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iii) Emission
A. Construction Stage
Catalytic heaters and electric energy will be used for the heating of workers who will work beginning from land preparation until putting into operation of units and no fuel consumption will take place for heating purposes.
Emission will generate as a result of the operation of construction equipments in the activity area. Diesel oil will be used in construction equipments to be used in the area as fuel and general properties of diesel oil are given in Table-2.d.3.
Table-2.d.3. General Properties of Diesel Oil

PROPERTIES

No:1

No: 2

No:4

No:5

No:6

Naming

Gas Oil

Diesel Oil

Marin Diesel-Oil

Medium Fuel-Oil

Heavy Fuel-Oil

Consistency

Very Flowable

Very Flowable

Easy Flowable

Medium Flowable

Heavy Flowable

Type

Distilled

Distilled

Very light residue

Light residue

Residues

Colour

Light

Amber

Black

Black

Black

Concentration (15°C)g/c m3

0.8251

0.8654

0.9279

0.9529

0.9861

Viscosity (38 °C)

1.6

2.68

15.0

50.0

360 0

Pour point (°C)

-18.0

-18.0

-12.0

0.0

18.0

Atomization Temperature (°C)

Atmospheric

Atmospheric

-4.0

54.0

93.0

Pumping Temperature (°C)

Atmospheric

Atmospheric

-9.0

1.0

38.0

Carbon Residues (%)

Trace

Trace

2.5

5.0

12.0

Sulphur (%)

0.1

0.4-0.7

0.4-1.5

Max. 2.0

Max. 2.8

Oxygen-Nitrogen (%)

0.2

0.2

0.48

0.7

0.98

Hydrogen (%)

13.2

12.7

11.9

11.7

10.5

Carbon (%)

86.5

86.4

86.1

85.55

85.70

Water and Deposit (%)

Trace

Trace

Max 0.5

max 1.0

max 8.0

Ash (%)

Trace

Trace

0.02

0.05

0.08

Heat Value (kcal/l)

9.121

9.387

9.720

9.863

9.986

(SOURCE: Air Pollution Control and Inspection, TMMOB (Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects, Chamber of Chemical Engineers, May 1991)
The necessary diesel oil required for construction equipment operating in the site will approximately be 60 l/h.
Accordingly;
Q=60 I/h x 0,8654kg/l =51,924kg/h(0,052 t/h)
Table-2.d.4. Emission Factors of Pollution Emitted from Diesel Vehicles (kg/t)

POLLUTANT

DIESEL

Carbonmonoxides

9.7

Hydrocarbons

29

Nitrogen Oxides

36

Sulphur oxides

6.5

Salt

18

Source: Principles of Air Pollution and its Inspection, 1991

In accordance with this, the estimated pollutant values originating from construction equipments:


Carbonmonoxides : 9,7 kg/T×0,052t/h=0,5044 g/h

Hydrocarbons : 29kg/Tx0,052t/h=1,508 kg/h

Nitrogen Oxides : 36kg/Tx0,052t/h=1,872 kg/h

Sulphur oxides : 6,5kg/Tx0,052t/h=0,338 kg/h

Dust : 18kg/Tx0,052t/h=0,936 kg/h
As mass flow values calculated for construction equipments is very low, it will not have any negative impact on the current air quality.
Dust formation is expected during the construction activities of the project. Any kind of solid or liquid substance, which has dimensions of a single molecule, is larger than 0.0002μm, smaller than 500μm and can suspend in the air for a while is in particle class. Principles specified in the Article 7 of the Regulation on Protection of Air Quality enforced upon publication in the Official Gazette dated 02.11.1986 and No. 19269 will be complied with during transportation, unloading and loading of both excavation and excavation wastes during the facility activity. Furthermore, principles in Section 5 of this article will be complied with.
Approximately 30.000m3 (45.000 tons) of excavation waste material is expected to be formed during land preparation. This material obtained will be stored to be used as backfill material in the field and some of it will be used in road construction.
Dust emitting processes such as transport, loading and unloading will be used in calculation of dust emissions due to the above-mentioned conditions. Dust emission calculations will be carried out by considering that the whole excavation waste material has been processed, which is the worst possibility.
Quantities of excavation waste material generation to be processed by working 10 months in a year, 26 days in a month and 8 hours in a day and 3 years in total are given in Table-2.d.5.
Table-2.d.5. Quantities of excavation waste material generation to be formed at the construction stage

Work Period

Generation

m3

tons

3 years

30.000

45.000

1 year (10 months)

10.000

15.000

1 month (26 days)

1.000

1.500

1 day (8 hours)

38,46

57,6

1 hour

4,8

7,21

Dust emission factors to be used in the calculation of dust emission formations are as follows:

Transport (dust raised from roads) = 0,7 kg/km-vehicle

Loading of Material = 0,01 kg/ton

Unloading of Material = 0,01 kg/ton



*Dust amount to result from loading and unloading of material

- Amount of dust resulting from loading

7,21 ton /hour x 0,01 kg/ton = 0,072kg/hour

- Amount of dust resulting from unloading

7,21 ton /hour x 0,01 kg/ton = 0,072kg/hour

- Amount of dust resulting from loading and unloading

0,072kg/hour + 0,072kg/hour = 0,14kg/hour

* Amount of dust to be formed during transport of material:

The material obtained from excavation will be stored to be used in site grading works, road construction and some of it will be used as backfill material in the field. Transport distance will be approximately 1 km. Considering that a truck transports 13,5 tons of material at a time, for 7,21 tons of material which will be produced in one hour:

7,21ton/hour / 13,5 ton/trip =0,5 trip/hour (1 trip will be completed in one hour)

In this case, the amount of dust to be formed during transport for one-hour production:

1 trip/hour x 1 km/trip x Q,7kg/km =0,7 kg/hour

Mass flow rate value of the dust to be formed in this case:

Q=(1)+(2)

Q2= 0,14 kg/hour + 0,7 kg/hour + =0,84 kg/hour

It is indicated in article 1.1. of Annex. 2 list of the Regulation on Protection of Air Quality that “the values representing air pollution are values of contribution to air pollution obtained by measurements and total pollution values that constitute these values”. This definition is followed by the provision that “in the case that the emissions occurring in places other than chimneys are lower than 10% of the values given in the table below, there is no need for calculations of Value of Contribution to Air Pollution and Total Pollution Value” in subparagraph (b) of the same article.

Mass flow rate given for dust emission in first line of this table is 15 kg/hour. 10% of this is 1,5 kg/hour. Emission factors were obtained from EPA (www.epa.gov).

Accordingly, as 0,84 kg/hour value is not above the 1,5 kg/hour value, which is the limit value set out in the Regulation on Protection of Air Quality, and all operations will not be carried out simultaneously, there was no need for air modelling.

The dust arising from the road will demonstrate a linear distribution and as the dust amount formed remained below the 1,5 kg/hour value, which is the limit value set out in the Regulation on Protection of Air Quality, there was no need for air modelling.

However, although the value remained below the limit value, the precautions listed in article 7/7 of the Regulation on Protection of Air Quality will be taken:




  • Top of transporters will be covered with canvases

  • Running speed of vehicles will be low (40 km at maximum)

  • Roads will be moistened continuously.

In addition, personnel working in borrow pits have to wear dust mask in line with the Regulation on Occupational Health and Safety of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security of Republic of Turkey. As it will be followed throughout the entire stages of the project, the Regulation on Protection of Air Quality enforced upon publication in the Official Gazette dated November 2, 1986 and No. 19269, the Regulation on Noise Control enforced upon publication in the Official Gazette dated December 11, 1986 and No. 19308 and provisions of the Regulation on Occupational Health and Safety of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security of the Republic of Turkey will be complied with during these operations and no problems will arise in terms of human health and environmental health in this context.



B. Operation Stage
Catalytic heaters and electric energy will be used for heating of workers who will work at the operation stage of the project and no fuel consumption will occur for heating purposes.
No emissions will occur at the operation stage of the project.
iv) Noise

A. Construction Stage

Vibration and noise will be generated by the use of heavy machinery and crusher facility - even though it is used to a certain extent during the works to be conducted until the units are put into operation. Machines will not work continuously, but in short periods. When the noises to be generated at site are taken into account, the limits set for site noises in Table 4 of the “Regulation on Noise Control” enforced upon publication in the Official Gazette dated 11.12.1986 and No. 19308 will not be exceeded. These limits are as follows:



Noise Source


Noise Level

(Leq (dBA))


Building Construction (Continuous)

70

Road Construction (Temporary)

75

Impact Noises

100(Lmax)

All values contained in Annex: 1 of the regulation concerned will be observed as limit for construction equipment and noises caused by construction equipment. For this purpose, it will be ensured that the machines to be used are new and high-quality products of state-of-the-art technology.

With regard to the noise that can be generated in the facility, the provisions contained in the “Regulation on Noise Control” enforced upon publication in the Official Gazette dated 11.12.1986 and No. 19308 will be complied with. It is stated in the Article 6 of the second section of this regulation pertinent to industry, road and construction machinery that operation, putting into service and use of various noise sources and vehicles that create the maximum noise permitted to be emitted by these sources is prohibited. It is indicated that operation, putting into service and use of vehicles, the sound levels of which are given in Annex 1 and which emit higher levels of noise than

these ones without taking the necessary precautions are prohibited. The values set out in Annex-1 will not be exceeded in compliance with this article. The noise levels set for noise sources in the facility are as follows:


NOISE SOURCES

NUMBER

NOISE LEVEL







Leq, dBA

Grader

1

120

Road Roller

1

110

Loader

1

115

Excavator

1

105

Dump truck

15

85

Compressor

2

115

Concrete pump

2

115

Concrete plant

3

95

Crusher

1

110

Screen

1

85

AVERAGE EQUIVALENT NOISE LEVEL TO BE GENERATED IN THE FACILITY

n

Leq = 10 log (1/n) ∑10Li/10



ı=l

n= number of noise

Li2= Noise levels, dBA

Leq=10 log(1/28 (10120/10 +10110/10 +10115/10 +10105/10 +15x1085/10 +2x10115/10 +3x1095/10 +2x10115/10 +10110/10 +1085/10)

Leq= 110.04 dbA
Equivalent Noise Level will decrease as moved away from the activity area. Noise Levels at certain distances from the activity area are calculated as follows:
The correlation between the noise pressure level at r2 distance, GBS2 and the noise pressure level at r1 distance, GBS1 provided that it is under the same angle can be presented as follows:

GBS2 =GBS1+20log10 (r1/r2) – Atmospheric Absorption

When the r1 distance in the activity area is considered as 1 m by neglecting the atmospheric absorption, Equivalent Noise Levels at certain distances are as follows obtained from the calculations made:
Distance to the activity area, r2 (m) Leq (dBA)

100 110,04+20log 1/100=70,04

200 110,04+20log 1/200=64,02

400 110,04+20log 1/ 400=58,00

600 110,04+20log 1/600=54,48

800 110,04+20log 1/800=51,98

1000 110,04+20log1/1000=50,04

1200 110,04+20log 1/1200=48,45

1400 110,04+20log 1/1400=47,11

1600 110,04+20log 1/1600=45,95

1800 110,04+20log 1/1800=44,93

2000 110,04+20log 1/2000=44,01

Noise distribution graph created in line with these values is given in Figure 1.

According to the “Regulation on Noise Control” Table-3, noise criteria outside of settlements prepared by taking community behaviours into account was set as 35-45 dB(A). Calculations were carried out by considering that all construction equipments will be operated simultaneously, which is the worst-case scenario, but the construction equipments concerned will not run simultaneously. Therefore, it is seen that the noise created will not pose a risk in settlement units.

In addition, with regard to noise, precautions will be taken as per the relevant articles of the “Regulation on Occupational Health and Safety” dated 11.04.1974 and No. 14765, it will be ensured that people working in the activity area wear ear flaps in order to prevent them from noise as stated in the Article 22 of the same regulation and provisions set out in the Article 78 will be followed.

The nearest settlement unit to the construction site is Kumarlı Village and its distance is 2,5 km. Thus, noise to be detected at the nearest residence and other receiver sources during construction activities is considered to be below the limits set out in the Regulation on Noise Control.



B. Operation Stage

There are no major noise sources that will have a negative impact on the environment at the operation stage of the project.



e) Its Impacts on Pollution and Environment

Liquid and solid wastes as well as emission and noise values to be generated at the construction and operation stages of the hydroelectric power plant planned to be constructed are given in Section 2.d in detail. As will be seen in the relevant sections, liquid and solid wastes as well as emission and noise values to be formed within the scope of the project will remain below the limit values and the facility is not expected to have a negative impact on the environment.


f) Accident Risks due to the Technology and Materials to be Utilized

With an installed power of 3×10 MW, Berkman HEPP will generate 109,93 Gwh/year in total, 49,09 Gwh/year of which is reliable.

The facility will consist of diversion structure, power plant, energy intake structures in the power plant, connecting dike and switchyard. These sections of the facility are explained in detail under the relevant headings.

1. Diversion Structures

Construction of Berkman Regulator and HEPP will be completed in two stages depending on the diversion process. At the first stage, diversion structure and power house building will be constructed on the flat area which is located on the left coast and has an average altitude of 64m. At this stage, the construction area will be protected from overflow through a dike which has a crest elevation of 66,00. The dike is homogeneous earth fill, the slope of which is 2,5 horizontal and 1 vertical on both sides. Crest elevation will be taken as 6 metres in the dike, which has a crest length of 575 m.

The second stage will commence upon completion of plant and diversion structures. At this stage, after the entry and exit channels necessary for the spillway and power plant are opened, the river will be flown from a diversion structure with a cofferdam. The cofferdam is earth fill, slopes of which is 2,5 horizontal and 1 vertical. Crest elevation is 66,00 and crest length is 350m. At this stage, the connecting dike and spillway will be connected to right slope.

Construction of a thin wall which goes down to a depth of 12m starting from the crest under upstream cofferdams and down to a depth of 10 m starting from the crest under the downstream cofferdam was planned within the context of 1st stage.



2. Connecting Dike

The concrete structures located on the left coast will be connected to the right slope with a homogenous earth fill dike. This dike that will cover the riverbed will have a crest width of 10 m, crest elevation of 75,00 m and crest length of 250 m.

Water surface slope will be taken as 3 horizontal 1 vertical and air surface slope will be taken as 2,5 horizontal and 1 vertical.

Construction of a thin wall that goes down to 40,00 elevation was envisaged in order to achieve water-tightness under the connection dike. The thin wall will continue below the diversion structure and power plant.



3. Diversion Structure

The diversion structure, which consists of threshold and stilling basin, will be designed in such a way as to deliver a flow rate (Q= 3200 m3/s) equivalent to 100-year renewable overflow peak value of Aslantaş Dam. Berkman regulator and Okşan Regulator, which is planned to be constructed upstream, are facilities which will pass the overflows to come from upstream as they are and have no reservoirs. For this reason, it will operate in parallel with the diversion operation of Aslantaş Dam upstream of facilities.


Approach channel elevation will be 61,50 in the diversion structure. Threshold elevation will be 63,00 and be divided in 5 spans of 12 m of width. These spans will be equipped with radial gates of 12,00mx10,50m. Cofferdam gates are planned to be used in maintenance and repair of radial gates and gate slots will be established at the pillars. Middle pillar thickness will be taken as 3,0 m. Stilling basin will have a length of 50 m and width of 72 m.

4. Energy Structures
4.1. Optimization of Installed Power
The inflow at Berkman Hydroelectric Power Plant is formed by outflows of Okşan HEPP, which is upstream of it. However, as Berkman HEPP is Okşan HEPP is a facility with no reservoir. For this reason, the inflows are formed by outflows of Aslantaş Dam in both of the facilities.
Irrigation development planned upstream of Aslantaş Dam affects the inflows. Irrigation plans are composed of 4 stages in such a way that they will be put into operation in years 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2020. Flowrate-probability values of monthly inflows were identified for the 4 irrigation stages. Generations which can be carried out with various installed powers from 16,67MW to 50 MW were found in the operation works conducted with the said inflows. Cost estimates of power plants with various installed powers were made and their annual costs were calculated. As a consequence, installed power of 30MW was identified as the best one. As the flows coming from the upstream Aslantaş HEPP will be turbined in Berkman HEPP and given that no active volume will exist in the Regulator, it was concluded that the number of units should be 3, in parallel with Aslantaş.

4.2. Annual Energy Generation

The energy generated in Berkman HEPP varies depending on development of irrigations upstream. The generations carried out by taking into account the irrigation developments for the years 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2020 are enumerated below. The requirement for Cevdetiye irrigations downstream in operation works were also taken into consideration.

Table-2.f.1. Energy Generation Outputs Expected by Taking Irrigation Developments of Berkman HEPP Project into Account

IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT YEAR

GENERATION (Gwh/year)

RELIABLE

SECONDARY

TOTAL

1985

69,25

56,58

125,83

1995

64,87

56,64

121.51

2005

49,09

60,84

109,93

2020

29,80

63.89

93,69

4.3. Power Plant, Switchyard and Permanent Equipment

The power house will be established on the left side of the diversion structure. The power plant, consisting of 3-generation blocks and 1 assembly block, will be equipped with pipe-type turbine- generator units, each of which will have a power of 10MW, and will be run-of-river type. Upstream side of the power house building will be equipped with grids and cofferdam gates and be arranged as an irrigation structure. Gross head will be 10,5 m; total flowrate of the power plant will be 345m3/s; rotation number of the generators will be 150 rotation/minute and nominal power will be 11,5MVA. The three unit blocks will have the dimensions of 12,00×47.00m and there will be an assembly block sized 13,00×20.00m on the left of unit blocks. Turbine axis elevation is 58,50. At the 65,50 elevation there will be passage from the generator hall to turbine clearance and generator access shaft. Distribution of units in the power plant as per the floors will be as follows:
1. 73,50 elevation: The power plant will be entered from this floor. Offices and lavatories will be placed on this floor which will only be included in the assembly block.

2. 70,25 elevation: There will be telecommunication, control, relay and 400v distribution rooms on this floor, which is only included in the unit block.

3. 69,50 elevation: dining hall will be available on this floor which will only be included in assembly block.

4. 65,50 elevation: generator crusher and exciter, electrical shop, station service transformer will be available in the part of this floor which will be included in the unit block and storage will be available in the part included in the assembly block.

Tailwater level of Berkman Regulator and Hydroelectric Power Plant is 62,00m, which is the reservoir level of Cevdetiye Dam downstream.
Capacity of mobile bridge crane is 20 tons while capacity of the portal crane that renders service to the spillway power plant together will be 50 tons.
Switchyard of 154 kV will be placed on an area of 82m×40m with an elevation of 71,05 m on the left side of the power plant exit channel.
Heavy machinery will be used in the land preparation and construction works to be carried out within the scope of the project. Occupational accidents are likely to happen in cases of lack of attention and disregard of the safety instructions of the personnel and if the safety tools and equipment are not used. The qualified personnel will be employed and the staff will be trained on work safety in order to decrease the occupational accidents to the minimum degree.
Relevant provisions of the Regulation on Occupational Health and Safety enforced upon publication in the Official Gazette dated 11.01.1974 and No. 14765 will be complied with.
The personnel to work during the activity will not be allowed to be around either the trucks or the loaders during loading. A car will be kept available in case of any accidents to occur and it will be ensured that the personnel having an accident are taken to the nearest health unit rapidly.

The most significant potential health problem to arise among workers in the site is the occurrence of a contagious disease. Periodical health control will be applied to the workers in order to minimize this problem.


In the activity field, adequate fire extinguishing equipment (pickaxe, shovel, axe, water bucket etc.) will be kept available in case of a fire to break out, the site will never be left empty and a gurad will be available in the site for this purpose. Furthermore, a radio phone will be kept in the activity field. Within the scope of the project, the provisions of the articles relevant to Section 1 “the Safety Precautions to be taken against Fire in Workplaces” of Part 5 of the Regulation on Occupational Health and Safety enforced upon publication in the Official Gazette dated 11.04.1974 and No. 14765 will be followed.

Danger and warning boards will be put in necessary places in order to prevent the creation of a danger or risk for those working within the facility and in this way, all possible hazards and risks will be minimized.




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