1. During this man’s reign, the mint worker Felicissimus led a revolt on the Caelian Hill, and this man cemented his power by forcing Quintillus to commit suicide. This figure was a leading general during the defeat of the Goths at the Battle of Naissus, and himself expelled the Juthungi and the Alamanni at the Battles of Placentia and Fano. This man defeated the two men named Tetricus at Catalaunian Plains, as well as Zabdas and Vaballathus at the battles of Immae and Emesa. Responsible for the death of his predecessor, Claudius Gothicus, this man championed the cult of Sol Invictus, and his most famous foe was a wife of Odenathus. For 10 points, identify this Rome emperor from 270 to 275 A.D., who built the last wall around the city and defeated both the Gallic empire and the state of Palmyra under Zenobia.
ANSWER: Aurelian (accept Lucius Domitius Aurelianus)
2. This ruler signed an agreement with American missionary Samuel Wesley and Duke University to build a Methodist college in his country. His regime’s namesake salute was performed by placing your hand over your heart with the palm facing out. Before this man came to power, his supporters assassinated Avni Rustemi, and after this man came to power his supporters assassinated Luigj Gurakuqi [luizh gurakshi]. The “Legality Party” supported this man’s son, Leka. The Fascist Alfredo Guzzoni led a military offensive against this man, whose reforms included forcing his people to adopt western-style family names and banning veils for women. He came to power by overthrowing the leftist government of Archbishop Fan Noli in 1925 and was removed by an Italian invasion in 1939, as the Axis saw his country as a springboard to controlling nearby Yugoslavia. For ten points, name this King of Albania.
ANSWER: King Zog [accept: Ahmed Bey Zogu Mati]
3. During this event, the government commissioned speakers known as “railers” to raise popular support. Layton, Leigh, Aprice, and London were the names of four powerful commissioners charged with carrying out this event and who compiled a document known as the Comperta. Sir Thomas Pope was made head of the Court of Augmentations, a body created to preside over this event, which was authorized by the Suppression Acts. The power of visitation was given to Thomas Cromwell during this event, which sparked the Pilgrimage of Grace and the hanging, drawing and quartering of many abbots. For ten points, name this event in which Henry VIII shut down and seized the namesake buildings home to monks.
ANSWER: Dissolution of the Monasteries [accept: Suppression of the Monasteries until “Supression Act” is said]
4. One side sought the allegiance of Camarina during this event, and locations of this conflict include the Lysimeleian Marshes, the cliffs of Epipolae, and the Great Harbor. Toward the end of this event, one side was attacked while resting at the Assinarus River, and it was sparked by the appeal from Segesta. This event was opposed by the general Hermocrates and the arrival of Demosthenes was negated by the arrival of Gylippus at Himera, and this event was preceded by the mutilation of the hermai the night before. Breaking the Peace of Nicias and lead by Nicias, Lamachus, and Alcibiades, for 10 points, identify this ill-fated attempt to take Syracuse by the Athenians during the Peloponnesian War.
ANSWER: Sicilian Expedition (accept equivalents)
5. A rebellion against this ruler was sparked by the election of the Walloon Jean de Sauvage as President of a local Parliament. This ruler forced the Treaty of Venlo on William the Rich, and the Treaty of Crepy on another rival. He sent the ambassador Ogier de Busbecq to the Ottoman Empire and built the fortress of La Goleta. This ruler won the Battle of Villalar, ending the comuneros uprising. This father of Margaret of Parma, whose generals included Charles of Lannoy, signed the Treaty of Cambrai with France, and defeated Phillip of Hesse at the Battle of Muhlberg, crushing the Schmalkaldic League. For ten points, name this Holy Roman Emperor during the Diet of Worms who marked the height of the Habsburg empire.
ANSWER: Charles V [accept: Charles I]
6. Count Agenor Goluchowski was probably the most notable Polish nobleman to attend this diplomatic meeting. Less-exciting agreements reached at this international meeting include one that created a new state bank and authorized it to issue gold-backed notes with a 40-year term. Prior to this meeting, Maurice Rouvier became Foreign Minister, since he was seen as more open to compromise than Theophile Delcasse. This meeting agreed that a Swiss citizen should be given the title of Inspector-General, which would give him control over officials named amirs and ensure that a certain police force would remain neutral. However, this meeting failed to weaken the Entente Cordial. For ten points, name this international conference that took place in the namesake Spanish city in 1906 and resolved the First Moroccan Crisis.
ANSWER: Algeciras Conference
7. This man inherited his noble titles from his cousin, Rene of Chalon, and this man’s illegitimate son Justinus became a noted admiral. This man initially allied with Admiral William Lord Lumey, who was responsible for the massacre of the Martyrs of Gorcum, though they later became rivals for power. This loser of the Battle of Mookerheyde opposed a series of laws called the “placards”, and for requesting their repeal in front of Margaret of Parma his followers were known as “beggars”. His term in office saw the Act of Abjuration, as well as the Union of Utrecht. When Balthasar Gerard killed this man, it was the first time a European head of state was assassinated with a gun. For ten points, name this Father of the Netherlands, a Calvinist prince who led the rebellion against Phillip II and Spanish rule.
ANSWER: William of Orange [accept: William I; William the Silent; Willem van Oranje; Willem de Zwijger; William of Orange-Nassau; Willem de Oranje-Nassau]
8. Vasily Surikov’s painting Boyarynya Morozova depicts a woman who, with her sister, was imprisoned and starved to death by followers of this man for her opposition to his policies. Opponents of this man included the Filipians, who engaged in self-immolation to protest him, and Paul of Kolomna, whom this man ordered burned. This man was exiled to Ferapontov and stripped of his title after he protested a perceived slight by shutting himself indoors for two years. The Raskolniki opposed his order that three rather than two fingers be used during the sign of the cross. For ten points, name this Patriarch who reformed the Russsian Orthodox church, leading to a schism with the Old Believers. .
9. One minister of this polity set up workinghouses for the poor in which he served his namesake soup, the American Benjamin Thompson, also known as the Count Rumford. During Napoleonic times, this polity was dominated by Count Montgelas. The tenure, pension, and marriage rights of teachers were severely restricted in this polity through the work of the Cultural Minister Karl von Abel. This polity lost its Innviertel region through the Treaty of Teschen, which came after Karl Theodor’s ascension to the throne caused this state’s War of Succession, also called the Potato War. This polity’s most famous king was known for his castle building and was also known as Mad King Ludwig. For ten points, name this German state with capital at Munich.
ANSWER: Bavaria [accept: Bayern]
10. This man supposedly first uttered his future political slogan – “Here I am, here I stay” – at the Battle of Malakoff. Prior to being succeeded by Jules Grevy, this man was forced to appoint Jules Dufaure as Prime Minister after originally having dismissed Jules Simon in favor of the Duc de Broglie, which had sparked the 16 May crisis. As a military officer, this Legitimist failed to prevent the capture of Woerth or relieve the Siege of Metz as commander of southern forces during the Franco-Prussian War, but he was able to storm the Paris Communue at the head of the Versailles troops prior to becoming the first official President of the Third Republic. For defeating Count Franz Gyulai and the Austrian army in Italy, this man earned the title Duke of Magenta. For ten points, name this 19th century French general with an Irish name.
ANSWER: Patrice de MacMahon [accept: Duke of Magenta or Duc de Magenta before mention]
11. An army belonging to this political faction was defeated at the Battle of Montaperti by treachery when their standard-bearer was killed. Giorgio Lampugnino, Teodoro Bossi, and Vitaliano Borromeo were key supporters of this faction during the Ambrosian Republic, but this group was purged from Milan by Francesco Sforza. Cities loyal to this group included Brescia and Genoa, while cities belonging to their rival faction included Siena and Pisa. This faction probably took its name from a Duke of Bavaria who fought the Battle of Weinsberg against Conrad III. Divided into White and Black groups, their battle cry was “Kyrie Eleison” and famous members include Dante. For ten points, name this medieval Italian political faction that supported the Pope against the Holy Roman Emperor, a position that put them in conflict with the Ghibbelines.
12. Notable Linguists who study this tongue include Jacob Hassan. One of the major differences between this language and its relatives is the use of the word “Alhat” to mean Saturday. Major dialects of this language include Tetuani and Haketia, and it can be written using the Solitero script. This language is the liturgical tongue of the Donmeh religious group. During the Ottoman Era, large communities speaking this language could be found in Bosnia and Thessalonica. Major authors in this language include Jacob Culi, who wrote the Me’am Lo’ez, a book of commentary on the Tanakh and Talmud. For ten points, name this language of the Sephardic Jews, which is based on Spanish.
ANSWER: Ladino [accept: Djudezmo; Djudeo-Kasteyano; Spanyolit; accept “Judaeo-Spanish” or “Judaeo-Espanol” until “Spanish”; accept “Sefardi” until “Sephardic”]
13. The founder of this country’s first dynasty won the Battle of the Irpen River, while during the 1930’s this country was ruled by the fascist Iron Wolf Party. This country defeated the Mongols at the Battle of the Blue Waters, while ethnic minorities in this country include the Lipka Tatars. This country’s ruling Gediminid Dynasty included the brothers Algirdas and Kestutius, while the only ruler of this country known as “the great” was Vytautas. One Grand Duke from this country married Queen Jadwiga, leading to the Union of Krewo and the formation of a commonwealth that was victorious at the Battle of Grunwald. For ten points, name this homeland of Jagiello and one-time partner of Poland, a European country with capital at Vilnius.
14. This man reformed the fyrd militia system so that it fought in shifts, allowing for the creation of a standing army without disrupting agriculture. In addition to establishing the burhs system of forts, this man built a secret military base on the swamp island of Athelney. This man’s advisors included Bishop Asser, who wrote an early biography of him. This author of the so-called “doom book” won control of all territory west of Watling Street when he won the Battle of Edington against Guthrum the Old. Apart from translating many religious works into English, he is best known for ending the Danegeld. For ten points, name this King of Wessex, the only English monarch with the epithet “the Great”.
ANSWER: Alfred the Great [accept: Alfred of Wessex]
15. This poem's title comes from a poem which notes " Glad did I live and gladly die/and I laid me down with a will," Robert Louis Stevenson's "Requiem." This poem also notes that certain people were negatively affected by "By fools in old-style hats and coats," who" half the time were soppy-stern" and at other times were "At one another throats." First appearing in its poet's collection High Windows, this poem's advice to the reader includes "Get out as early as you can" and "don't have any kids yourself." The first stanza of this poem describes a group of people who "fill you with the faults they had" and add "some extra, just for you," while "they may not mean to, but they do." For ten points, identify this poem which begins by noting "They fuck you up, your mum and dad," written by the very Angry Young Man, Philip Larkin.
ANSWER: "This be the Verse"
16. This man’s father was condemned at the Council of Ingelheim for seizing the fortress of Laon through extortion. The Council of Mousson was part of this man’s dispute with Pope John XV over the right of Arnulf to be Archbishop of Reims. In coming to power, this ruler was assisted by the previous king’s chancellor, Adalberon, as well as by Gerbert of Aurillac, the future Pope Sylvester II. This father of Robert II and descendant of Robert the Strong was crowned at Noyon, but it was at the Council of Senlis that he won his position by a vote of the nobles. For ten points, name this man who replaced the last Carolingian in 987 and founded his own namesake dynasty of French Kings.
ANSWER: HughCapet [prompt on either “Hugh” or “Capet”]
Bonuses 1. According to legend, this general wore solid gold armor into battle, though it proved worthless against the opposing side’s artillery and elite professional infantry. FTPE,
 Name this Hungarian warrior-bishop, who got his ass kicked by Suleyman the Magnificent at the Battle of Mohacs.
ANSWER: Pal Tomori
 Pal Tomori helped lead the army of this last independent king of Hungary who, like Tomori, was killed at Mohacs. Earlier, he had united the thrones of Hungary and Bohemia.
ANSWER: Louis II
 After the death of Louis II, the title “King of Hungary” was disputed between the Zapolya family and this other family, who ruled a large empire based in Vienna and were notable for their inbreeding.
2. According to Abbo of Fleury, this man’s head was preserved by a tame wolf, and one of the oldest sites of Christian pilgrimage in England is a town named for the fact that this man is buried there. FTPE,
 Name this Anglo-Saxon King of England who died a martyr in 869 and was canonized thereafter.
ANSWER: Saint Edmund Martyr
 Saint Edmund was slain by this Danish army led by Ubbe Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless, which ravaged Christian England in the late 860’s.
ANSWER: Great Heathen Army
 The abbey at Bury Saint Edmunds was restored in 1020 by this Danish King of England, who sought to atone for the sins of his ancestors. This man’s father had invaded England over the St. Brices Day Massacre.
ANSWER: Canute the Great
3. This group was led by such figures as Leo Jogiches and Karl Liebknecht. FTPE,
 Name this group of Socialist revolutionaries active in Germany immediately after World War One.
ANSWER: Spartacus League [accept: Spartacists; Spartakusbund]
 Female supporters of the Spartacist uprising include this Marxist theorist, whose academic work focused on the role of spontaneous grassroots activism in the revolution.
ANSWER: Rosa Luxembourg
 The Spartacists were crushed by this more moderate socialist’s government. He served as both the first chancellor and first President of the Weimar Republic, which he is credited with founding.
ANSWER: Friedrich Ebert 4. Identify the following related to battles won by Gustavus Adolphus FTPE.
 Gustavus Adolphus is most closely associated with this 1631 battle near Leipzig during the Thirty Years War.
ANSWER: Battle of Breitenfeld
 At the Battle of the Lech, the forces of Gustavus Adolphus defeated and killed this general, who commanded the Catholic League during the War.
ANSWER: the Count of Tilly [accept: Johann Tserclaes]
 Prior to fighting in the Thirty Years War, Gustavus Adolphus had invaded Poland, where he made a notable amphibious landing at this city, now a major seaport in Kaliningrad Oblast.
ANSWER: Pilau [accept: Baltiysk]
5. Much like the 2003 Milwaukee Brewers, this city was led by an official known as the Posadnik. FTPE,
 Name this merchant center of northwestern Russia on the Volkhov River that controlled trade along the northern coast of Russia. It was the last independent Russian state conquered by Ivan III.
ANSWER: Veliky Novgorod
 Novgorod’s neighborhood satellite city, this merchant republic on the shores of the Velikaya River was absorbed by Ivan’s son Vasiliy III in 1510.
 During the Time of Troubles, Novgorod was occupied by Sweden, but was returned to Russia by the terms of this 1618 Russo-Swedish treaty that helped end the Time of Troubles. Inter alia, it forced the Russians to open their doors to Swedish merchants.
ANSWER: Treaty of Stolbovo 6. He defeated the usurper Eugenius at the Battle of the Frigid River in 394, and his sons Arcadius and Honorius succeeded him. For 10 points each:
 Identify this emperor of the late 4th century A.D. who reunited the western and eastern sections of the empire and banned all pagan worship.
ANSWER: Theodosius I (accept Theodosius the Great, prompt on “Theodosius”)
 As a part of his outlawing anything pagan, Theodosius put an end to this Greek festival which had been held continuously every four years dating back to 776 B.C.
ANSWER: Olympic Games or Olympics
 During the reign of Honorius, this general essentially held control of the empire. He defeated Alaric the Visigoth at battles such as Pollentia in 402 and Verona in 403.
ANSWER: Flavius Stilicho
7. It was probably the most notable victory ever won by the League of Venice. FTPE,
 Name this 1495 battle where an alliance of northern Italian cities repulsed a French invasion.
ANSWER: Battle of Fornovo
 The Battle of Fornovo was a defeat for this French king, who is famous for invading Italy.
ANSWER: Charles VIII
 The League of Venice, the alliance that had formed against Charles VIII, included not only Venice and Mantua, but also Milan, which was then ruled by this man nicknamed for his dark features.
ANSWER: Ludovico Sforza [accept: Ludovico the Moor]
8. Their leader was Clearchus, and Proxenus joined them in a campaign against the Pisidians. For 10 points each,
 Identify this group of Greek soldiers employed by Cyrus the Younger, who undertook a dangerous journey home following defeat by the general Tissaphernes.
ANSWER: The Ten Thousand mercenaries
 This author chronicled the march of the Ten Thousand mercenaries in his Anabasis. His dialogue on agriculture, the Oeconomicus, is captivating.
 The march of the Ten Thousand occurred following this battle of 401 B.C. The forces of Cyrus the Younger, Clearchus, and Ariaeus fought to a draw against the Persian army of Artaxerxes II.
ANSWER: Battle of Cunaxa 9. FTPE name these counselors of Elizabeth I:
 This ex-husband of Amy Robsart was Elizabeth's favorite in the first years of her reign; later he led English forces battling the Duke of Parma in the Netherlands.
ANSWER: Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (accept either)
 Elizabeth's chief spymaster, he used double agents to break up the Babington plot and was disappointed in the escape of the surviving remnants of the Spanish Armada.
ANSWER: Sir Francis Walsingham
 Elizabeth's last secretary of state was this man, the son of Lord Burghley, who failed to push the Great Contract for financial reform through Parliament in the first years of James I's reign.
ANSWER: Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury 10. Name these explorers FTPE.
 This Venetian who sailed for the English crown became the first non-Viking European to see North America when he discovered Newfoundland.
ANSWER: John Cabot [accept: Giovanni Caboto]
 This Italian discovered New York Harbor while sailing for Francis I of France. Wikipedia describes his death by cannibalism as follows: “He rowed in a little boat to greet the natives. But he found that they were not pleasant natives who wanted to trade”.
ANSWER: Giovanni da Verrazzano
 Amerigo Vespuci was originally second in command on an expedition led by this man, but they got separated and Vespuci ran his own expedition. On his 1509 expedition this man transported both a young Pizzaro and a young Cortes to the New World.
ANSWER: Alonso de Ojeda 11. The Lord Eliot Agreement set down rules of conduct for the two sides in these wars. FTPE,
 Name this series of three civil wars in 19th century Spain, which centered on the right of the namesake price to take the Spanish throne.
ANSWER: Carlist Wars
 The Carlists supported Prince Carlos against this female queen of Spain, who had come to power under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830.
ANSWER: Isabella II
 The Pragmatic Sanction of 1830 was issued by this Bourbon king of Spain, who had earlier been deposed by Napoleon in 1808.
ANSWER: Ferdinand VII 12. It’s time for the obligatory church councils bonus. FTPE,
 First, name this AD 325 church council that condemned the Arian heresy. Bruce Arthur’s favorite clue about it is that St. Nicholas allegedly punched Arius in the face during it.
ANSWER: First Council of Nicea
 Second, name this North African bishop who opposed Arius at Nicea
ANSWER: Athanasius of Alexandria
 Third, name this heresy condemned by the Council of Elphesus, which claims that Christ had two separate natures, one divine and one human, rather than one nature that was both human and divine.
ANSWER: Nestorianism 13. This man’s finance minister, Count von Zizendorf, standardized government accounting procedures. FTPE,
 Name this reformist Holy Roman Emperor who abolished serfdom in 1781, the son of Maria Theresa.
ANSWER: Joseph II
 Joseph II’s reforms offended many nobles throughout the Austrian empire, but they were soothed by his early death, after which this more moderate reformer, Joseph’s brother, came to power. He would be Holy Roman Emperor at the start of the Napoleonic Wars.
ANSWER: Leopold II
 As a military commander, Joseph II was shockingly inept, as demonstrated by this infamous 1788 battle in which the Austrian Army managed to fight and retreat from itself when two parts of the force mistook teach other for Turks.
ANSWER: Battle of Karansebes [accept: Battle of Caransebes; Battle of Sebes Savasi]
14. This meeting place is near Colmar in Alsace. FTPE,
 Name this meeting between Louis the Pious and his sons, which was supposed to be a peace negotiation but turned out to be a trap that resulted in the capture of Louis.
ANSWER: Field of Lies
 At the Field of Lies, Louis was supposed to talk peace with this son of his, who was eventually given the middle part of the Carolingian Empire.
 Lothair was later allied against by Louis the German and Charles the Bald via this 842 agreement. Linguists love it because it is written in two languages: early French and early German.
ANSWER: Oath(s) of Strasbourg 15. Name these consorts of French heads of state FTPE.
 This Italian woman married Henry IV.
ANSWER: Marie de Medici
 Though history shows that marrying a Habsburg is a bad idea, Napoleon married this Austrian Archduchess in 1814 in the hopes of producing an heir that could continue his dynasty. She later became Duchess of Parma.
ANSWER: Marie Louise
 This Italian supermodel is married to current French President Nicholas Sarkozy.
ANSWER: Carla Bruni 16. Jurgen Habermas was notably influenced by this work, which was itself influenced by the work of Wilhelm Dilthey. For ten points each:
 Identify this work which claims that true objectivity is truly unattainable in practice. Its other claims include the amusing one that meaning is creating only through communication.
ANSWER: Truth and Method
 Truth and Method is due to this philosopher, who also wrote The Relevance of the Beautiful and Literature and Philosophy in Dialogue.
ANSWER: Hans-Georg Gadamer
 Gadamer also wrote "Five Hermeneutical Studies" of the "dialectic" of this philosopher, whose own works include The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy and The Phenomenology of Mind.