Kankam boadu



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UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST

CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN GHANA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHER TRAINEES AND TUTORS OF SOCIAL STUDIES

KANKAM BOADU

2012


UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST

C

ITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN GHANA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE PERCEPTIONS OF STUDENT TEACHERS AND TUTORS OF SOCIAL STUDIES



BY

KANKAM BOADU

THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES, FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARD OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

JUNE 2012

DECLARATION

Candidate’s Declaration

I hereby declare that this thesis is the result of my original work and that no part of it has been presented for another degree in this university or elsewhere.

Candidate’s Signature………………. Date………….………...

Name: Kankam Boadu



Supervisors’ Declaration

We hereby declare that the preparation of the thesis was supervised with the guidelines on supervision of thesis laid down by the University of Cape Coast.

Principal Supervisor’s Signature …………… Date…..……………..…

Name: Prof. S. B. Kendie

Co-Supervisor’s Signature………………..…. Date……………………

Name: Prof. J. V. Mensah




ABSTRACT


The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of social studies teacher trainees and their tutors in the colleges of education in Ghana with regards to the meaning and teaching methods that are most appropriate to teach citizenship education. The research drew upon social capital, ecological, and cognitive psychological theories to generate the conceptual framework for analysing the quantitative and qualitative data. The perceptions of tutors and teacher trainees of social studies in their final year from eight colleges of education were surveyed, and small samples of the respondents were interviewed to further understand both groups’ perceptions of citizenship education.

The major findings were: (i) Tutors and teacher trainees generally agreed on the components of citizenship education, chi-square test test showed that there was a difference in perceptions between tutors and teacher trainees (ii) Both tutors and trainees generally agreed on the characteristics of a good citizen. (iii) There was general agreement between the tutors and trainees that various classroom activities are important in the teaching of citizenship education and are being taught effectively. There were some differences between the groups on certain specific teaching methods and the effectiveness of the teaching of those activities. The study has made a significant contribution to the existing literature on citizenship education issues in the contemporary Ghanaian colleges of education. The study concludes with the recommendations to policy makers and stakeholders of education to consider the need to improve the quality of citizenship education materials.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I wish to record my profound appreciation and gratitude to my Principal Supervisor, Prof. S. B. Kendie of Institute for Development Studies, University of Cape Coast and Prof. J. V. Mensah, my Co-supervisor, also at the Institute for Development Studies, University of Cape Coast, for their scrutiny of this work, which has given it better focus. I am also thankful to Dr. Dan Dellow of the University of South Florida, United State of America, who mentored my work when I was a Ghanaian Scholar in America.

I am deeply indebted to Drs. Nana N. K. T. Ghartey and Dr. Enu-Kwesi for their concern and encouragement during the course of writing the thesis. My sincere thanks are due to Prof. S. N. Oden, Dr. H. O. Owulabi, Dr. Musa Wakhungo Olaka, Ben Osongo, Mr. E. Tawiah-Dadzie, Isaac Atta Kwenin, Peter Partey Anti and all members of staff of the Department of Arts and Social Sciences Education in particular and the entire University for the role they played in making my dream a reality.

My heartfelt gratitude goes to my father, mother, brothers and sisters, my wife, my children and all my family members who have been the constant source of inspiration and support to my work.

DEDICATION


To my wife Gloria and children

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Content Page

DECLARATION 2

ABSTRACT iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

DEDICATION 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

LIST OF TABLES v

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1

Background of the study 1

Statement of the problem 22

Objective of the study 25

Research questions 25

Scope 26

Significance of the study 26

Organisation of the study 27

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction 30

Theories of citizenship 30

Theories of citizenship education and development 32

Places and developmental context in citizen education 36

Emerging issues in citizenship 36

Core elements of citizenship 39

Citizenship in an African context 42

Citizenship in the Ghanaian context 53

The role of National Commission on Civic Education



In Citizenship Education in Ghana 58

Curricular dimensions of citizenship education 60

The need for citizenship education 60

Subject matter of citizenship education 63

Learning experiences in citizenship education 64

Approaches to citizenship education 66

Teaching and learning interactions in citizenship education 70

Evaluation of citizenship education 73

Citizenship education practices in schools and colleges 75

Challenges of citizenship education 79

Conceptual issues 81

Origin of the terms “citizens” and “citizenship” 81

The rights and obligations of citizens 84

The concept of citizenship education 86

Broad and narrow concepts of citizenship education 93

Citizenship education and social studies 95

EMPIRICAL REVIEW OF LITERATURE 97

Teachers’ Perceptions of citizenship education 95

Students’ perceptions of citizenship education 103

Conceptual framework for citizenship education and development 106

Summary of the chapter 113

CHAPTER THREE: CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION AND SOCIAL

STUDIES PERSPECTIVES WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN GHANA 114

History of education in Ghana 114

The structure of educational system in Ghana 116

Pre-school and first cycle education in Ghana 114

Junior High schools (JHS) 117

Senior Secondary schools 118

Teacher education development in Ghana 118

Technical and vocational education 121

The historical development of social studies 123

General background of social studies education 123

Development of social studies in the United States of America 124

Development of social studies in the English-speaking African countries 125

Foundation of social studies in Ghana 127

Goals and purposes of social studies 132

Citizenship education in teacher education 135

Summary of the chapter 137

CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLGY

Overview 139

Research paradigms 139

Positivism 141

Interpretive paradigm 141

Study area 144

Research design 147

Population 152

Sampling procedure 154

Sample size 155

Samples for the research 155

Research Instruments 160

Pre-testing 163

Validity of the instruments 164

Reliability of the instruments 165

Conducting the Interviews 168

Limitations to the Study 169

Data Analysis Technique 170

CHAPTER FIVE: TUTORS’ AND TEACHER-TRAINEES’

PERCEPTIONS OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION 173

Introduction 173

Ages of tutors in the colleges of education 173

Tutors and teaching experience 175

Tutors’ perception on citizenship education 179

Teacher trainees’ perceptions of citizenship education 183

Tutors and teacher trainees’ perceptions of citizenship education 192

Tutors’ and teacher trainees’ perceptions on a good Ghanaian citizen 196

CHAPTER SIX: CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION AND ITS PRACTICES IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION 204

The practice of citizenship education in the colleges of education in Ghana. 204

General approaches of introducing citizenship education 210

Goals of citizenship education 213

CHAPTER SEVEN: STRACTEGIES FOR ACHIEVING CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION 218

Values and skills required for good citizenship 225

Skills developed through citizenship education 236

Challenges of teaching citizenship education 243

CHAPTER EIGHT: REPRESENTATION OF THE INTERVIEW DATA 250

Introduction 250

Interview schedules 251

The analysis of the interviews of the Head of Department and



Teacher trainees (class leaders) of social studies 251

Meaning of ‘good citizen’ 252

The concept of citizenship 253

Development of citizenship through school the school curriculum 255

The importance of citizenship education in Ghana 259

Values and skills to be developed in citizenship education 260

Emerging issues 260

CHAPTER NINE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 262

Introduction 262

Summary 262

Teacher trainees’ and tutors' perceptions on citizenship education 265

Teacher trainees' and tutors' perceptions on a good Ghanaian citizen 261

The practice of citizenship education in the colleges of education 262

Methods for teaching citizenship education in the colleges of education 267

Values and skills developed through citizenship education 268

Challenges of teaching citizenship education 268

Conclusions 269

Policy implications recommended 271

Areas for further studies 273

REFERENCES 275

APPENDDICES 312

A: Questionnaire for tutors 317

B: Interview schedule for tutors 332

C: Questionnaire for teacher trainees 334

D: Interview schedule for teacher trainees 349

E: Distribution of population of final year teacher trainees 351



F: Reliability measure on teacher trainees and tutor 353

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page



1: Distribution of sampled colleges of education 157

2: Distribution of population and sample selected for teacher trainees 159

3: Ages of tutors in colleges of education 174

4: Tutors teaching experience in colleges 176

5: Tutor’ perception on citizenship education 179

6: Teacher trainees’ perception on citizenship education 184

7: Cross-tabulation of reponses for tutors’ and teacher trainees

by perceptions of citizenship education 192

8: Cross-tabulation of reponses for tutors’ and teacher trainees by

perceptions on characteristics of a good citizen 198

9: Respondents view on how citizenship education is practised in the

colleges of education 205

10: Teacher trainees and tutors views on how citizenship education

be approached 210

11: Goals of citizenship education 214

12: Importance and effectiveness of teaching methods 220

13: Important and effective values in citizenship education 230



14: Important and effective skills in citizenship education 238

15: Challenges of teaching citizenship education 245



LIST OF FIGURE

Figure Page

1: Citizenship education for national development 109


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