This document has been prepared under a contract by the Ministry of Agriculture, Waterworks and Forestry of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina – Project Implementation Unit Forestry and Agriculture FBiH, and Ministry of Agriculture, Waterworks and Forestry of Republika Srpska – Project Implementation Unit Forestry RS.
Consultant Bosna-S Consulting
Ul. Nova br. 26, 71000 Sarajevo
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Phone: +387 33 278 040 / 205 756
Fax: +387 33 200 074
Study Preparation Team Verner Huseljić, B.Sc. Chem. Eng.
The Study Preparation Team would like to thank the Project Implementation Unit Forestry RS, Project Implementation Unit Forestry and Agriculture FBiH, Ministry of Environment and Tourism FBiH (previously Ministry of Physical Planning and Environment FBiH), Ministry of Physical Planning, Urbanism, Construction Works and Ecology of RS, and the World Bank for the provision of project related information.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 7
2. REVIEW/DESCRIPTION OF THE LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE BiH FRAMEWORK 11
Administrative Framework 11
Environmental (Impact) Assessment Legislation 11
Relevant environmental legislation on the canton level 13
Other relevant legislation 15
Other relevant cantonal legislation 18
3. REVIEW/DESCRIPTION OF APPLICABLE WORLD BANK SAFEGUARD POLICIES 23
OP/BP 4.01 Environmental Assessment 23
OP 4.36 Forestry 23
OP/BP 4.04 – Natural Habitats 24
OPN 11.03 – Draft OP 4.11 Physical Cultural Resources 24
OP/BP 4.12 Involuntary Resettlement 25
4. DESCRIPTION OF BASELINE CONDITIONS 26
SUTJESKA NATIONAL PARK 26
Physical Characteristics 26
Biological Characteristics 27
Basic socio-economic characteristics 28
KOZARA NATIONAL PARK 31
Physical Characteristics 31
Biological Characteristics 32
Basic socio-economic characteristics 33
FOREST RESERVATIONS LOM AND JANJ 35
Physical Characteristics 35
Biological Characteristics 36
Basic socio-economic characteristics 37
UNA NATIONAL PARK 40
Physical Characteristics 40
Biological Characteristics 41
Basic socio-economic characteristics 42
BJELAŠNICA-IGMAN-TRESKAVICA-VISOČICA NATIONAL PARK 44
Physical Characteristics 44
Biological Characteristics 45
Basic socio-economic characteristics 46
5. PROJECT DESCRIPTION 48
5.1.1 Sutjeska National Park 49
5.1.2 Kozara National Park 50
5.1.3 Janj and Lom Forest Reservations 51
5.1.4 Una National Park 51
5.1.5 Bjelašnica-Igman-Treskavica-Visočica National Park 52
6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE EXISTING PROTECTED AREAS 53
6.1 Impacts on aesthetics 53
6.2 Impacts on soil 54
6.3 Impacts on watercourses and hydrologic characteristics of the terrain 55
APPENDIX 1 - Environmental Clauses for Civil Works Contractors 74
APPENDIX 2 – Records of Public Consultations 76
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The main long term objective of the Forest and Mountain Protected Area project is to facilitate overall extension of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s area under formal protection. The project-financed activities will range from developing and implementing new management plans in the existing Protected Areas (PAs), and analyzing options for their expansion, to establishing new PAs. The selected six priority project locations include four existing PAs - Sutjeska, Kozara, Janj, Lom, and the two newly proposed ones - Bjelašnica-Igman-Treskavica-Visočica and Una River, representing small virgin forests, existing National Parks, and newly proposed PAs. This project, rated environmental Category B by the World Bank, comprises three components: 1. Physical Improvement of Existing Protected Areas and Establishment and Operationalization of Critical New Priority Areas, 2. Strengthening of Capacity of Local, Entity and State Levels for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Land Use Practices, and 3. Generation of Alternative Rural Livelihood Opportunities through Wise Multiple-use of Protected Areas (Small Grants Program). The Project Component 1 will support improvement of the available and installation or minor construction of new physical infrastructure required to allow efficient management of existing PAs. This will include limited reconstruction, construction or installation of structures and equipment such as offices, gates, benches, signs, trails, fire extinguishers, etc.
This Environmental Assessment/Environmental Management Plan Framework document prepared in accordance with the World Bank safeguard policy OP/BP 4.01, analyzes and describes the administrative framework, national legislation on environmental assessment and other legislation of relevance for the issues of PAs, as well as the applicable World Bank safeguard policies. The Study preparation team also considered the findings of other available, related studies and literature when describing the baseline physical, biological and socio-economic features of the project areas, as well as the project alternatives on each location. In conjunction with this, maps showing the existing priority PAs and their surrounding, and proposed locations of new PAs were prepared (provided in Chapter 4 - Description of Baseline Conditons). These maps also indicate particularly sensitive and high value areas in terms of biodiversity. However, it should be noted that Bosnia and Herzegovina has not adopted a national Red List of endangered species, and no official inventories of wildlife have been compiled yet. Therefore precise quantification of habitats or species was not possible at the time of the preparation of this document. In view of this, it will be necessary to conduct as soon as possible thorough research activities, results of which will then represent a basis for proper monitoring of biodiversity.
Though to a varying extent, there are similar threats to biodiversity in all the project areas considered. These include uncontrolled and excessive logging, hunting and fishing, overexploitation of pastures, use of pesticides, improper disposal of hazardous waste, unexploded land mines remaining from the recent war, and discharges of untreated wastewater.
The key part of this document is the analysis of possible project related environmental impacts on aesthetics, watercourses, hydrology, biodiversity and habitats, residents and development of the project areas, and the Environmental Management Plan Framework with recommendations of impact mitigation measures and monitoring methodology, applicable to the existing, but also any new project locations that may be identified during later stages. These chapters also provide the essential institutional strengthening and arrangements for efficient monitoring and implementation of impact mitigation measures, and suggest Environmentally Sound Clauses for Contractors (Appendix 1), with some basic measures to be applied by construction contractors in order to avoid or minimize negative environmental impacts that may arise during the construction or reconstruction phase of the project, as well as a Screening Process for the activities to be nominated for the Small Grants Program.
The contents of the Draft 1 document were disclosed to public and discussed with various stakeholders during the public consultations process. Two central public consultations were organized, one for each BiH’s Entities – on June 7, 2007 at Bjelašnica Mountain near Sarajevo for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and on June 14, 2007 at Kozara National Park for Republika Srpska. The feedback from the attendees was taken into account during the consequent preparation of the Draft 2 and Final Reports. The minutes of the public consultations are provided in Appendix 2.
The overall, short-, mid- and long-term positive environmental impact of this project, whose main goal is to preserve the biodiversity and improve the use of natural resources, largely supersedes the identified possible negative impacts, which are mostly of local, short-term, or temporary character and of minor intensity. These negative impacts can be completely avoided or minimized by consistent implementation of the proposed mitigating measures. By accomplishing efficient management of the protected areas and natural resources, emissions of pollutants onto soil, into watercourses and air will be reduced and prevented on a long term basis, which will ultimately lead to a reduction of negative impacts on flora and fauna, as well as on humans living in the wider surrounding.