court chapel, who took charge of supervising his musical education. Weckmann also received instruction from other members of the chapel, including Johann Klemm in organ and Caspar Kittel in singing; his rapid progress soon led to his appointment as discantist. When his voice changed, by 1632, he served as one of the court chapel organists. The following year Schütz took him to Hamburg to study at the elector's expense with the noted organist and Sweelinck pupil Jacob Praetorius (ii). Weckmann also spent time with Heinrich Scheidemann, enabling him, in Mattheson's words, ‘to moderate Praetorius's severity with Scheidemann's gentleness’. He returned to the Dresden court in late 1636 or early 1637, but was then sent on a mission to Holstein and Denmark to pick up some musical materials belonging to Schütz. An appointment to the newly founded chapel of the elector's son Johann Georg followed in 1639. During the years 1642–6 he was ‘on loan’ to the Danish royal chapel in Nykøbing, and between 1647 and 1648 he once again travelled to the north, visiting Hamburg and Lübeck, where, in 1648, he married Regina Beute, daughter of a town musician. Franz Tunder, organist at the Marienkirche, served as his best man. In 1649 Weckmann was promoted inspector of the electoral chapel.
Weckmann's last years in Dresden marked the beginning of two significant and long-lasting friendships with fellow composers. In 1649 the singer, composer and theorist Christoph Bernhard joined the chapel; he later followed Weckmann to Hamburg, where the two worked together for many more years. J.J. Froberger met Weckmann when visiting the Dresden court, probably in late 1649 or early 1650 (Rampe, 1991, p.328); they continued to exchange letters and Froberger sent Weckmann some of his music to illustrate his special style (see the discussion of the Hintze MS below).
Weckmann's life entered a new phase when, in 1655, he competed for the vacant organ positions at Hamburg's Jacobikirche and the associated Gertrudenkapelle. After a reportedly spectacular audition he received the appointment, and before long he occupied a central place in both the sacred and secular musical life of the city. In 1660 he founded a collegium musicum which, with the aid of Hamburg's élite, provided weekly concerts in the refectory of the cathedral. Some 50 people, including the town's leading musicians, participated, performing ‘the best things from Venice, Rome, Vienna, Munich, Dresden etc.’. Beginning in 1663, a dark shadow was cast by an outbreak of the plague; among the victims were old Scheidemann and Thomas Selle, Kantor of Hamburg's churches. Weckmann proposed his old Dresden friend Christoph Bernhard as Selle's successor, and the appointment followed shortly after. In 1665 Weckmann's wife died; at some point during the next couple of years Weckmann visited his former patron in Dresden, and in 1669 he married Catharina Roland, with whom he had at least three children. Five years later Weckmann died and was buried, with the ringing of the ‘best’ bells, in the Jacobikirche under the organ that he had played for so many years. At the funeral service Bernhard directed a performance of Weckmann's In te domine speravi. The following year his widow married Hinrich Frese, Weckmann's successor at the Jacobikirche; she lived on until 1702.
The eight children born to Weckmann's first wife included Jacob Weckmann (b Dresden, 1643; d ?Leipzig, 1680). He studied at Wittenberg University and in 1672 was appointed organist at the Thomaskirche, Leipzig. Two works are attributed to him (in D-Bsb 30293): Ein Tag in deinen Vorhöfen and Herr, warum trittst du von ferne (see also Wenn der Herr die Gefangnen zu Zion in the list of works below).
Interest in Weckmann during the early 20th century was motivated at first by the search for a tradition linking Schütz to J.S. Bach. Weckmann, as a major student and follower of Schütz who in turn may have taught or at least had a personal relationship with Buxtehude (as seems probable, although it is not documented), appeared likely to have played a part in this. As the music was made accessible in new editions (and recently also in recordings) and as a number of vexing questions of authorship and text were cleared up, it became evident that the composer was of considerable interest in his own right. Although the surviving works are few in number, they show him as a master of most genres, contributing to each in a uniquely personal manner. Among his compositions are several of impressive originality, richly textured in their sophisticated use of harmony and counterpoint, occasionally quirky but with an expressive intensity matched by few of his contemporaries.
Weckmann's works show a command of a wide range of styles, reflecting the breadth of his training and knowledge of music. From Schütz he learned the Italian tradition of polyphonic writing and expressive text-setting, the legacy of Gabrieli and Monteverdi, and from Praetorius the Sweelinck school of organ-playing and the mastery of intricate, motivically saturated counterpoint. This training was supplemented by his exposure to the works of younger Italian composers performed at the Dresden court and later by the collegium musicum in Hamburg, and by the study of such scores as those of French and German masters obtained from Froberger. Primary evidence of his knowledge of other composers is provided by his many autograph copies of their works (see below).
Some of Weckmann's finest music is contained in the 12 surviving sacred settings for voices and instruments (of another 19 only the titles and, in some cases, the scoring are known; see Ilgner, 1939, p.179 for a list). Unlike many composers of the post-Schütz generation, Weckmann did not incorporate traditional chorales or settings of contemporary poetry, but followed his teacher in choosing most of his texts from the scriptures (except for the Latin hymn settings, Angelicus coeli and Rex virtutum, both 1665). However, rather than treating the successive phrases in madrigalistic segments, he distributed them over extended sections or movements distinct in form, genre and instrumentation, including dense imitative choruses, some resembling instrumental fugues; declamatory settings for one or several voices in the older monodic style or approaching the newer Italian operatic recitative; triple-time arias, several on quasi-ostinato ‘lament’ basses (two such arias, both preceded by recitative, appear in Wie liegt die Stadt); and purely instrumental preludes and interludes (e.g. the battaglia in Weine nicht).
In character Weckmann's sacred settings range from the grand, such as Es erhub sich ein Streit, scored for three choirs (two vocal and one instrumental) and filled with the sounds of battle and triumph, to the intimate: the charming Annunciation dialogue Gegrüsset seyst du, with two flutes accompanying Mary and two violins accompanying the archangel. This last work, from the early 1660s, has interesting references to Monteverdi's Orfeo as well as to Schütz's Christmas Oratorio (Silbiger, 1991). However, among the most memorable of these works are the four preserved in a 1663 autograph, probably written in response to the plague: Wie liegt die Stadt so wüste; Zion spricht; Weine nicht; and Herr, wenn ich nur dich habe. It has been proposed that the first three constitute a cycle, moving from the depth of despair in the opening recitative of Wie liegt to the celebration of heavenly bliss in the extended ‘Amen’ chaconne that concludes Weine nicht.
Closely rivalling these works in consummate craftsmanship and in range of form and expression are the nine sets of chorale variations for organ. The individual verses present, and often amplify, almost every variation technique practised by Weckmann's predecessors, from learned canonic cantus firmus settings (in Es ist das Heil and O lux beata trinitas) to extended echo fantasias (verse 2 of the first setting of Gelobet seist du). Their textures range from thick, six-voice imitative polyphony with double pedal (verse 7 of Es ist das Heil) to effusive soloistic figurations over sustained, sensuous backgrounds (verse 2 of Magnificat secundi toni). Es ist das Heil and O lux beata trinitas stand apart from the other sets for their monumental conceptions; each takes approximately half an hour to perform and the number of verses indicates that they could not have been intended for the usual liturgical alternatim practice. Davidsson (1991, p.14) suggests that they were played at Saturday Vespers, directly after the sermon.
Questions once raised regarding Weckmann's authorship of many of the free keyboard works have largely been resolved, although doubts linger about a few pieces (Silbiger 1985, 1988). Several toccatas are marked by arresting rhetorical gestures, abrupt stops and starts, capricious figurations, startling harmonies and stretched-out sequences, creating the effect, even more than usual with this genre, of spontaneous improvisation. The canzonas follow the old tradition of the variation canzona, although some of their lengthy subjects resemble those of later Baroque fugues. The dances, all in minor keys, are miniatures that present Weckmann at his most intimate and expressive; their fragmented textures recall Froberger, as does the pervasive mood of brooding melancholy. A lighter tone is set by the ensemble sonatas with their colourful instrumentations, witty motivic play and frequent shifts in character; like all Weckmann's works, they are full of surprises and inventive touches. Even the nine simple songs on occasional texts for weddings and other ceremonies frequently depart from the conventional.
3. The autographs.
The large number of surviving autographs containing Weckmann's own compositions and works by other composers form a particularly interesting set of documents, not only because they transmit unique copies of many pieces in generally accurate texts and show the wide-ranging repertory in which the composer evidently took an interest, but also for the many annotations he added in the scores and the margins. The annotations to works by others comment (in one case rather scathingly) on the piece, point to contrapuntal irregularities, report changes to the original notation or note the publication from which the copy was made. In the annotations to his own works Weckmann drew attention to unusual dissonances (presumably to confirm that these were intended and not mistakes) and occasionally provided performance instructions, as in Wie liegt die Stadt, where he asks that the soprano and bass be positioned at some distance from each other, presumably to enhance the dialogue effect.
A list of confirmed and probable autographs is provided by Ortgies (Nov 1993). The copied repertory includes numerous large-scale choral settings by Italian and German composers including Schütz and Monteverdi (D-Lr KN206, completed c1647; inventory in Silbiger, 1985), secular cantata and opera excerpts by Carissimi and Cesti (KN145, after c1661; inventory in Lassell, 1991), organ works by Jacob Praetorius, Scheidemann, and Sweelinck (D-CZu Ze1, c1637–44; see Ortgies, 1995) and harpsichord pieces by Chambonnières, Froberger, Kerll and other Frenchmen and Germans (US-NH 21.H59, c1653; in Matthias Weckmann: Sämtliche Freie Orgel- und Clavierwerke, ed. S. Rampe, Kassel, 1991). This last collection, usually known as the Hintze manuscript, evidently includes material Weckmann received from Froberger. The important keyboard anthology Lynar A1 (D-Bsb) is no longer thought to be in Weckmann's hand, although some still believe he could be the composer of a piece therein, Lucidor einss hütt der Schaf, signed ‘MW’. Whether he was responsible for the copy of Sweelinck's Composition Regeln, formerly attributed to him, remains unsettled (although it does appear to have been in his possession); the copy, regarded as lost since World War II, has been rediscovered, and preliminary examination has cast doubt on the attribution. Another question still to be investigated is whether he might be the author of a number of pieces copied in his hand without attribution, in particular some of the organ settings in the Zellerfeld Tablature Ze 1 (see Ortgies, 1995).
Editions: Solokantaten und Chorwerke mit Instrumentalbegleitung, ed. M. Seiffert, DDT, vi (1901/R) [S]Matthias Weckmann: Gesammelte Werke, ed. G. Ilgner, EDM, 2nd ser., Schleswig-Holstein und Hansestädte, iv (1942) [I]Matthias Weckmann: Choralbearbeitungen für Orgel, ed. W. Breig (Kassel, 1979) [B]Matthias Weckmann: Four Sacred Concertos, ed. A. Silbiger, RRMBE, xlvi (1985) [SI]Matthias Weckmann: Sämtliche Freie Orgel- und Clavierwerke, ed. S. Rampe (Kassel, 1991) [R]Matthias Weckmann: A Practical Edition of the Free Organ Works, ed. H. Davidsson (Stockholm, 1991) [D]
Angelicus coeli chorus, S, B, 2 vn, bc, MS dated 1665; ed.in S
Der Tod ist verschlungen, S, T, B, 2 vn, va da gamba, bc; ed. in S
Es erhub sich ein Streit, 5/4vv, 2 vn, 3 trbn, bc; ed. in S
Dialogus: Gegrüsset seyst du, S, T, 2 vn, 2 fl, MS dated 1664; ed. in S
Herr, wenn ich nur dich habe, A, T, B, 2 vn, 3 va da gamba, bc, MS dated 1663; ed. in SI
Ich habe dich einem kleinen Augenblick verlassen, B, 2 vn, bc, MS dated 1662, Freiburg, Altertumsverein, only bc part extant
Kommet her zu mir alle, B, 2 vn, 2 va da gamba, bc, MS dated 1664; ed. in S, SI
Rex virtutum, B, 2 vn, bc, MS dated 1665; ed. in S
Weine nicht, es hat überwunden, A, T, B, 3 vn, 3 va da gamba, bc, MS dated 1663; ed. in S, I
Wenn der Herr die Gefangnen zu Zion erlösen wird, S, A, T, B, 2 vn, 2 va da gamba, bc; ed. in S and in Organum, 1st ser., ii (Leipzig, 1924), incorrectly attrib. J. Weckmann
Wie liegt die Stadt so wüste, S, B, 2 vn, 3 va da gamba, bc, MS dated 1663; ed. in SI
Dialogo von Tobia undt Raguel: Wo willen wir einkehren, A, T, B, 2 vn, bc, MS dated 1665; ed. in Organum, 1st ser., xxi (Leipzig, 1930), incorrectly attrib. J. Rosenmüller
Zion spricht, der Herr hat mich verlassen, A, T, B, 2 vn, 3 va da gamba, bc, MS dated 1663; ed. in SI
9 songs (P. von Zesen): 2 in 16687, 2 in 16688, 5 in 16706; all ed. in I
Lost: In te Domine speravi, perf. at Weckmann's funeral; 15 works with Lat. and Ger. texts, listed in Seiffert (1907–8)
Canzonen, 2 vn, bn, bc (Freiberg, 1650–51), lost
8 sonatas a 4, cornettino, vn, trbn/va, bn/bombardo, bc; ed. in I
2 sonatas a 3, cornettino/vn, bn/va da gamba, bc; ed. in I
Sonata a 4, cornettino, vn, trbn, bn, bc, inc.; ed. in I
9 chorale variation cycles: Ach wir arme Sünder; Es ist das Heil uns kommen her; Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ (2 cycles); Gott sei gelobet und gebenedeiet; Komm Heilger Geist Herre Gott; Nun freuet euch lieben Christen Gemein; Magnificat secundi toni; O lux beata trinitas; all ed. in B
5 canzonas (C, c, d, C, G); Fantasia (d); Fuga (d); Preambulum primi toni (d); Toccata vel praeludium (d); 5 toccatas (d, e, e, a, C); all ed. in D, R
6 partitas (5 dance suites, d, c, b, e, a; variations on Die liebliche Blicke); ed. in R
Doubtful: Variations on Lucidor einss hütt der Schaf, ed. in R; Praeludium a 5(G), ed. in D
Canon sine fine a 3, in album of Georg Neumark; facs. in Schieckel (1983), 606
M.Seiffert: ‘Matthias Weckmann und das Collegium musicum in Hamburg’, SIMG, ii (1900–01), 76–132
M.Seiffert: ‘Die Chorbibliotek der St. Michaelis-Schule in Lüneburg zu Seb. Bach's Zeit’, SIMG, ix (1907–8), 593–621, esp. 616
L.Krüger: ‘Johann Kortkamps Organistenchronik, eine Quelle zur hamburgische Musikgeschichte des 17. Jahrhunderts’, Zeitschrift des Vereins für Hamburgische Geschichte, xxxiii (1933), 188–213
G.Ilgner: Matthias Weckmann, ca.1619–1674: sein Leben und seine Werke (Wolfenbüttel and Berlin, 1939)
F.Krummacher: ‘Zur Quellenlage von Matthias Weckmanns geistlichen Vokalwerken’, Gemeinde Gottes in dieser Welt: Festgabe für Friedrich-Wilhelm Krummacher, ed. F. Bartsch and W. Rautenberg (Berlin, 1961), 188–218
A.Edler: Der nordelbische Organist: Studien zu Sozialstatus, Funktion und Kompositorischer Produktion eines Musikerberufes von der Reformation bis zu 20. Jahrhundert (Kiel, 1982)
H.Schieckel: ‘Musikerhandschriften des 16.–18. Jahrhunderts in einer neu erworbener Stammbuch-Sammlung des Niedersächsischen Staatsarchives in Oldenburg’, Genealogie, xvi (1983), 606, 646
F.Krummacher: ‘Spätwerk und Moderne: über Schütz und seine Schüler’, Heinrich Schütz und die Musik in Dänemark: Copenhagen 1985, 155–75
A.Silbiger: ‘The Autographs of Matthias Weckmann: a Reevaluation’, ibid., 117–44
A.Silbiger: Preface to SCKM, ix (1988)
C.Defant: Instrumentale Sonderformen in Norddeutschland: eine Studie zu den Auswirkungen eines Theologenstreites auf Werke der Organisten Weckmann, Reincken und Buxtehude (Frankfurt, 1990)
H.Davidsson: Matthias Weckmann: the Interpretation of his Organ Music, i (Stockholm, 1991)
S.Rampe: ‘Matthias Weckmann und Johann Jacob Froberger: Neuerkennntnisse zu Biographie und Werk beider Organisten’, Music und Kirche, lxi (1991), 325–32
P.van Dijk: Matthias Weckmann and the Use of the Organ in the Jacobikirche in Hamburg in the Seventeenth Century (Sneek, 1991)
Weckmann Symposium: Göteborg 1991 [incl. I. Ortgies: ‘Neue Erkentnisse zur Biographie Matthias Weckmans’, 1–24; A Silbiger: ‘Monteverdi, Schütz, and Weckmann: the Weight of Tradition’, 123–39; C. Lasell: ‘Italian Cantatas in Lüneburg and Matthias Weckmann's Musical Nachlass’, 159–83]
R.van der Hilst: ‘De halve waarheid van de Urtext: een vergelijking van twee Weckman-bronnen’, Mens en Melodie, xlvii (1992), 146–51
I.Ortgies: ‘Matthias Weckman (1616–1674) und seine Autographe’, Concerto, no.88 (1993), 30–31
I.Ortgies: ‘Die Wolfenbütteler Handschrift Der 128 Psalm a. S. H. J. Br. Ein Autograph Matthias Weckmanns?’, Concerto, no.89 (1993–4), 22–31
H.Schott: ‘Waking the Dead: … on a Neglected North German Master of the Keyboard’, MT, cxxxv (1994), 224–6
I.Ortgies: ‘Ze 1: an Autograph by Matthias Weckman?’, Göteborg International Organ Academy: Goteborg 1994, 155–72