Airo national research journal



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AIRO NATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL

www.airo.co.in
For Inside India Circulation Only

Editorial Board

Ashutosh Shrivastava MBA, PGDBM, Gwalior MP

Chief Editor

Dr. M.N. Sharma Assistant Professor, AIEER, Hyderabad AP

General Manager

Dr. Dharmendra Mishra Member, AICTE New Delhi

MICS, Editorial

Dr. Gurvishal Sinha Assistant Professor, Management J.P. University, MP

Editorial Member

Dr. Rajeev Chaurasia Assistant Professor, Gwalior Law College, MP

EM, Legal Affairs

Dr. Ashok Kumar Sahu Assistant Professor, Education, Govt. Degree College Kanpur

EM, Educational Affairs

Dr. Bhaskar Chaurasia Assistant Professor, Pharmacy, Apark India, Gwalior MP

Editorial Member

Dr. Sanjeev Shukla Gwalior

Editorial Member

Dr. Maharshi Mudgal Associate Director, AIEER, Gwalior MP

Editorial Member

Dr. Abhilasha Asthana Chemistry

Editorial Member

Dr. Ashok Verma Principal, Govt. PG College, Sendhwa MP

Editorial Member

Dr. Uma Shankar Verma, Assistant Professor, RJIIT, Takenpur, MP

Editorial Member

Dr. Rakesh Chugh

Promotional Analyst

Shri Rama Shankar Shrivastava

Director, Journal Processing



Volume I

DISTINCT STUDY OF THE REQUIREMENT OF EDM (EUCATIONAL DATA MINNING) IN INDIAN SCHOOL EDUCATION SYSTEM

http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gcsr-snqbzcqzdhnumrbt8qrf3gjubue0fivterfdyh9ngxg7j3r

Vikas Singh-Computer Science

Research Scholar EIILM UNIVERSITY, SIKKIM

ABSTRACT

If we talk about the title of the research, the work is being progressed to analyze the execution of EDM in Indian School Education system. Some major schools from particular states of India will be comprised for the analytical study. Data mining, a relatively young and interdisciplinary field of computer science, is the process of extracting patterns from large data sets by combining methods from artificial intelligence with database management and statistics.

DEFINITION

The EDM Educational Data Mining (called EDM) is an up-and-coming regulation, concerned with developing methods for exploring the unique types of data that come from educational settings, and using those methods to better understand students, and the settings which they learn in.



REVIEW

In the early time of DATA MINNING some research have already been done, but the recent problem is to find the solution of removal or shifting of and preservation, and collection of data with the adoption of new techniques as a device or equipment so that it could be easy to use and transfer. As the data mining technology is growing day by day and its users are also increasing in an ascending way.

The execution on EDM in the previous time


  1. EDM Implementation techniques by Dr A. Sanghavai

  2. Conference Review of EDM 2008 by Dr. G.N. Sharma

  3. EDM future aspects by Dr. J.S. Shrivastava

  4. Sonjorum EDM overview by Dr. O.P. Shrivastava

  5. Emperor EDM : Technical Sys. By Dr. R.K. Chugh

STATISTICS

91% - 2001

89%- 2006

89%- 2008

99%- 2011

98%-2012


77% - 2001-2005

89%- 2006-2007

89%- 2008-2010

99%- 2011-2012


Blue Figure

91% - 2001

89%- 2006

89%- 2008

99%- 2011

98%-2012

Green Figure

77% - 2001-2005

89%- 2006-2007

89%- 2008-2010

99%- 2011-2012

Red Figure- Difference

3.7% Negligible


METHODOLOGY

Research may have different phases. First phase will explain the introductory part where definition and implementation of data mining and EDM and uses will be explained. The area of work, connectivity, storage, fetching, and its essentiality will also be explained. The need of EDM and its advancement will be illustrated with the comparative theory previous implementation techniques.

The advantages as well as drawbacks some aspects of EDM will be illustrated with the help of survey database. With some mathematical analysis, graph and scale diagrams the theory of implementation, drawbacks, limitations, and conclusions will be explained. As the motto of the research is to find the advance options of EDM and the more implementation of it, the suggestions will be given for the adoption of present procedure. With the help of previous research work some data will be taken to know the techniques, conclusions, and suggestion, and with all, the advance suggestions will be illustrated.

The collection of data in the thesis will represent the current scenario of EDM in India.

Systematic use of EDM and suggestive policies for some authorities, for the welfare of education system in India and establishment of new technology will be given in the suggestion and conclusion part.

Reference table will clear the sources of database so that in future the thesis contents can easily be connected and matched well and the some more knowledge can be gained through complete data of previous research.



FINDINGS

On the basis of such research, there may be a kind of revolution in almost all corners of education which may move towards of safe use of data preservation and transferring from the users.

Many new researchers will take place on the basis of current database used in the thesis.

The governments of different countries may take some steps for the safe process of data mining in education sector, which may be boon for future education system.

In future there may be a policy by some educational authorities, with which a sharing system of network will start.

Suggestion and conclusion part will give the real picture to be the reason of new discoveries and inventions, and it may be possible that some devises will have some advance techniques and new safe versions of equipments be lunched.

It can never be denied that the fetching of data in education system of India will be increased and the onset of new procedure will definitely take place.

Step by step clearance of research will give the suggestive theory to the new researcher, and who are concerned with the technology and implementation of data mining.

Mathematical analysis of companies, users, health parameters, current technology, optional technology, and new device technology will help in making new works in the concerned field.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


  1. General theory of EDM by A.N. Shekhawat 2007

  2. EDM Implementation techniques by Dr D.K. Chugh

  3. Conference Review of EDM 2008 by Dr. J. Thomson

  4. EDM future aspects by Dr. P.S. Bhadauriya

  5. Sonjorum EDM overview by Dr. G.S. Ghosh

  6. Emperor EDM : Technical Sys. By Dr. J.K. Shrivastava

J.J. Bhagat Review on Data Mining 2007

Eighty Twenty Analysis EDM 2008

 R. Baker, K. Yacef (2010). "The State of Educational Data Mining in 2009: A Review and Future Visions". Journal of Educational Data Mining, Volume 1, Issue 1 1: 3– 17.

*******


ANALYTICAL STUDY OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS IN FOUR LANE HIGHWAYS OF INDIA

DINESH JHARIA

Research Scholar Mathematics: Jodhpur National University

ABSTRACT

The research is being progressed to get the enhancement of trigonometric functions for four lane highways. As in Indian civil industry the constructions of four lane highway has become almost essential not only for national highways but also for inside city road constructions. The use of trigonometry in civil work has been traditional but as far as road constructions are concerned the innovative way of using techniques of trigonometry is quite new. In this research with some instances of previous roads construction have been taken and explained to implement more uses of Trigonometric functions.


INTRODUCTION

Wherever the work of height and distance reaches on the mathematical analysis of civil engineering, there is somewhere the involvement of Trigonometry. When we discuss about the trigonometric contents which are the familiar trigonometric functions sine, cosine, and tangent we pictures the standard unit circle with radius 1, where a triangle is formed by a ray originating at the origin and making some angle with the x-axis, the sine of the angle gives the length of the y-component (rise) of the triangle, the cosine gives the length of the x-component (run), and the tangent function gives the slope (y-component divided by the x-component). More precise definitions are detailed below. Trigonometric functions are commonly defined as ratios of two sides of a right triangle containing the angle, and can equivalently be defined as the lengths of various line segments from a unit circle.


BACKGROUND

For explaining the use and implementation of trigonometric functions, many research have already been done in the previous history. Construction and Application of Wavelets in Numerical Analysis, Engineering - Suspension bridges use trigonometry functions to stay afloat, are some concerned research. Degradation study of rehabilitated RC bridge by means of non-Destructive evaluation methods, Technology strategy and competitive performance : A study of bridge constructionPhD thesis, Standford University, Innovative Solutions in Bridge Construction, are the works where the use of mathematics in the construction of civil has been well defined. The contents and examples of previous work will be the helping agent in the current and future related work.


OBJECTIVES



  1. To fetch the database for the use of trigonometric functions in future civil works

  2. To discover future techniques of trigonometry for innovative ways of road constructions

  3. To prepare the tools for future research and references.

  4. To use the previous techniques of trigonometric function for brining better outputs

  5. To sketch the diagrammatic presentation for future work

  6. To find the new techniques of sketching 4 lane roads for its constructions

  7. To enhance the advance way of constructing 4 lane roads.



NEED & SCOPE
For long back in civil engineering many techniques are being used as per the previous pattern. For saving time and giving the better methodology, the research is being designed to implement more reliable and result oriented techniques. As per the database of previous research work, it has been found out that, while constructing the 4 lane roads on highway or in city the methods is quite orthodox and to fetch some innovative techniques the importance of current work is essential.
As the current work has taken many inspirations through previous work, similarly the current techniques will be useful for future work.

Many coming works may take references through the current work for the advancement of techniques, used in four lane road constructions.



PROCEDURE

In the onset of the research first of all the introduction will be given which will comprise the definition, current problems, and traditional way of using techniques in 4 lane construction of roads. The trigonometric functions and its uses in construction work of roads will be explained and the methodology of using some techniques of trigonometry for future work will also be discussed.


In different chapters the current problems and its solution will be mentioned. With some mathematical analysis and statistics many current techniques will be explained. Histogram, Scalar-diagram, and with some survey tables the comparison and amendments will be mentioned
In the final chapters the conclusive and suggestive theory of the research will be presented
FINDINGS & CONCLUSION
Some trigonometric functions, explained in the current work will be principles in the sector of construction and also be used for many new models of roads.

The reference material will not only be used in the private sectors but also in government sectors the same pattern will also be implemented.


Many reference books will have the contents from the current research and some revolutionary steps will be taken in construction methodology, which has not been used before. For making any advance work on the concerned topics, many parts of the work will be very useful for future researchers or who are involved in the construction or civil sector.

The new techniques may give better output concerned with time and money factors



BIBLIOGRAPHY
Review Mathematics 2007, Volume II

Dr. C.P.Gupta : Intelligence theory on construction techniques

Survey report, AIEER, Gwalior 2007

Survey report, AIEER, Gwalior 2008

Dr. M.N. Gupta : Trigonometry in Civil 2009

Dr. C.V. Raman : Mathematical Analysis theory on Trigonometry

Research analysis report : 2006

Review on Trigonometry : Current Status in Civil Sector

www. Wickeypedia.com

wickey definitions

www. Google.com

www. Mathseu/trigono/

Dr. VP Saxena : Trigonometric equations

Ashish Sharma : Review Survey on Roads.

*******

PHYSICAL FACILITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS AFFECTS CAREER OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDENTS

By: Rashmi Bhadauria, Research Scholar Education, Jiwaji University Gwalior MP



ABSTRACT

For the welfare of health & educational achievement of higher secondary school children, this research comprises the effect on children due to the physical facilities available in the school. The big role of infrastructure, atmosphere and all the physical facilities will be described to understand the reasons and the solution for the betterment of higher secondary school children. In an individual survey researcher got the way of thinking of many students and their parents for the selection of school. But it was found the all are preferably choosing the standard of teaching, previous results of school, and other academic achievements of a school. Some other problem, which a student faces in his school, is not told to anyone because of a tradition of common and speechless problem for him, as others are tolerating.


INTRODUCTION

Apart from the teaching standards in a school this research attending the major factor of physical facilities, which sometimes play a very important role for whole career of a student. Unavoidable, Reasonable, and acceptable matter and conclusion of this research will revolutionary change the way of continuing study for students and their parents or guardians. Higher Secondary Schools Gwalior including rural urban areas is the main research area, where the description of physical facilities and all atmosphere and effect on education of students is discussed. Research is getting involved, many physical facilities such as Infrastructure, Ventilation, Water, Light, Furniture, and Maintenance too.



REVIEW OF LITERATURE

On the current subject no such objectives have been done so far but, on below Ph.D. level many research related to the school facilities have been done. But the question of career objectives has never been discussed. In one off college research of Priya Dixit of Indore declares the unavailability of infrastructure in schools but the effects and affects on student were not comprised. At Gwalior university no research have been submitted from any individual or any education college. But on the review report the matter has been appreciated through many professors and students of education. Survey will comprise the higher secondary ten-ten schools of urban and rural areas of Gwalior Madhya Pradesh. The visiting reports, interview reports, results of higher secondary schools, and infrastructural report of higher secondary schools of Gwalior will be usually merged in the complete research.

In the first phase of survey the discussion of problems of students and currently available physical facilities of higher secondary schools of Gwalior will be considered, where direct interview reports of students and their parents, teachers and principals view report will be explained. Report of direct visit in rural and urban higher secondary schools will be detailed in the thesis. With the help of directories or business yellow pages or educational magazines the addresses of higher secondary schools of Gwalior will be taken and one by one the main schools will be visited by researcher and its associates.

All the survey reports of students, parents, teachers and principals and owners of higher secondary schools, done by the researcher will be taken as main tools of the study.

For this research survey reports are obviously the main tool, as through this process the data base related to the current physical facility and problems of students can be collected. Direct visit in the schools is also a part of finding solution, amendments, and conclusions of the research.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research’s onset will have the discussion of physical facilities for the students, available in the higher secondary school. All aspects related to the education of students will be discussed, which is affected by the physical facilities for the health and educational achievements. The research will explain the problems, which students face commonly in higher secondary school due to lack of physical facilities. The problems of infrastructure, water and light facilities, gardens and fields of schools, sports equipments, sitting arrangement, black board, material used for teaching, ventilation, and other physical facilities will be discussed in the initial part of the thesis. The data base of selected higher secondary schools of Gwalior including urban and rural will be mentioned with the details of current physical facilities of higher secondary school. The weakness of such physical facilities will be explained for giving the improvement or change in that through the research work. Step by Step the current weak physical facilities will be explained and the way and tools of improvement will also be declaimed. The survey, visiting, and interview reports of students, parents, teachers, principals, or owners of the schools will be enlighten to understand the problems and health effects and educational achievements of the students. The outlooks of students and teachers and parents will be matched and the conclusion from different educationalists and educational advisors will be comprised. All the reports will be helpful to get the solution and improvement of physical facilities for the betterment of education system. Apart from the standards of teaching the main focus will be on the result of the students and their health, which is mainly affected in the school atmosphere due to the available physical facilities. The comparison between the selected International or branded and the higher secondary schools of Gwalior, will be shown to learn the way of fixing best infrastructure and other physical facilities. The result and health chart of foreign and other private branded schools will be explained through the research process to obtain the procedure of smooth running of whole study in a school. Merging all the survey reports, interview reports and articles research will elaborate the actual condition of schools where physical facilities are not upto the level and affecting the educational achievements and health of the student. All methods of removing the problems occurred in higher secondary schools will explained in the research work. The process of collecting new physical facilities by amending the available equipments, and arranging through some sources will be detailed. The process of recruiting staff for managing physical facilities of school will be mentioned and the working process will also be elaborated.



SCOPE OF STUDY

On the basis of this research many secondary school will come to know about the physical facilities of their schools, which is affecting the career objectives of the students. There may be the revolution in every school to emphasize the maintenance or provision of new equipments or infrastructure.

Even for guardians the question of physical facility will be the priority to admit their students in the school. Even many novice schools will adopt the culture of maintenance and proper infrastructure in their premises. The research will be more useful for the government schools and even many colleges may take lesson from the major points of research report. For the coming researcher this research will work as a tool agent to collect the data and the methodology for further advancement. The thinking of teachers, students and guardian will definitely be changed for some major questions, arose in the thesis. And even solutions and conclusion part will be very much effective for most of the schools, where deficiency is found in many corners of physical facilities and proper infrastructure for the students.

NEED OF STUDY

The research is very much needful for the schools, where the awareness of proper infrastructure and physical facilities for the students is not there. The schools and student would feel the need of proper physical facilities for their current school or where they want to get admitted. As the matter is so important because career objectives are affecting then many new research will be the better instance of current report. In the conclusion of the research it will be explained how a school can manage and avail the physical facilities. How a student can get a hygienic atmosphere in a school? How a student can improve his study level by taking better physical facilities? What type of precautions should be taken by a student and school management to improve and manage the available physical facilities? To make learning process better in a higher secondary school physical facilities also play an important role, To improve all aspects of physical facilities for providing good health and educational achievement through this research many contents will explain the improvisation of current sitting arrangement of students, the distance matter between the teacher and students in the class, the proper light in class room, the hygienic water supply for drinking and washing too, to maintain the gardens and fields of school, where students are always spend time in their interval and sports period, to maximize the reasons attending classes as per the schedule of the school, to maintain the cleanliness and healthy atmosphere in the whole premises of the school through many equipments. The major part of the research is to create a competition in District, State and National level higher secondary schools for providing the best physical facilities.



OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this research is to create awareness in the students and parents to concentrate not only on the standard of teaching and other academic facility of a school but also on the physical facilities available in the school, which affect the health of students and their educational achievements. Many students and their parents are unable to see this most important factor of education system. Avoiding the physical facilities of a school definitely affects the student health and due to this many irregularities and level of study get decreased. This research will definitely activate the thinking of students and their parents to ensure the availability of proper infrastructure, ventilation, water, light and other unavoidable physical facilities in a school. To create a competition of providing better physical facility for the higher secondary students for the betterment of students’ health and education on District State and National level is the main objective of this research.



HYPOTHESIS

Research will create awareness in the students and their parents thinking for the selection of schools on the physical facilities first, apart from the teaching standards. All the higher secondary schools will get knowledge and from this research and will make many changes their physical facilities such as infrastructure, water and light etc. Every higher secondary school will make a department for the maintenance and fulfillment of physical facilities which is strictly required for the students. An exclusive staff will be recruited for taking attention on the health of students which may be affected due to physical facilities. The whole infrastructure which is needed will be totally changed or reconstructed for attending each and every student of school. Students who will pass out the 12th class examination will also be having good health and positive view with standard education. Like others student will not have the problems of back bone pain, weak eye vision, heavy head, pain in legs and hands, and other health related problems, which is occurred due to worse physical facility available in the schools. When all the corners of physical facilities will be changed or amended in the schools, it will definitely change the view of a student for attending classes and way of study with his interest. The students who are always habitual of making absent in the schools will be attracted by the new infrastructure, water and light facilities. When proper light, ventilation, Hygienic drinking water, clean class rooms, sitting arrangement will be available in the school, all students would like to join school daily and it will affect their studies, because daily attention in the class will increase their rank. In the availability of clean equipments of sports and labs will enchant students to participate in all activities. And finally the competition of giving perfect physical facilities will arise not only in Gwalior but also on state and then national level.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reports of Direct Interviews of higher secondary students of Gwalior 2009, 2009

Reports of Direct Interviews higher secondary students’ Parents/Guardians of Gwalior, 2006, 2008

Education welfare Volume II R.K. Dixit Education 21st century.

Reports of Direct Interviews of teachers and principals of higher secondary schools of Gwalior 2008.

Visiting report of Central Schools of MP 2009,

Visiting report of LAHS Gwalior 2009,

Visiting report of CGHSS Gwalior 2010

.Visiting report of Private schools of Madhya Pradesh 2009, 2010.

BSNL Directory 2009. Web portals: indiaedu.com, justdial.com, education.nic.in, www.rainrays.com/topic/school_in_gwalior_list, 2010.


*****

Introduction & Objectives of e-governance and its conclusion

Submitted by: Varun Joshi, Ph.D. Management, Research Scholar CMJ University Feb.2013 (National Publication)

1. INTRODUCTION

Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-citizen (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.

In today’s IT environment, e-governance has become the essential part of a citizen’s communication channel. Hence as citizens, they want to interact with the government through this channel thereby saving their time and the cost for availing governance services. This demand forced the government to transact different citizen centric services online through implementation of e-governance system.

Since last decade, Government of Odisha automated many citizen centric services to e-Governance services. Many national level and state level e-Governance services which include G2G and G2C were implemented with the help of National e-Governance Division and National Informatics Centre. There is a need to study the significance of these services for effective communication to citizens in Odisha state.


2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are as follows:



  1. To find the available citizen centric e-governance services in Odisha.

  2. To observe the impact of e-governance services availed by citizens.

  3. To do the comparative study of e-governance services versus manual services with respect to cost of availing, ease of access, scope and transparency.

  4. To study the efficiency level of government organizations after converting the manual services into the e-governance services.

3. CONCLUSION

The expected outcome of this study is mentioned below:



  1. Awareness of citizens about e-governance services is very high.

  2. The services provided in the e-governance system are user friendly.

  3. Citizens of Odisha are giving priority to avail e-governance services instead of manual services.

  4. The cost of availing e-governance services is comparatively less to the manual services.

  5. E-governance services are more transparent than manual services.

  6. Government organizations reduced their cost and time to provide services to citizens after converting the manual services into the e-governance services.



  1. LIMITATION

There are the following limitations under this study:

  1. Due to limitation of time in obtaining data from general public, the study will be restricted to e-governance services in Odisha state only.

  2. Common services implemented in all over Odisha have been considered for research purpose. The district level services were not taken into consideration.

  3. Employees who dealt with all e-governance services in district level have been considered for survey purpose instead of all root level employees.

5. DELIMITATION

  1. The study can be expanded to e-governance services implemented in all other states in India.

  2. Including with government-to-citizen services, the study can be delimited to government-to-government and government-to-business e-governance services.

8. REFERENCES:

[1] Das, Rama Krushna ; Patnaik, Sujata ; Padhy, Arati Kumari ; Mohini, Chinmaya "Service Oriented Layered Approach for E-Governance System Implementation" 2014 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT), 2014 , Page(s): 293 – 298

[2] Bannister, Frank ; Connolly, Regina "New Problems for Old? Defining e-Governance", 44th Hawaii International Conference onSystem Sciences (HICSS), 2011, Page(s): 1 – 10

[3] Singh, A. ; Goyal, D.P. ; Sharma, S. "Knowledge Management and E-governance: A Case Study of E-kiosk in India", 2012 Seventh International Conference on Knowledge, Information and Creativity Support Systems (KICSS), 2012 , Page(s):



-())-
A SUGGESTIVE THEORY ON CURRENT STATUS AND OPTIONAL FUTURE TECHNIQUES OF MOBILE TOWERS

Electronics and Communication

ROHIT SINGH

RESEARCH SCHOLAR CMJ UNIVERSITY



ABSTRACT

The research is being progressed to widely explain the current status of mobile towers and future techniques of their standing. There is a worldwide problem of space occupancy in the dense areas of city, town or village. The research is completely emphasizing the future ways of their standing or other options to occupy less space or other techniques.

The general problem of occupying space is very common to all. For the better network the mobile towers are erected in such a way to achieve heights and big volume in urban areas.

Working of towers for mobile network is worldwide and it has become essential to find some techniques for their advancement so that their size and space taking should be decreased. In the area of high population it is quite harmful in many aspects.



INTRODUCTION

These days no city of any country is escaped from the establishment of towers. On high complexes buildings and even on houses the companies are erecting towers.

All companies are having a cell site where the mobile towers are erected.

A cell site is a term used to describe a site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed on a radio mast or tower to create a cell in a cellular network. A cell site is composed of a tower or other elevated structure for mounting antennas, and one or more sets of transmitter/ receivers transceivers, digital signal processors, control electronics, a GPS receiver for timing (for CDMA2000/IS-95 or GSM systems), regular and backup electrical power sources, and sheltering.

A synonym for "cell site" is "cell tower", although many cell site antennas are mounted on buildings rather than as towers. In GSM networks, the technically correct term is Base Transceiver Station (BTS), and colloquial British English synonyms are "mobile phone mast" or "base station". The term "base station site" might better reflect the increasing co-location of multiple mobile operators, and therefore multiple base stations, at a single site.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In the history of mobile techniques many research have already been done, but the current problem is to find the solution of removal or shifting of mobile towers or to adopt any new techniques as a device or equipment so that it could not affect health of human being. As the mobile technology is growing day by day and its users are also increasing in an ascending way, there it is quite unacceptable to ban the use of mobile. As per the previous research there is only a matter of the growth and development of techniques used in mobile or its network.

Mobile Multimedia Systems Paul J.M. Havinga Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, February 2000 SCANNING HALL PROBE MICROSCOPY OF MAGNETIC VORTICES IN VERY UNDERDOPED YTTRIUM-BARIUM-COPPER-OXIDE

Janice Wynn Guikema 2004

PhD Thesis Abstract: Superimposed Radio Signals for Wireless Sensor Networks

Albert Krohn Telecooperation Office (TecO) Universit¨at Karlsruhe Dr. Magda Havas research publication are the several works on mobile and mobile radiations.


OBJECTIVES

To achieve the information about the future option of tower erection in populated areas

To introduce the future techniques of mobile tower

To enhance the health protection system , where tower radiations are affecting health

To spread the knowledge the mobile phone and tower radiation and health

To state the real status of health due to mobile tower

To collect the optional current techniques for the saving of space and avoiding it from populated areas.

To identify the other electronics devices to avoid tower system in density area

To introduce the sharing system for different companies using same technology for their cells.

To force the government policy to make some strict rules on companies for the erection of tower in populated area.

To resemble the techniques with another advance version

To give the conclusion in favor of future optional techniques of mobile tower erection



NEED OF STUDY

As we have been observing from a decade that the establishment of erection of mobile tower is improving day by day and there has also been a situation of dilemma, whether the radiations from these towers are effecting on human health or not. Therefore now it has become a compulsion to know the current actual status, and find some techniques for the betterment of human health and technology too.

It seems to be a collision of many networks on seeing the number of towers in dense areas of a city, or town. In any aspect there must be a harm to the society with these towers and their current techniques used by cellular companies. As due to disturb network, and jam network we suffer many problems then what would be the solution. Will we be enduring the technology, which we never want for some reasons, or any new technology must be adopted? What are those technologies? What are the options? What would be the new techniques? What would be the future criteria for the erection of towers? Will there be another option of tower? Will the cellular companies be spreading many diseases, because of mobile network comes from the towers, or cell site?
SCOPE OF STUDY

Options of new advance research and future inventions and discoveries will take place

There would be spreading of awareness in the people about the effects and affects of mobile tower radiations. The new options and alternatives for the constant techniques will come out

The current working procedure of many companies will be changed.

As the erection of towers and use of mobile has been increasing day by day but it cannot be decreased therefore people will invite and welcome the new techniques and the main thing is that people and companies will find the way of escaping from the harms of mobile towers and there may be any new option of mobile towers with some new technologies of electronics and communication. As far as health measurements are concerned many factors will be discussed in the research, which may a learning agents in finding remedies against the harms of cell sites and its network.

HYPOTHESIS

On the basis of such research, there may be a kind of revolution in almost all part of the world which may move towards of safe use of mobile and safe networking system from the companies. Many new researches will take place on the basis of current database used in the thesis. The governments of different countries may take any step for the safe establishment of cell sites and cell towers, which may not be harmful for public. In future there may be a policy by some governments, with which a sharing system of network will start. Suggestion and conclusion part will give the real picture to be the reason of new discoveries and inventions, and it may be possible that some devises will have some advance techniques and new safe versions of equipments be lunched. It can never be denied that the use of mobile will be increased and the onset of new companies will definitely take place. But Step by step clearance of research will give the suggestive theory to the new researcher, and who are concerned with the technology and use of mobile towers. Mathematical analysis of companies, users, health parameters, current technology, optional technology, and new device technology will help in making new works in the concerned field.


METHODOLOGY

Research will have different phases. First phase will explain the introductory part where definition of mobile towers its establishment, its working and uses will be defined. The area of work, connectivity and its essentiality will also be explained. The need of tower and its advancement will be explain with the comparative theory radiations through satellite and previous cable connectivity.

The advantages as well as drawbacks of tower system will be illustrated with the help of survey database. With some mathematical analysis, graph and scale diagrams the theory of use, harms, and conclusions will be explained. As the motto of the research is to find the options of mobile tower techniques which should not be harmful for health and even for infrastructure, the suggestions will be given to adopt a new systems and devises and force to make remedies for it. With the help of previous research work some data will be taken to know the techniques, conclusions, and suggestion, and with all, the advance suggestions will be illustrated.

The collection of data in the thesis will represent the current scenario of mobile towers its fixation and utility Systematic use of mobiles and suggestive policies for some authorities, for the erection of tower and establishment of cell site will be given in the suggestion and conclusion part. Reference table will clear the sources of database so that in future the thesis contents can easily be connected and matched well and the some more knowledge can be gained through complete data of previous research.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Conceptual theory on harmful effect by Amit K. Marwaha

Future of Mobile towers : Problems and Cure volume II Gajendra S.

Dr. Magda Havas Research work on radiation affecting brain

Dr. Neil Cherry,Ph.D. biophysicist from New Zealand, reports

Cell phone towers and other environmental sources of EMR – electro magnetic radiation.” Dr. George Carlo, Ph.D.

Cell phone and mobile tower radiation hazards 3721 views · Radiation Protection 12684 ...Medical Physics Profession - Ivan A. Brezovich, Ph.D.
www.slideshare.net/.../gk-radiation-normbtua

Radiations from cell phones and cell towers ...... "Some Unexpected Health Hazards Associated with Cell Tower Siting," Bill P.Curry, PhD.,

Study by Sandy Bond (PhD, Appraisal Institute and Realtors), The Appraisal ... hazards of cell phone radiation and to recommend a course for the future. 

R. Douglas Fields, PhD, writes in Scientific American about the Swedish ..... to bioactive microwave radiation from mobile phones and their relay towers

Electromagnetic Radiation - A heartbreaking account of how a cell phone tower placed next to a family's farm devastated... Robert C. Kane, Ph.D, of The Associated Bioelectromagnetics 


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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OUTPUT DUE TO MECHANISM OF ELECTRIC GENERATORS WITH ELECTRIC INVERTERS

Mechanical Engineering

ABHIMANYU KOTHARI

RESEARCH SCHOLAR DR. C.V. RAMAN UNIVERSITY



ABSTRACT

The research is based on the mechanism of electric generator, which gives more output than an inverter with same ratio of input. But the theory is not acceptable in a few circumstances. Therefore a comparison with some analysis, system output theory and previous research conclusion, the research is being progressed to give the better conclusion on the topic. These days the use of Generators and Invertors is in more trends but the research is being processed to understand the output of both the appliances so that we could know the mechanism and recommend the better object for better use.


INTRODUCTION

As per the definition an electric generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electrons in the windings to flow through the external electrical circuit. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crankcompressed air or any other source of mechanical energy.

In many research it has been proven that output of generator and the area of working is quite bigger than electric inverters. The study is not to criticize the use and techniques of inverters, it is just the study of comparison where this is to be explained that with how much input what energy can be gained with the mechanism of generator. The study is just to appraise the mechanism of generator which gives, big output. Due to mechanism of generator the output level is quite high than an inverter because of high input cost. The research may help in development of future mechanism of generator to give more outputs than current status.

BACKGROUND

As per the topic it has been found out that some research work on the working and mechanism of electric and other type generators have been done. But as per the review the need to know the mechanism is necessary due to the high output in same input to the generator and inverters. Work by SCIgen on An Automatic CS Paper Generator Franz T. Shenkrishnan, PhD, Network Analysis Laboratories (Dan) 6 kW wind generator - Open Source Ecology Marcin Jakubowski, Ph.D. ADVANCED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ELECTRICAL GENERATOR by P Van Blarigan ELECTRICAL GENERATOR. Peter Van Blarigan. Sandia National Laboratories. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF VIBRATION-ELECTRIC GENERATOR FOR BRIDGE by CB Williams electrical generator to power a sensor module to monitor by JF Kolb – 2005 are the true instances of work and research on Electric Generator. The topic may be differentiate from the other research work because the work is emphasizing on the output of generators due to its mechanism, which inverter doesn’t give with same input.



OBJECTIVES

To know the mechanism of Generator

To know the comparison of Generator and Inverter

To identify the status output level of inverters and generators with same input

To develop the future program for further research on the advancement of the topic.

To retrieve the theory of output from low cost mechanism.



NEED OF STUDY

In the coming future there will always be a need to save energy. If we talk about the electricity not only in India but in various countries there is a problem of full time electricity supply. To continue the work many people opt generators or inverters. As all are not aware about the mechanism, input and output of both the equipments, therefore it is essential to know and differentiate the output for future energy resources and its use. Although the use of inverter is soundless as compare to generators but the input and output variation compels us to think about the choice. As the invention of inverter and its use in a domestic way is not so old. In a very less time inverter and generators have approached our houses. And we can nominate it as a good and useful invention. Therefore for future mechanism of coming machines we must know the mechanism for new inventions. For the inventors, who are at the work of making new mechanism and machines in the field of electricity, this research may be consider as a content source.



SCOPE OF STUDY

It can never be denied that many inventions have become a part of our house equipments. And generator and inverters are one of them. To fulfill our requirement of the taking use of any equipment, somewhere we forget the cost, time and overall input to the equipment, which is not only essential for the general inventors or assemblers are always at the work of launching new equipments with high techniques and big output. But the matter of thinking about the input is necessary. And in this way the current research will be very much fruitful. The mathematical calculation, and cost and conclusive survey will automatically explain the variation, which will helps in future inventions and other useful launching. In one hand previous research will have the advance shape and on another hand the new research will have the contents and base material from this research.



FINDINGS

There may be a combination of generator and inverter technology. As the mechanism of generator gives big output and inverter gives soundless and pollution less output, therefore the combination of mechanical engineering and electrical engineering will be giving new machines in future. The current research and the work on inventions on the making of generators and inverters may have some theory from this thesis, and due to which energy input cost in future will be less than today’s cost and even the output level will be bigger.



METHODOLOGY

In the initial pages of thesis we will have the introduction of electronic generator and its historical development, terminology, excitation, and types of generators. With this continuation the overall machinery of inverter will also be sketched.

Mechanism of the generator will be explained to know the high output reasons and the comparative study with the inverter will go on.

The advantages as well as drawbacks of both the machines will be discussed and the reasons will also be illustrated with the help of previous data base available in the books and internet and the survey database. With some mathematical analysis, graph and scale diagrams the theory of use, harms, and conclusions will be explained. As the aim of the research is to compare and give the better conclusion on generator use and inverter use. With the help of some previous work on Generator and its mechanism the data will be taken to know the techniques, conclusions, and suggestion. The collection of data in the thesis will represent the current scenario of mechanism of electric generator. Systematic use of input energy resources for generator and inverters and suggestive matter for the future inventions and improvements will be given. Reference table will clear the sources of database so that in future the thesis contents can easily be connected and matched well and the some more knowledge can be gained through complete data of previous research.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Amit Kumar : the analysis on mechanism of Generator 2008

Ashish Sharma : Utility and input to Generator volume I


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