Eoct review (Extra Credit)



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EOCT Review (Extra Credit)

Name: _____________________________________ Period: ____________________


Answers must be on a separate sheet of paper; they do NOT need to be complete sentences. Copy tables and charts as needed. Due 12/13/2013 (NOT ACCEPTED LATE)

This packet includes questions that you should be familiar with, which will help prepare you for the Physical Science End of Course Test. While this packet will serve as a good review of the material, it should not be your only form of studying. Reviewing your old notes and labs will also help you to prepare. Use books in-class and the internet to help you as needed.



Unit 1

  1. The two main branches of Science are

  2. Technology can best be described as

  3. The item that is the same amongst all trials in an experiment is the

  4. The item that is controlled by the scientist in the experiment is the

  5. The item that is measured by the scientist is in the experiment is the

  6. A scientific model is

  7. A series of logical steps that is followed to solve a problem is called

  8. Scientists test a hypothesis by

  9. The first step in the Scientific Method is usually

  10. The metric unit for temperature is

  11. Anne is 165cm tall. What is her height in meters?

  12. Anne has a mass of 61kg. What is her mass in grams?

  13. If you come home and see a plate of cookies and a mixing bowl in the dishwasher, and you assume someone just baked cookies, you are making a(n)

  14. To make sure experimental results are valid, a scientist will

  15. A student wants to determine the effect of salt on the freezing point of water. A student adds 200mL of pure water to three identical containers. To one container, 2g of salt is added; in the second container, 4g of salt is added; and in the third container, no salt is added. The three containers are placed in the same freezer. The temperature is measured every 10 min for one hour, and observations were recorded in a data table. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?

  16. The force with which gravity pulls on a quantity of matter is referred to as

  17. A precise measurement is one that

  18. An accurate measurement is one that

  19. On what axis do we place the independent variable?

  20. On what axis do we place the dependent variable?

  21. How do we write the title of a graph? (what vs. what)

  22. The process of comparing and contrasting your experimental data is

  23. An educated guess about a possible solution to a problem is

  24. What would be used to measure mass, volume, temperature, and distance?

  25. What are the metric base units of mass, volume, temperature, and distance?

  26. Mass is a measure of _____, while volume is a measure of _____.

  27. Give two reasons the metric system is better to use. Give two units each for metric and English systems.

Measurement

Definition

Metric Base Unit

Instrument




How much energy an object contains.










Distance an object extends.










Amount of matter in an object.










Amount of space an object takes up.








Unit 2

SPS8. Students will determine relationships among force, mass, and motion.

a. Calculate velocity and acceleration.

  • The distance an object moves per unit of time is known as the _________________. The _________________is the speed of the object plus its direction. The average speed can be found by dividing the change in the displacement of an object by the change in time.

Ex. A car traveling west goes 10 meters in 5 seconds. What is its velocity?

2 m/s WEST



  • _____________________________, like velocity, has magnitude and direction. The average acceleration of an object is found by dividing the change in the velocity of the object by the change in time.

b. Apply Newton’s three laws to everyday situations by explaining the following:




Summary

Example

Newton’s First Law








Newton’s Second Law








Newton’s Third Law








c. Relate falling objects to gravitational force

  • __________________ force is a force between any two objects. The strength of the force is related to the mass of the objects and the distance between them. The more mass an object has, the greater the gravitational force it exerts. The Moon has less mass than Earth. The resulting lower gravitational force made the astronauts appear nearly “weightless” as they moved across the lunar surface.

  • __________________ forces. These forces include both electric forces and magnetic forces.

  • The forces exerted within the nucleus of an atom are called ___________________ forces. These forces hold the protons and neutrons together.

  • _________________________ forces tend to stop the motion of an object by dispersing its energy as heat. There are three types of frictional forces: sliding friction, rolling friction, and static friction.

    • __________________________ friction occurs when one solid surface slides over another solid surface.

    • __________________________ friction occurs when an object rolls across a solid surface.

    • __________________________ friction occurs between the surfaces of two objects that touch but do not move against each other. Static friction must be overcome for one of the objects to move.

d. Explain the difference in mass and weight.

One should note that mass and weight are not the same quantity. An object has _____________ regardless of whether gravity or any other force is acting upon it. Weight, on the other hand, changes depending on the influence of gravity. The relationship between weight, W, and mass, m, can be written as the following equation: W = mg. In this equation, g represents the acceleration due to gravity. At the surface of Earth, the acceleration of gravity is 9.80 m / s². The value of g decreases the farther away from the center of Earth an object gets. This means the weight of an object would ____________________________ if it was placed on top of a mountain or put into space.



e. Calculate amounts of work and mechanical advantage using simple machines.

__________________ is the transfer of energy when an applied force moves an object over a distance. For work to be done the force applied must be in the same direction as the movement of the object and the object must move a certain distance. A person may push on a wall and get tired muscles as a result, but unless the wall moves, the person has done zero work. Work can be summarized using the following equation:

W = Fd, In the equation, W is equal to work, F is equal to the force applied, and d is equal to the distance that an object has moved. Remember, force is measured in newtons (N) and distance is measured in meters (m). A unit of work is the newton-meter (N-m), or the joule (J).

Work can be made easier or done faster by using machines. Machines that work with one movement are

Called simple machines.

Simple Machines

Examples

Inclined Plane




Lever




Pulley




Screw




Wedge




Wheel and Axle




Simple machines cannot increase the amount of work done, but they can change the size and direction of the force applied. The force applied to a simple machine is called the effort force, Fe. For a machine to do work, an effort force must be applied over a distance. The force exerted by the machine is called the resistance force, Fr. An effort force is applied over a distance, known as the effort distance, de. This force can move over the resistance distance, dr. The number of times a machine multiplies the effort force is called the mechanical advantage.
1. What is the definition of speed?

2. What is Newton’s first law?

3. What is the speed of an object at rest?

4. Draw a distance vs. time graph for an object at constant speed...and one to show stationary.

5. If the net force on an object is zero...what two things can the object do?

6. What happens at terminal velocity? How does this feel to sky divers?

7. Give an example of a scenario in which balanced forces are occurring.

8. What is free fall acceleration?

9. What is the definition of velocity?

10. What is Newton’s second Law?

11. What are the three different types of friction...and which is strongest?

12. What is the term used to refer to the total sum of the forces acting on an object?

13. Draw a velocity vs. time graph for an object speeding up...and one to show slowing down.

14. How does mass and distance between objects affect gravity?

15. Give two examples each for the three different types of friction.

16. What is a cat’s velocity if it has run 50 meters in 10 seconds?

17. What is the definition of acceleration?

18. What is Newton’s third law?

19. What is a stationary object used to compare a moving object to? What is the most common one?

20. What does negative acceleration mean?

21. How can you find the weight of something using a mathematical formula?

22. What two things does momentum of an object depend on?

23. What is the definition of momentum?

24. What is the triangle formula for speed or velocity...and what is the SI unit for both?

25. What do unbalanced forces cause?

26. How far has Grandpa skateboarded if he traveled 15miles/hour for 5 minutes?

27. If a dog walks at 12 miles/hour for 2 miles, how long has the dog walked?

28. What is the acceleration of a car that has stopped in 5seconds from a speed of 45mph?

29. What is inertia?

31. How much momentum would a 60kg boy have if he ran 3m/s?

32. What is the mass of an object with a momentum of 1000kg-m/s traveling at 100m/s?

34. How can a small object have the same momentum as a massive object?

35. How are mass and weight the same and different?

36. A girl is pedaling her bike at 0.10km/min. How far will she travel in 2h?

37. A car accelerates from a standstill to 60km/h in 10s. What is its acceleration?

39. An ant carries food at 1cm/s. How long will it take an ant to carry a cookie crumb 50m?



40. If you leave for a trip at 8AM and arrive at 3PM...the velocity was 65mph north, how far did you drive?
Unit 3

1. Draw 3 levers, label with effort, resistance, fulcrum & arrows showing direction of forces (give 2 examples).

2. Write W if work is done or N if it is not in the following situations:













a) carrying books across the room




c) blowing dust off table










b) wind blew lawn chair across the yard




d) standing with a book balanced on your head

3. Which requires more work, lifting a 15N load a distance of 3m with a pulley, or lifting a 7 N load 10m with the same machine?

4. A machine has a work output of 45J. In order to accomplish the work, 48J of work was put into the machine. What is the efficiency of this machine? Be sure to give your answer as a percentage.

5. One machine can perform 280J of work in 40s. Another machine can produce 420J of work in 2min. Which machine is more powerful? Justify your answer by calculating the amount of power in watts for each machine.

6. A motor pushes a car with a force of 35N for 350m in 6s. Calculate work and power.







7. How much KE does a 1kg book have when it is tossed across the room at 2m/s?







8. What has greater KE, a car traveling at 30km/h or a car that is half the size but traveling at 60km/h?




9. What is the PE of a 1kg book that is 3m off the ground on a book shelf?










10. What is the PE of a 0.5kg ball at the top of a 300m hill?













11. How much force does it take to do 100J of work across 5m?













12. How long would a 100W light bulb be used to perform 10J of work?










13. How far is a 20N force applied to accomplish 1000J of work?













14. List the six types of simple machines, and give 2 examples of each.










Unit 4

SPS7. Students will relate transformations and flow of energy within a system.

a. Identify energy transformations within a system (e.g. lighting of a match).

Just as matter is conserved, so is energy. The law of conservation of _ENERGY__ states that energy, like matter, cannot be created nor destroyed; it can only be changed from one form of energy to another. Energy takes many forms in the world around us. Each form of energy can be converted to and from other forms of energy.



  • ____________energy is used in our homes to produce stereo sound through speakers.

  • ____________energy produces current from which a fluorescent lamp will work.

  • ____________ energy for cooking and heating.

  • ____________ energy, which is stored in the nucleus of atoms, is harnessed to produce electrical energy in modern power plants.

  • ____________ energy is stored in the bonds that hold atoms together in molecules. When fuels or foods are broken down, chemical energy is converted to heat energy or to kinetic energy.

  • ____________ energy is the energy contained by moving objects due to their motion.

  • ____________ energy, also known as stored energy, is the energy of position. When a boulder sits on top of a cliff, it has gravitational potential energy as a result of its height above the ground. When the boulder tumbles off the cliff, its gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. When a ball is thrown up into the air, the kinetic energy of the ball is converted into gravitational potential energy as the ball approaches its highest point. As the ball falls back to the ground, the potential energy it gained during its upward flight turns back into kinetic energy. Kinetic and potential energy are types of ____________________________ energy.


b. Investigate molecular motion as it relates to thermal energy changes in terms of conduction, convection, and radiation.

CONDUCTION

Define:

Picture:


CONVECTION

Define:

Picture:



Radiation

Define:

Picture:

c. Determine the heat capacity of a substance using mass, specific heat, and temperature.

What is specific heat capacity?


The amount of heat energy that a substance gains or loses, Q, depends on the mass (m), the specific heat,

(c), and the change in the temperature (ΔT ) of the substance. The formula for finding the heat energy is simply the product of the three factors, Q= mcΔT.



A copper ornament has a mass of 0.0693 kg and changes from a temperature of

20.0°C to 27.4ºC. How much heat energy did it gain?Copper’s Specific Heat is 390 J/k X C.



  1. At what temperature is an object’s KE at its lowest?

  2. Describe energy transfer if you touch something and it feels cold to you, AND if you touch another object and it feels hot.

  3. Describe the following: kinetic energy, thermal energy, temperature, and thermometer.

  4. Differentiate between the three methods of energy transfer.

  5. Explain in detail how a refrigerator works.

  6. Explain in detail how a thermometer works.

  7. Explain in detail how a thermos works.

  8. Explain in detail how an AC/heating unit works.

  9. How does an increase in kinetic energy affect a substance?

  10. How does solar energy get to Earth, and how is it’s energy transferred to us for use as heat and alternative energy?

  11. How is energy transferred when there are areas of high energy and areas of low energy? Give 1 example.

  12. What does specific heat mean? How does the specific heat of water compare to that of gold? Explain in words what that means.

  13. What happens to the volume of a substance if it is cooled? Why?

  14. What happens to the volume of a substance if it is heated? Why?

  15. What is a substance that allows easy transfer of energy called? Give 3 examples.

  16. What is a substance that does not allow easy transfer of energy called? Give 3 examples.

  17. What is energy transferred between the particles of two objects because of the temperature difference between the two objects called?

  18. What is the measure of the average KE of particles in a substance?


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