The scientific method steps



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UNIT 1: SCIENCE AND SOCIETY

The scientific method

STEPS

  1. You identify a problem

  2. You suggest a hypothesis (what you think it will happen). The hypothesis usually identifies the experimental variable of a study. This part of the scientific method involves some research about the problem.

  3. You design an experiment, measuring the dependent variable

  4. You put in practice your experiment and observe the results.

  5. You collect your data (data analysis) with graphs and tables.

  6. You draw a conclusion from the data.

  7. If the hypothesis was right and is proven several times, you have a theory.

In every scientific experiment you must be able to identify :

  • An independent variable: it is what is being changed.

  • A dependent variable: is what is being observed or measured. It is used to determine if the experimental variable is actually acting according to the hypothesis and the data collected.

  • A control group: it remains constant and without change. It is used to compare it to the experimental group.

  • An experimental group: it does have the experimental variable.



How to write a research project

Topic Sentence: it is an introduction that explains what you are writing about. It is written without having researched (is has no quotes) .

Details: they are examples that involve a research. You can’t give your opinion. They are used to support the writing.

Closing sentence: it is the conclusion.

SERENDIPITY:

When something is discovered by chance. It is highly important when talking about science. Serendipity needs good luck, background knowledge and curiosity.

EXAMPLES



Penicillin is one of the most famous and fortunate accidents of the 20th century.

Alexander Fleming didn't clean up his workstation before going on vacation one day in 1928. When he came back, Fleming noticed that there was a strange fungus on some of his cultures. Even stranger was that bacteria didn't seem to thrive near those cultures. Penicillin became the first and is still one of the most widely used antibiotics.





That pacemaker came about because American engineer Wilson Greatbatch was working on making a circuit to help record fast heart sounds. He reached into a box for a resistor in order to finish the circuit and pulled out a 1-megaohm resistor instead of a 10,000-ohm one. The circuit pulsed for 1.8 milliseconds and then stopped for one second. Then it repeated. The sound was a perfect heartbeat.



In 1856 Perkin was trying to come up with an artificial quinine. Instead of a malaria treatment, he had made the first-ever synthetic dye. His dye was far better than any dyes that came from nature; the color was brighter, more vibrant, and didn't fade or wash out. His discovery also turned chemistry into a money-generating science - making it attractive for a whole generation of curious-minded people.

One of the people inspired by Perkin's work was German bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich, who used Perkin's dyes to pioneer immunology and chemotherapy.





Plastic :In 1907 shellac was used as insulation in electronics. It was costing the industry a pretty penny to import shellac, which was made from Southeast Asian beetles, and at home chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland thought he might turn a profit if he could produce a shellac alternative. Instead his experiments yielded a moldable material that could take high temperatures without distorting. Baekeland thought his "Bakelite" might be used for phonograph records, but it was soon clear that the product had thousands of uses. Today plastic, which was derived from Bakelite, is used for everything from telephones to iconic movie punch lines.



Vulcanized Rubber :Charles Goodyear had been waiting years for a happy accident when it finally occurred.

Goodyear spent a decade finding ways to make rubber easier to work with while being resistant to heat and cold. Nothing was having the effect he wanted. One day he spilled a mixture of rubber, sulfur and lead onto a hot stove. The heat charred the mixture, but didn't ruin it. When Goodyear picked up the accident, he noticed that the mixture had hardened but was still quite usable. At last! The breakthrough he had been waiting for! His vulcanized rubber is used in everything from tires, to shoes, to hockey pucks.





Teflon: After all the damage they've done to the ozone layer, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, are persona non grata. Back in the 1930s, however, they were (pardon the pun) the hot new thing in the science of refrigeration. Young DuPont chemist Roy Plunkett was working to make a new a new kind of CFC. He had a theory that if he could get a compound called TFE to react with hydrochloric acid, he could produce the refrigerant he wanted. So, to start his experiment Plunkett got a whole bunch of TFEgas, cooled it and pressured it in canisters so it could be stored until he was ready to use it. When the time came to open the container and put the TFE and hydrochloric acid together so they could react, nothing came out of the canister. The gas had disappeared. Only it hadn't. Frustrated and angry, Plunkett took off the top of the canister and shook it. Out came some fine white flakes. Luckily for everyone who's ever made an omelet, he was intrigued by the flakes and handed them off to other scientists at DuPont.



Smart Dust Most people would be pretty upset if their homework blew up in their faces and crumbled into a bunch of tiny pieces. Not so student Jamie Link. When Link was doing her doctoral work in chemistry at the University of California, San Diego, one of the silicon chips she was working on burst. She discovered afterward, however, that the tiny pieces still functioned as sensors. The resulting "smart dust" won her the top prize at the Collegiate Inventors Competition in 2003. These teensy sensors can also be used to monitor the purity of drinking or seawater, to detect hazardous chemical or biological agents in the air, or even to locate and destroy tumor cells in the body.

UNIT 2: THE UNIVERSE OUR HOME



Fundamental forces in physics

There are 4 main forces in the university. They are classified depending on their relative strength.



  • Gravity: it was discovered by Newton. However, he didn’t really understand it. It was Einstein, who, after making the equations discovered the theory of relativity. He found that the medium that transmits gravity is space. This means that, space, when there is no mass on it, is flat.

But once there is mass, the space curves. This is how the Sun attracts the Earth or the Earth the Moon.

Gravity act between two objects with mass and has an infinite range. It is the weakest force. Gravity can be described by this formula: . Its force carrier is the graviton.
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