Land Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems

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Dry, cold, mountainous in areas/flat in areas, mostly white, treeless, some greenery (shrubs, lichen), permafrost

15 – 25 cm yearly/annually of mostly snow and ice

Average daily is -25 to 10 degrees Celsius
*temperatures are low because it is wet and evaporation occurs more slowly

North & South Poles and on extremely high mountains

*Extending across N. America, Europe, and Siberia

Greenland, Alaska, Canada, Russia

(parts of each)

Plants: Arctic mosses, willow, bearberry, pasque flower, diamond leaf willow, poppy flower, cotton grass (lichens, moss, shrubs, grasses) 400 varieties of flowers

Animals: Arctic Hares, Tundra Swan, polar bears, snowy owls (mice, reindeer, birds) Arctic Fox, Musk Ox, Turncoat Snowshoe rabbit, Ermine

(most live under the snow but burst into life during the summer),Rock Ptarmigan

Many animals are white to blend with environment, long periods of dark due to lack of sun, three-fourths of Tundra is permafrost, the word Tundra comes from the Finnish word Tunturia (treeless land)
*Too cold to support trees

*Snow lasts most of the year

Boreal Forest/Taiga
(aka: Coniferous Forest)

Cold, forest region, mountainous

20 – 200 cm per year
Summer: 25-50 cm

Winter: 50-101 cm

Winter: -53 degrees Celsius
Summer: -6 to 21 degrees Celsius

50 degree N – 60 degrees Latitude, North America, Northern Europe, Asia

Plants: lichen, Balsam Fir, Douglas Fir, Paper Birch (cone-bearing evergreens)

Animals: caribou. Ermine, Raccoon, red squirrel, warbler(variety), Snow Hare, Bobcat, Grizzly Bear

Takes up 11% of the world (largest biome), known as Earth’s green halo, can be seen from space,

Distinguishable by the smell of evergreens,

Muskeg – spongy soil from non-decayed vegetation.
Named after Greek goddess Boreal.

Temperate Deciduous Forest

trees that shed their leaves, wood that is good for furniture making, mountains and flat regions

At least 75-100 cm per yr,

Temperatures vary different seasons, 4 seasons, -7 to 20 degrees Celsius

Found on eastern U.S, Every continent except Antarctica

Plants: Ivy, Ferns, Bermuda Grass, Deciduous trees

Animals; White Tailed Deer, Squirrels, Thrushes, Turtles,Turkey

Five layers of plants:

Canopy, saplings & young trees, understory/shrubs, herbs/berries, moss/lichen

Very rich soil, Main predator/Human, being destroyed by logging

Temperate Rain Forest

Warm & cold, wet and dry seasons, dense forest with a variety of trees

200 – 350 cm per year

Moderate temperatures of 0 to 20 degrees Celsius

Pacific Northwest U.S., Chile, New Zealand, Western Canada

Plants: Eastern Redwood, Douglas Fir, moss, ground fern, (tall trees, variety of trees but most are coniferous


Parrots, deer, elk, cougars, slugs, black bear ,(able to live in cold and warm temps)

55% of the Earth’s Temperate Rainforests have been destroyed making them endangered,

To survive in this biome you must be able to adapt to extreme changes.

Tropical Rain Forest

heavy canopy of trees, wet, colorful,

More than 200-300 cm per year

(32 feet)

All year round: 17 to 25 degrees Celsius

Near equator, lies between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, 57% in Latin America, other in Brazil, Pacific Islands, West Africa

Plants: orchids, vines, palms, moss, Bromeliads, ferns, --(lush, green, shallow root system, 4 zones: Emergent layer, canopy, understory, floor)

Animals: tree frogs, orangutan, monkeys, ants, various reptiles, colorful birds, poisonous insects

Trophy hunting/poaching, many exotic food products and medicines come from the plants, app. 75 acres/minute of trees cut down, home to variety of exotic animals/bird, largest rainforest stretches across the Amazon Basin, all are endangered, receives 12 hours of sunlight.


Dry, sand or thin soil, some can be cold, some are very hot, landscape is very bare

Less than 25 cm per year (some in the south can have less than ½ inch per year)

Extreme heat and cold, usually 38 degrees Celsius during the day and 4 to 20 degrees Celsius at night in warmer regions, lower in cold desert biomes

Along the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, Western U.S., South America, parts of Australia, and Asia, cold deserts in Antarctica

Plants: cactus, sage brush, brittle brush, (few plants spaced far apart)

Animals: red-tailed hawk, gila monster, spiders, camel, snakes (animals that do not require large amounts of water)

Covers 1/5 of Earth’s land, dry climate usually restricts farming, Sahara Desert is the largest desert, cannot support large amounts of people


Large flat areas, few small trees, mainly grass, some small rolling hills, no forests

Savanna: brown grasses, shrubs

Prairie: green grasses, wildflowers

Average: 25 – 75 cm of rain per year, (A Savanna can receive up to 120 cm per yr.)

-6 degrees Celsius,

Ranges from mild to hot

Every continent except Antarctica,

Prairies-N. America, Steppes-Asia, Savannas-Africa & Australia, Pampas-South America

Plants: short grass, tall grass, shrubs. Variety of flowers, short trees

Animals: elephants, groundhogs, coyotes, kangaroo, antelope, zebra, bison, giraffe

Fires & draughts are common, poaching is a problem, most species in the savannas are endangered, large herbivores keep young trees & bushes from sprouting & competing with grass for water & sunlight


Rich soil, wet/dry seasons, flat, not many trees, lots of grass

50-120 cm

20 – 30 degrees Celsius

Australia, West Africa, South America

Plants: grasses, Acacia trees, Boabab trees

Animals: African Elephants, snakes, lions, crocodiles, gazelles, cheetahs, jaguars

Sometimes called Tropical Savanna, Australia – called a Bush, Boabab tree lives thousands of years, Acacia trees are home to lots of ants which attack animals that try to feed on the tree.


Lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, freshwater marshes, swamps

(Minimum to no salt concentration)

Will vary depending on the location

Will vary depending on location

All continents

Plants: lily pads, cattails, reeds, moss, duckweed, slocum lotus,

Animals: catfish, bass, turtle, snail, alligators, rainbow trout, deer, worms

Covers 1/5 of the Earth, most of the freshwater is frozen, most diverse ecosystem, 700 species of fish,


High salt concentration in the water, mainly blue, but gets darker as you go down

Will vary depending on the location,

Will vary depending on location

Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Southern

Plants: seaweed, algae, kelp, coral, shoal grass, and star grass

Animals: star fishes, whales, great white sharks, octopus, eels, tropical fish, sting ray, and squid

97% of all water on the Earth contains salt (ocean),the longest continuous chains of volcanoes are located under the ocean, the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the deepest part of the world’s ocean floor and the lowest elevation on the surface of the Earth.

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