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Operating System

Increasing System Reliability and Availability with Windows 2000



White Paper

Abstract

The Microsoft® Windows® 2000 operating system was designed to address hardware, software, and system management issues that affect reliability and availability. In addition, Microsoft enhanced the development and testing process to ensure that Windows 2000 is a highly dependable operating system.

This paper provides a technical introduction to these improvements, and explains how reliability and availability are further improved in Windows 2000 Advanced Server and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. It also shows how organizations can combine technology, support programs, trained personnel, and best practices to obtain maximum reliability from Windows 2000.

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.

This white paper is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IN THIS DOCUMENT.

Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation.

Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property.

© 2000 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.

Other product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

Microsoft Corporation • One Microsoft Way • Redmond, WA 98052-6399 • USA

11/2000


Contents


Executive Summary 1

Executive Summary 1

Technology 2

How Windows 2000 Advanced Server Increases Availability 2

How Datacenter Server Increases Reliability and Availability 3

Services and Support Programs 3

People and Process 4

Seeing the Results 5

Executive Summary Conclusion 5



Introduction 7

Introduction 7

Building Reliability in Windows 2000 7

Building Reliability in Windows 2000 7

The Windows 2000 Development Process 7



Technology 8

Technology 8

Reliability and Availability Features in the Windows 2000 Server Family 8

Architectural Improvements 9

Windows File Protection 9

Kernel-Mode Write Protection 10

Reducing the Number of Reboot Conditions 10

Improved Tools for Third Parties 11

Service Pack Slipstreaming 11

Reducing recovery time 11

Recovery Console 11

Safe Mode Boot 12

Kill Process Tree 12

Recoverable File System 13

Automatic Restart 13

IIS Reliable Restart 13

Storage Management 13

Improved Diagnostic Tools 14

Kernel-Only Crash Dumps 14

Mini Dumps 15

Faster CHKDSK 15

MSINFO 15

Remote Terminal Services 15



Windows 2000 Advanced Server Availability Features 16

Windows 2000 Advanced Server Availability Features 16

Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) 16

Clustering 16

Network Load Balancing 17

Component Load Balancing 18

Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Reliability and Availability Improvements 19

Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Reliability and Availability Improvements 19

Maximizing Availability: 32 SMP and 4-Node Clustering 19

High Performance with WinSock Direct 20

Managing Critical Resources: The Process Control Tool 20



Services and Support Programs 21

Services and Support Programs 21

Windows Datacenter Program 22

OEM/Microsoft Jointly Staffed Support Queue 22

Hardware Compatibility Test and List 23

Ongoing Testing Requirements 24

Datacenter Planning and Operations 24

Windows Datacenter Program Servers 25

Software Maintenance 26



People and Processes 26

People and Processes 26

Microsoft Operations Framework: Roadmap for Reliability 26

Building on Standardized Best Practices 27

Enterprise Services Frameworks 27

Microsoft Operations Framework Principles 28

The MOF Process Model 28

Investing in Properly Trained or Certified personnel 31

Microsoft Readiness Framework 31

Microsoft Certification 31

Conclusion 32

Conclusion 32

Appendix A: Reduced Reboot Scenarios 32

Appendix A: Reduced Reboot Scenarios 32

File system maintenance 33

Hardware installation and maintenance 33

Networking and communications 33

Memory management 34

Software installation 34

Performance tuning 34

Appendix B: Tools for Third Parties 34

Appendix B: Tools for Third Parties 34

Kernel-Mode Code Development 34

Driver Signing 37

Developing and debugging user-mode code 38



Appendix C: Windows 2000 OS and Memory Protection 38

Appendix C: Windows 2000 OS and Memory Protection 38

Kernel Mode vs. User Mode 39

User Mode 40

Kernel Mode 40

Memory Model 41

For More Information 42

For More Information 42




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