Nuclear Propulsion Neg



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Atmosphere DA – Link


Orion would devastate the ozone layer
Sublette 97 (Carey, former weapon systems analyst, May, [nuclearweaponarchive.org/Nwfaq/Nfaq5.html] AD: 7-9-11, jam)

The high temperatures of the nuclear fireball, followed by rapid expansion and cooling, cause large amounts of nitrogen oxides to form from the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere (very similar to what happens in combustion engines). Each megaton of yield will produce some 5000 tons of nitrogen oxides. The rising fireball of a high kiloton or megaton range warhead will carry these nitric oxides well up into the stratosphere, where they can reach the ozone layer. A series of large atmospheric explosions could significantly deplete the ozone layer. The high yield tests in the fifties and sixties probably did cause significant depletion, but the ozone measurements made at the time were too limited to pick up the expected changes out of natural variations.

Atmosphere DA – Link Magnifiers


Nitrous oxide uniquely destroys the now stable ozone layer
Dean 9 (Cornelia, fellow at the Shorenstein Center at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, Aug 27, [www.nytimes.com/2009/08/28/science/earth/28nox.html] AD: 7-9-11, jam)

They note that the health of the ozone layer has been improving since the adoption of the protocol and that nitrous oxide looms large today as an artificial destroyer of the ozone layer, in part because the emissions of other harmful chemicals have been so sharply reduced. But major chemical targets of the Montreal agreement, chlorofluorocarbons, inhibit the ozone-destroying actions of nitrous oxide, the researchers said. So as their levels fall, the harmful influence of nitrous oxide increases. The Environmental Protection Agency is already contemplating action on nitrous oxide because it is a heat-trapping gas linked to global warming. In April, the agency declared it and five other gases, including carbon dioxide, to be pollutants that endanger public health, making them subject to regulation under the Clean Air Act. In a statement, the agency said Thursday that work on a reporting system for emissions of nitrous oxide and the five gases was under way. John S. Daniel, one of the authors of the new report, said scientists had for some time known of the ozone-depleting potential of nitrous oxide. But, Mr. Daniel said in a telephone news conference, “there is a sort of gap between the scientific understanding and the policy.” The researchers did not make any policy recommendations in light of their finding. “It is not for us to gauge how much risk there is,” said A. R. Ravishankara, who led the work. In any event, he said, at the moment researchers could not say with confidence “how much nitrous oxide comes from where.” “The uncertainties are significant,”


Nitrous oxide devastates the ozone
CCEMR 11 (Climate Change Emergency Medical Response, an environmental advocacy group, May 24, [www.climate-change-emergency-medical-response.org/climate-change-solutions.html] AD: 7-9-11, jam)

NITROUS OXIDE lasts in the atmosphere for over 100 years, and is approximately 300 times more potent a greenhouse gas than CO2. Atmospheric levels of nitrous oxide have risen by more than 15 percent since 1750, and about a third of current N2O emissions are anthropogenic, stemming from synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, the chemical industry, the manure of cattle feedlots, fossil fuel burning, and fugitive emissions from the natural gas industry. Nitrous oxide also causes ozone depletion, and is now considered the single most important ozone-depleting substance.


Atmosphere ! – Warming


The ozone is strong but new damage causes warming
Bornman 10 (Janet F., Director of the International Global Change Institute, [ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/EEAP/eeap-report2010.pdf] AD: 7-9-11, jam)

There are strong interactions between ozone depletion and changes in climate induced by increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs). Ozone depletion affects climate, and climate change affects ozone. The successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol has had a marked effect on climate change. Calculations show that the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) reduced Earth’s warming effect (i.e., radiative forcing) far more than the measures taken under the Kyoto protocol for the reduction of GHGs. The amount of stratospheric ozone can be affected by the increases in the concentration of GHGs, which lead to decreased temperatures in the stratosphere and accelerated circulation patterns, which tend to decrease total ozone in the tropics and increase total ozone at mid and high latitudes. Changes in circulation induced by changes in ozone can also affect patterns of surface wind and rainfall. The Montreal Protocol is working, but it will take several decades for ozone to return to 1980 levels. The concentrations of ozone depleting substances have been decreasing after reaching a peak in the 1990s, and ozone column amounts are no longer decreasing. Midlatitude ozone is expected to return to 1980 levels before mid-century, which is earlier than predicted previously. However, the recovery rate will be slower at high latitudes. Springtime ozone depletion is expected to continue to occur at polar latitudes, especially in Antarctica in the next few decades.
A strong ozone is key to prevent climate change
Bornman 10 (Janet F., Director of the International Global Change Institute, [ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/EEAP/eeap-report2010.pdf] AD: 7-9-11, jam)

UV radiation promotes the breakdown of dead plant material and consequently carbon loss to the atmosphere. Exposure of vegetation and soils to UV radiation may increase in the future at low to mid-latitudes due to reduced cloud cover or more intensive land use. The breakdown of dead plant material through the action of sunlight (photodegradation) is a very important ecosystem process in many environments, especially for those components that decay only very slowly by microbial action.
Ozone depletion causes warming
Rigdon 2 (Justin, student @ WAOL, cites Peter Bunyard, consultant editor for the United Nations Environment Programme review on Industry and the Environment, Spring, [dept.sccd.ctc.edu/libraries/dl/lib180/pf/spr02/Justin_Rigdon_pathfinder.html] AD: 7-9-11, jam)

Bunyard, Peter. “How Ozone-Depletion Increases Global Warming”. The Ecologist. 1999. P. 85. March 1999. The magazine says, “Scientists agree that the depletion of the ozone layer is exacerbating global warming”. The magazine conveys that this is because of an increasing amount of ultraviolet B, which is penetrating earth’s lower atmosphere with ease, causing additional heating which contributes to a rise in global temperatures. The increase in ultraviolet B penetration of the atmosphere has broad implications for phytoplankton, plant life on land and worse, for human wellbeing. The magazine really pushes the message that it is crucial to prevent the production and release of substances (gases mainly) that deplete the ozone layer to ease the catastrophic effects of global warming. I trust this to be a trustworthy source because it came out of a scholarly magazine.


Ozone depletion causes warming – plankton
Revere 5 (Jessica, Communications Director & Analyst @ Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, Oct 12, [www.ips-dc.org/reports/ozone_depletion_global_warming] AD: 7-9-11, jam)

There is also evidence that ozone depletion is masking global warming, because ozone depletion cools the stratosphere even though the earth’s surface temperatures are higher than historic averages. Global warming is predicted to cause rising ocean levels, lower plant productivity, and more frequent and dangerous weather patterns. Ozone depletion may also make it harder to combat global warming, because more UV light penetrates the world’s oceans and destroys plankton. Plankton plays a pivotal role in the ability of oceans to draw carbon dioxide (the primary global warming chemical) from the atmosphere, thereby making oceans (along with rainforests) important “carbon sinks.” Loss of these “sinks” further exacerbates global warming by accelerating the buildup of so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.





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