Brunelleschi’s plan for a palace for the Medici returning from exile was rejected because their political position was tenuous and the design was too imposing and ostentasious. The design might incite hostility from the populace. Brunelleschi destroyed the model.
Stones go from rusticated to smoother on 2nd and 3rd floor, making it appear lighter.
Heavy cornice is a lid on the structure defining the shape and volume
Interior arcaded courtyard was a frequently copied feature in subsequent buildings.
Leon Battista Alberti
Important architect of the Renaissance and well rounded man
Understood the principles of linear perspective and wrote about them
Renaissance artists read Alberti’s book and experimented with it for themselves
Rucellai family made fortune from red dye. Hired Alberti to design his new palace and façade for his church.
Alberti previously wrote treatises “On Painting” and “On Architecture.” “On Architecture” was based on Vitruvius’s writings (Roman architect) for classical basis (like a good Renaissance artwork should).
broken into three equal horizontal entablatures.
From Roman Colosseum he used Tuscan pilasters for ground floor, Ionic columns for second floor, and Corinthian columns on third floor. Why is this like the Colosseum?
Part of a cycle of paintings on the walls of the (new) Sistine Chapel, commissioned by Pope Sixtus IV.
Theme of the painting supports the power of the popes
Arches of Constantine shown in the distance – connection between the Roman emperor Constantine and Christianity
Helped mark the rise of Rome as an artistic center during the Renaissance
Raphael’s teacher. Raphael used similar composition in Marriage of the Virgin
Paolo Uccello’s Battle of San Romano
Uccello stayed up late at night trying to perfect perspective and paid less attention to developing the naturalism of the figures
Uccello’s wife overheard Paolo talk about his mistress “perspective” and thought he was having an affair with a woman named Perspective!
Secular side of Florentine art. Scene of a battle in which the Florentine army defeated the Sienese in 1432.
Hero of the battle: Nicola da Tolentino, a friend of Cosimo de Medici, who later died because of his affiliation with the Medici family
Lorenzo de Medici commissioned Uccello to commemorate the famous battle and his grandfather’s friend. The painting decorated Lorenzo’s bedchamber.
What familiar Medici symbol is shown in the painting? Medici means Doctor: Oranges were ”medicinal apples”.
Earlier International Style: Gentile da Fabriani, Adoration of the Magi, Uffizi, 1423, Tempera on wood.
Carlo Crivelli’s, Annunciation with Saint Emidius
Annunciation - Gabriel to Mary
Standing on a bridge, a town dignitary reads a message stating that the pope has granted Ascoli limited rights of self government. The message arrive on the Feast Day of the Annunciation, and so the angel Gabriel is join by Ascoli’s patron saint, Emidius, holding a magnificently detailed model of the town.
Incredible details –
The apple refers to man’s fall from grace and his subsequent redemption
The gourd is a symbol of Christ’s Resurrection
The peacock is another symbol of Christ’s Resurrection and eternal life
From its high perch, the bird watches over the house of Ludovico Gonzaga
Playful putti – associated with classicism, reflect the patron Ludovico Gonzaga’s interest in a humanism
Three Woman – maybe the graces
Moorish slave – symbol of wealth
Garland of leaves and fruit – signifies abundance and hospitality
Guests would walk under the oculus when greeting Ludovico on his throne; for the guests that Ludovico didn’t really care for, it has been suggested that he would envision the tub with the orange tree falling on the guest’s head.
Mantegna’s oculus is part of an amazing room of frescoes painted by Mantegna for Ludovico Gonzaga called the Camera degli Sposi (Room of the Newlyweds), in the Palazzo Ducale of Mantua
Scenes depict all aspects of Gonzaga’s court life – his wife, children, pets, courtiers, and attendants even the dwarf used as his children’s playmates.
Mantegna also painted the arrival of Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga – Ludovico’s second son – who became the top religious leader of the church of Sant Andrea in Mantua
Mantegna carried his desire for illusionism past the linear perspective. He painted the illusion of relief sculpture decorate the edges of the scenes in GRISAILLE – using grayish tones to simulate sculpture or architecture.
If you were Mantegna, how would you record your presence in the Camera degli Sposi?
Other examples of Mantegna’s interest in perspective and pictorial illusionism
The Lamentation over the Dead Christ
Feet made smaller than true foreshortening. Why?
Harsh colors appropriate for tragic scene.
What appears to be Mantegna’s approach to perspective?