AIIB (Asian Investment Infrastructure Bank - Sustainable Investment): Walter Payton 3
Algae Biofuels: King College Prep 10
Apocalyptic Conspiracy (Culp): Whitney Young 14
Bilateral Investment Treaty – Biotech (“Give A Little BIT Of My Love To You”): Northside College Prep 16
Black Female Subject (“Dreamchild”): Lane Tech 24
Blackness: RTC Medical Prep 26
Black Words: Lindblom Math and Science Academy 28
BMD (Ballistic Missile Defense): Kelly 30
Carbon Capture (CCS) - Jones 32
CBMs (Confidence Building Measures): St.Ignatius 36
Climate (“Ice Cream Melts”) - Kenwood 39
Climate: Solorio 41
Communicative Engagement: Kennedy 45
Currency Swap: Ogden 47
Export Controls: Von Steuben 50
Gwadar (Colonialism): Evanston Township High School 53
HUMAN TRAFFICKING: LINCOLN PARK HIGH SCHOOL 56
IFR Nuclear Reactors: Whitney Young 58
Imperialism (“SMH CDL”): Taft 65
Joint Vision Group (“Fill My Eyes With That Double Vision”): Northside College Prep 67
KOREAN UNIFICATION: LINCOLN PARK HIGH SCHOOL 73
LGBT (“Magic Mike”): RTC Medical Prep 75
Malthusian Theory: Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences 77
Mars - US Chinese Space Cooperation: UCSN – Garcia 80
Queer Anarchism: Walter Payton 82
Queer Toxicity: Lane Tech 86
Trump Resistance: Phoenix Military Academy 91
AIIB (Asian Investment Infrastructure Bank - Sustainable Investment): Walter Payton
Exact Plan Text: The United States federal government should substantially increase its economic and diplomatic engagement with the People’s Republic of China to develop sustainable investment standards in China’s financing institutions.
Advantages/Harms (with explanation):
Environment: Absent alteration to existing investment standards, the AIIB will fund coal fired power plants and hydroelectric dams, which substantially increase the pace of global warming. Moreover, this creates a race to the bottom among multilateral finance institutions to move away from existing environmental regulations in order to maintain high profits. Warming causes extinction, and also magnifies status quo levels of biodiversity loss, which also causes extinction
China: China’s rise is inevitable, and containment strategies are ineffective means of responding. What is needed is strategies which allow the united states a means to shape the way in which China rises to maintain American influence and prevent a great power war
Water: Water scarcity is coming now, things like the California drought were only the beginning of global water crises, which urgently demands new infrastructure to address insufficient means of water collection now. Absent the new desalination technology the aff produces, water scarcity will incite resource wars between states competing over access to limited water supplies.
Solvency Mechanisms: The plan creates a race to the top among multilateral development institutions, disincentivizing funding in environmentally unfriendly projects by improving the AIIB’s investment standards, creating a means to invest in new water infrastructure research, development and implementation, as well as developing renewable energy and shaping China’s rise
1AC Cite List:
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank’s Environmental and Social Framework allows for flexible interpretation and ineffective implementation – must ensure follow-through that prioritizes sustainability
Larsen and Gilbert 3/14/16 [Gaia, Senior Associate in the WRI's Sustainable Finance Center, where she leads its work on financial institutions and climate finance readiness, Sean, China director and Director of Sustainability Reporting Framework at the Global Reporting Initiative, “Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Releases New Environmental and Social Standards. How Do They Stack Up?”, World Resources Institute, 3/4/16, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/03/asian-infrastructure-investment-bank-releases-new-environmental-and-social-standards]
Last week, the new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) released its Environmental and Social Framework, which will help guide how the bank deals with its investments’ impacts on people
ultimately determining the nature of its contribution to development.
Without a change to its procedures the AIIB will fuel mega infrastructure projects and a massive expansion of coal use
Bankwatch 15 [CEE Bankwatch Network, international non-governmental organisation with member organisations from countries across central and eastern Europe that monitors activities of IFIs to promote sustainable projects, “New Beijing-backed Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank struggles to convince on environment and sustainability issues”, 12/17/15, http://bankwatch.org/bwmail/63/new-beijing-backed-asian-infrastructure-investment-bank-struggles-convince-environment]
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the China-led financial institution,
to the darkest, unregulated days of international development finance.
Infrastructure development in Asia key to global climate change --- ensuring strong AIIB standards is critical
Nassiry and Nakhooda 16 [Darius, head of international cooperation department at Global Green Growth Institute, Director at Millennium Challenge Corporation where he led teams for development of investment programs in Asia, Smita, Climate finance fellow at World Resources Institute, “The AIIB and investment in action on climate change”, Working Paper 433, April 2016, https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/the_aiib_and_investment_in_action_final_20160413.pdf]
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (the AIIB or the Bank) is poised to
to achieve its stated aim to be “lean, clean and green”.
Consensus of global scientists agree – warming is real, anthropogenic and happening now
Maibach et al ’14Distinguished Professor of Communication at George Mason University and Director of the Center for Climate Change Communication at GMU. (Edward Maibach, Teresa Myers, Anthony Leiserowitz, “Climate Scientists need to set the Record Straight: There is a scientific consensus that human caused climate change is happening,” 5/7/14, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013EF000226/full)//NH
Human-caused climate change is happening and is accelerating; dangerous impacts are becoming
inform Americans about the scientific consensus regarding the realities of climate change.
Climate change causes extinction, escalates conflict and devastates all life on earth
Matthews 2016 (Richard, consultant, eco-entrepreneur, green investor and author of numerous articles on sustainable positioning, eco-economics and enviro-politics. He is the owner of The Green Market Oracle, a leading sustainable business site and one of the Web’s most comprehensive resources on the business of the environment., The Terrifying Truth About Climate Change, http://globalwarmingisreal.com/2016/06/13/terrifying-climate-change-truth/)
An apocalyptic future is materializing that threatens human civilization and all life on the planet
chief Gina McCarthy who said, “the scary thing is doing nothing.”
Status quo warming causes extinction – 4 to 6 degrees make adaptation impossible – tipping points
Naomi Klein 14, award-winning journalist, syndicated columnist, former Miliband Fellow at the London School of Economics, member of the board of directors of 350.org, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate, pp. 12-14
But the bigger problem—and the reason Copenhagen caused such great despair—is
Independently, there will be a race to the bottom among multilateral development banks and poorly planned infrastructure development --- impact on the environment will be even greater than climate change
Laurence 16 --- Research Professor and Australian Laureate at James Cook University (Bill, “Will New Mega-Banks Force A 'Race to The Bottom' For The Environment?”, ALERT Conservation, 4/4/2016, http://alert-conservation.org/issues-research-highlights/2016/4/2/will-new-mega-banks-force-a-race-to-the-bottom-for-the-environment),
If you care about the environment and human rights, there's good reasons to be
and human rights, the signs are all pointing in the wrong direction.
Biodiversity loss is a threat multiplier, it outweighs and triggers their impacts
Torres 2016 -the founder of the X-Risks Institute, an affiliate scholar at the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (Phil, "Biodiversity loss: An existential risk comparable to climate change," Apr 11, thebulletin.org/biodiversity-loss-existential-risk-comparable-climate-change9329)
According to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, the two greatest existential threats to human
as one of the most significant contemporary risks to human prosperity and survival.
China’s rise is inevitable --- U.S. failure to seek membership in the AIIB sends the signal that it doesn’t want to integrate China into global economic governance and crushes America’s ability to shape the global order
Wyne, 15 --- contributing analyst at Wikistrat, and a global fellow with the Project for the Study of the 21st Century (4/7/15, Ali, “The American World Order and China’s New Bank,” http://warontherocks.com/2015/04/the-american-world-order-and-chinas-new-bank/, article downloaded on 5/3/16, JMP)
The United States has sensibly declared its intention to rebalance towards the Asia-Pacific
writ large—than, respectively, excluding China and shunning its efforts.
U.S. concerns over Chinese governance prevents efforts to positively reform the AIIB and facilitate multilateral diplomacy and deep cooperation with China
Edwards & Qahir, 15 --- *Associate Professor of Diplomacy and International Relations, Seton Hall University, AND **Diplomacy graduate student at Seton Hall (4/6/15, Martin & Katayon, “US should stop blocking China’s AIIB and join allies in new club,” https://theconversation.com/us-should-stop-blocking-chinas-aiib-and-join-allies-in-new-club-39406, article downloaded 4/23/16, JMP)
China’s growing economic clout is complicating US efforts to maintain its grip on the world’s
route for deepening cooperation between the US and the People’s Republic of China.
South China Sea conflict goes nuclear.
Christensen 6/5/15 – Thomas J., Boswell professor of world politics and director of the China and the World Program at Princeton University, is a former U.S. deputy assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific affairs, “China's Rising Military: Now for the Hard Part” http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2015-06-05/china-s-rising-military-now-for-the-hard-part
One reason for this is that no consensus exists in East Asia on the territorial
a marriage in which divorce is not an option. Divorce means war.
Independently, China will be forced to turn to aggressive military actions if the U.S. doesn’t support its growing role in the global economy via the AIIB
Lipscy, 15 --- Assistant Professor of Political Science and the Thomas Rohlen Center Fellow, Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University (5/7/15, Phillip Y., “Who's Afraid of the AIIB; Why the United States Should Support China's Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank,”zhhm≥/;;;;;;pp https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2015-05-07/whos-afraid-aiib, downloaded 4/23/16, JMP)
To put it differently, China has a basic choice. It can create an
encourage, not discourage, Chinese foreign policy initiatives such as the AIIB.
Failure to recalibrate U.S. economic policy toward China risks miscalculation that triggers great power conflict
Wyne, 15 --- contributing analyst at Wikistrat and a global fellow at the Project for the Study of the 21st Century (6/1/15, Ali, “Is America’s Mind-set the Greatest Threat to Its Future?” http://nationalinterest.org/feature/america%E2%80%99s-mind-set-the-greatest-threat-its-future-13004?page=show, article downloaded 5/3/16, JMP) ***Joseph Nye is a professor at the Harvard Kennedy School and one of the most esteemed analysts of world affairs
Nye suggests that the greatest threat to U.S. influence may not be
world order.” Here’s to hoping that theUnited States heeds that judgment.
Warming causes water shortages
Mooney 16 (Chris, writes about energy and the environment at The Washington Post and published four books about science and climate change, “World Bank: The way climate change is really going to hurt us is through water”, Washington Post, 5/3/16, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/05/03/world-bank-the-way-climate-change-is-really-going-to-hurt-us-is-through-water/ //HY)
As India, the world’s second-most populous country, reels from an intense
for water due to increased needs in the electricity generation and agricultural sectors.
4 billion people go without water every year and hotspots for escalation are appearing all over the world – traditional deterrents don’t check
Cook 16 (grace, researcher at the Wilson center for water, water scarcity is making for some scary conditions, http://www.environmentalleader.com/2016/03/01/water-scarcity-is-making-for-some-scary-conditions/, LB)
In a study published in Science Advances, Mesfin M. Mekonnen and Arjen Y
for water-related crises – and how unique these factors can be.
Our scholarship is uniquely good
Healey 11 [Thomas, The Global Water Crisis Is Too Big to Ignore]
Over the long-term, the most potent tool in reversing the world's growing
coordination and cooperation across international borders, the ripple effects are felt everywhere.
The ability to disregard water scarcity is a privilege granted to us by our ability to access it – Working across different levels is necessary for an effective response
DeBaun 2013 (Dan, reporter on international affairs, could water scarcity be the national security issue of the future, http://www.bigberkeywaterfilters.com/blog/water-activism/could-water-scarcity-be-the-national-security-issue-of-the-future, LB)
life – no living thing can live without it, neither can we.
Independently, water scarcity forces migration which alienates people from their homes – this allows water to be weaponized against those most in need
Kuross 2015 (even, Management Consultant based in Oslo focusing on public sector issues. water scarcity being a source of conflict, http://www.fairobserver.com/region/middle_east_north_africa/water-scarcity-risks-being-a-source-of-conflict-28740/m, LB)
The UN estimates that, consideringcurrent water depletion trends, up to 700 million
for human existence creates the potential for hostilities to continue and eventually worsen.
Prefer the newest peer reviewed studies – water scarcity creates flashpoints for conflict all over the globe
Ahmed 2015 (nafeez, PhD, is an investigative journalist, international security scholar and bestselling author who tracks what he calls the ‘crisis of civilization.’ He is a winner of the Project Censored Award for Outstanding Investigative Journalism for his Guardian reporting on the intersection of global ecological, energy and economic crises with regional geopolitics and conflicts. He has also written for The Independent, Sydney Morning Herald, The Age, The Scotsman, Foreign Policy, The Atlantic, Quartz, Prospect, New Statesman, Le Monde diplomatique, New Internationalist. His work on the root causes and covert operations linked to international terrorism officially contributed to the 9/11 Commission and the 7/7 Coroner’s Inquest.new age of water wars portends bleak future for the middle east, http://www.mintpressnews.com/new-age-of-water-wars-portends-bleak-future-for-the-middle-east/203712/m, LB)
dam would reduce the capacity of Egypt’s hydroelectric plant at Aswan by 40%.
Only our evidence is comparative – Status quo studies ignore the unconventionality of water wars which means that you should prefer specificity
Zala 2012 (ben, Lecturer in International Politics at the University of Leicester, UK, where his works focuses on great power diplomacy, rising powers in the global order and global security issues. Prior to taking up this position, Ben was Director of the Sustainable Security programme from 2010-2013. He has also worked at Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs) and on the editorial teams of the academic journals Civil Wars and Global Change, Peace and Security (both published by Routledge). Ben holds a PhD in International Relations from the University of Birmingham and a Bachelor of International Relations with first class honours from La Trobe University, Melbourne. His work has been published in leading journals and blogs and regularly contributes to UK and international media, water scarcity: the real and virtual problem, https://www.stratfor.com/the-hub/water-scarcity-real-and-virtual-problems, LB)
Of course, for all the evidence of past disputes over water, there is
other similarly dispossessed groups across the world at the touch of a button.”
Only U.S. China collaboration can produce effective solutions to water scarcity.
Ghallager 15 [Paul, Obama’s War on China’s AIIB Bank Is Virtual Treason Against U.S.]
What Obama has done is virtual treason against the United States, on two counts
speed transport, storm-protection, and communications infrastructure within the United States
Squo policy debate privileges high magnitude low probability impacts – most DAs have hundreds of discrete steps that are left unmentioned which reduce their probability to functionally zero – as a judge you should raise your threshold for voting for these arguments to shift debate towards a more equitable balance of burden of proof vs. rejoinder
Cohn 13 (Nate – politics writer for the NY Times, debate coach at Georgia, “Improving the Norms and Practices of Policy Debate,” in CEDA Debate forums, 11-24-13, http://www.cedadebate.org/forum/index.php?action=printpage;topic=5416.0)
The fact that policy debate is wildly out of touch—the fact that we
to hear others comment on specific norms and practices that they find problematic.
Subsequently, low probability should be no probability – try or die logic promotes serial policy failure
Sunstein 2 (Cass, Karl N. Llewellyn Distinguished Service Professor, University of Chicago, Law School and Department of Political Science, Probability Neglect: Emotions, Worst Cases, and Law, http://www.yalelawjournal.org/pdf/112-1/SunsteinFINAL.pdf)
If someone is predisposed to be worried, degrees of unlikeliness seem to provide no
the small difference would not matter when each risk is taken in isolation.