Generally, union councils situated in municipalities i.e. Haripur north, Haripur south, Haripur Central, Kalabat and Turbela are comparatively most developed regarding access to services and infrastructure. Besides, other urban union councils neighboring to the district / Tehsil capital i.e. Darwesh, Sarai Salah, Bareela, Panian, Dingi, Dhenda, Hatar, Tofkian, Mankarai, Khanpur, Rehana, Ghazi and Qazi Pur etc are more developed. These UCs also have influential political figures and have been mostly focused by the government. In union councils, situated in plain area of the district under Khanpur dam and Daur River, there is a well planned canal system and these UCs are irrigated to a great extent.
At present DFID in collaboration with SUNGI implements AWAZ Project in union councils Bandi Sher Khan, Pind Kamal Khan, Pind Hashim Khan, Manakrai, Breela, Hatar, Kot Najibullah, Rehana, Kundi and Kotehra. The project focuses on advocacy, accountability and micro finance. UNDP in Partnership with European Union implements RAHA Project in union councils Panian, Dheenda, Sikanderpur and Khalabat Town Ship, with a focus on development and improvement of Infrastructure i.e. health, education, sanitation and drinking water facilities in refugee affected areas of the district. (Sources: PHKN, line departments & Primary data)
Union Councils Deprived of Development Initiatives
Union councils situated in rural areas / outskirts of the district are generally less developed, but in particular, union councils situated in hilly areas in the west, northern west and southern east viz. UCs Bir, Kalinjar, Ladar Mang, Sarai Niamat Khan, Muslim Abad, Barkot, Jabri, Bait Gali, Amazai and Kundi Umar Khana are mostly deprived of the development initiatives. These are comparatively remote areas with rain fed hilly terrains. There is less agriculture land and people have little linkages with and access to line departments, as compared with people of the central union councils. Besides, these UCs are situated in remote areas of the district and a few development actors feel easy to reach out the area. At the moment little development activities are going on in the area, while no actor is focusing on climate change or rain water harvesting in present. (Sources: PHKN, line departments & Primary data)
Areas with High Potential of Rain Water Harvesting / Water Conservation and Little Investment on Irrigation.
Rain fed UCs of Bir, Sarai Niamat Khan, Muslim Abad and Kundi Umar Khana have high potential for rain water harvesting / water conservation both in the sense of need and in the sense of physical feasibility.
A Potential catchment area above agriculture lands at Bir UC Most of the area in these UCs is rain fed. Agriculture lands are situated at foothills, mid hills and up hills having frequent water sheds, rain fed gorges/trenches and gullies at the nearby hills, that provides the UCs with a great potential for rain water harvesting and conservation/retention of some perennial springs/streams. All the UCs are prone to soil erosion. As situated in the hilly areas of the district except Sarai Niamat Khan, these UCs get comparatively more rains, mostly in winter, spring and monsoon. A potential Site for rain water harvesting at Bir UC About 10-15 % land in Bir, Muslim Abad and Kundi and approximately 40% in Sarai Niamat Khan is used for cultivation. Most of the area in all the UCs is covered by range lands and forest used for grazing, grass and fuel wood and timber collection. Due to scarcity of water in some UCs i.e. Bir, Sarai Niamat Khan and Kundi, a considerable amount of cultivable land at foothill and mid hill is lying barren. In All UCs more than 80% HHs are related with agriculture and more than 70% HHs keep livestock, while mostly women are involved in farming i.e. agriculture and livestock management. A potential site for water conservation at M. Abad UC Although the UC Bir is situated nearby Turbela dam and on the bank of Siran River and UC Muslim Abad also has some perennial streams i.e. Haro and its tributaries but due to high level of agriculture lands and villages above rivers/streams’ bed, still these are very thirsty areas. There are gravity schemes of drinking water in some villages of all the UCs which scarcely meet the needs of the whole village but of a few families, while regarding irrigation, there is no source but rain, except a small amount of land at foot hills in Bir and Muslimabad. Water is the most important commodity in all these UCs. Water table in Bir ranges from 100-250, while that in Sarai Niamat Khan is 70-200 ft, and in Muslim Abad it is 30-150 ft. Natural springs at some villages/sites little suffice the drinking and HH sanitation needs. Ponds made in the past at different villages provide water for livestock. Some people fetch water through donkeys while in some areas it is the exclusive responsibility of women to collect water for their domestic use as well as for their livestock. As these are mostly un-irrigated areas, the whole farming relies on rain and even a slight variation in climate i.e. low or no rain fall for a short span of time affect crop production. Flood in perennial and rain fed streams mostly in monsoon, causes damages to infrastructure, agriculture lands and human lives. In 1992, almost all the streams got flooded due to heavy rain storm and created a devastating situation in these areas. Besides, rain fed gullies and streams/trenches frequently cause soil erosion and damages to farm lands, range lands and livestock. There is a potential for production enhancement of cereal crops through irrigation, while the area seems very feasible for other crops i.e. vegetables and fruit orchards. If water available for irrigation, the barren cultivable lands may be brought under cultivation that will further enhance grains production in the area, while a tendency of growing regular and off season vegetable may contribute to their HH economy.
A micro catchment area for rain water harvesting at S.N.K Though basic health and education services are available in all these UCs, as situated in the outskirts, the UCs are mostly deprived of development initiatives compared to the other UCs near by the capital of the district, especially in respect of water related services. A few influential people have linkages with line departments and a little work has been done by nongovernmental organization / project, but IC in Bir and Muslim Abad UCs only. (Sources: PHKN, line departments & Primary data) Investment of Water Infrastructure
Although most of the cultivated area (64%) in the district is un-irrigated, there is a network of irrigation system in the central and southern parts, where there it is possible. well extended canal network in the central and southern part of the districts. A brief description of the major irrigation system and measures taken for water harvesting /conservation are reflected as following.
Brief of irrigation infrastructure in District Haripur
(Source: Irrigation Division Hazara)
Water Storage Tanks, Constructed by Water Management Department (2008-2011)
Number of Tanks
Pind Kamal Khan
Pind Kamal Khan
Test Sprinkle Installations by Water Management Department, in District Haripur
Name of Farmers
(Source: Water Management Haripur)
River Siran irrigates a piece of land in south western UCs of Bir, Kalinjar and Ladarmang. River Daur also irrigate some area in the west. The Haro has sufficient water but it just a small area in Khanpur due to high level land on the bank. Some major above mentioned canals irrigate a substantial area in the district and a brief illustration is as following;
The canal is perennial having his head regulator in Sari Salah, it irrigates many villages through different water channels.
River Daur is the main source of water for irrigation in the district. Water from river Daur through Daur main canal is accumulated in reservoir known as Rangeela, situated between Gujar Mohra and village Shah Mahmood. Water of the reservoir is distributed through 9 channels for irrigation of lands in the villages around the city.
Sarai Salah Non Perennial Canal
The canal is separated from Daur main canal which irrigates land of villages adjoining Haripur City on the other side of G.T road and industrial area.
These two canals i.e. Daur main canal and Sarai Salah Non Perennial Canal irrigate a big amount of lands in UCs Kholian Bala, Shah Maqsood, Bagra, Sarai Salah, Ali Khan, Pandak, Haripur City, Darwesh, Dheenda, Mankrai and Panian etc.
The dam was constructed for irrigation purpose on Haro River. Khanpur Right Bank canal and Khanpur Left Bank Canal originate from the dam. Another canal known as Punjkatha system has also been taken from the dam that irrigates lands of southern region of the district. Other small dames in the district are Khal dam, Mang dam and Buthri dam built for irrigation in the nearby areas.
Under National Programme (2004-2009) of water courses lining/improvement, Water Management department has constructed / improved about 433 water courses in the irrigated areas of the district. Besides, Water Management department has also installed sprinkle irrigation technologies at four different sites on trial basis. (Source: Water Management Haripur, Irrigation Division Hazara, Census 1998 and Primary data)
Relevant Learners and Their Need of Learning in Respect of Climate Change
Relevant departments, organizations, learned people and farmers are aware of climate change and its impact on agriculture and other disciplines of life, to some extent, but they have never thought over it seriously. Local organization, Farmers, relevant department, education institutions, and religious leaders are the potential learner groups to know about the basic science of climatic change, its impacts on life and adaptation measures, and extend it to the whole community i.e. women, men and children.
Sources of Information
Census Report 1998
Record of relevant line departments
Primary data obtained from visits to the area and communities