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Study Guide:

A ninth grader is responsible for mastering certain learning goals over the course of her/his year. As a result, teachers use anchor texts, writing assignments, poetry, and drama, to teach students the learning goals through different genres. Although it is important apply these skills to the texts in ninth grade, it is equally important to apply the learning goals to new information you have never seen before. Why? Because mastering a skill means you can notice it in other areas of your life and you can use the skill you learned to critically think about new information beyond the classroom.

Completing this study guide will help you get ready to apply your mastery beyond the reading of 1984 and help to prepare you to show mastery on the summative assessment for this unit.



1.Read the following excerpt from 1984 and answer the inference, diction, and tone questions below:

Learning Goals: (read each learning goal—please do not skip)

  • I can read closely and find answers explicitly in text and answers that require an inference.

  • I can analyze how specific word choices build upon one another to create a cumulative impact on the overall meaning and tone of a text (i.e., denotative, connotative, figurative)

Outside, even though the shut window-pane, the world looked cold. Down in the street little eddies of wind were whirling dust and torn paper into spirals, and though the sun was shining and the sky a harsh blue, there seemed to be no colour in anything, except the posters that were

plastered everywhere. The black moustachio’d face gazed down from every commanding corner. There was one on the house-front immediately opposite. BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, the caption said, while the dark eyes looked deep into Winston’s own. Down at street level another poster, torn at one corner, flapped fitfully in the wind, alternately covering and uncovering the single word INGSOC. In the far distance a helicopter skimmed down between the roofs, hovered for an instant like a bluebottle, and darted away again with a curving flight. It was the police patrol, snooping into people’s windows. The patrols did not matter, however. Only the Thought Police mattered.



  1. What can you infer about the passage? Check all that apply

    1. Big Brother is an authoritarian figure who should be feared

    2. The setting of Oceania is a healthy place to live

    3. People of Oceania do not have free will

    4. People cannot escape the oppressiveness of BB

  2. Circle 5 words that strongly impact the text.

  3. Choose 3 of the strongest words and write them in the table below and complete the chart:

Word

Denotation

connotation

tone

commanding

appreciably superior or imposing; winning; sizable:

Overpowering and

fearful


Egotistical

harsh

grim or unpleasantly severe; stern; cruel; austere:

Negative behavior or feelings

Forceful

snooping

to prowl or pry; go about in a sneaking, prying way.

Negative way of intruding into someone’s life

Deceptive



  1. Based upon the chart, what tone is revealed in this passage? (look at your tone worksheet if that helps—this was given to you in class)

Since all of the tones were negative----for example commanding has an egotistical tone, harsh has a forceful tone and snooping has a deceptive tone, this allows George Orwell to express the Vindictive nature of the party and their strict control of the people. This shows that the party’s actions are negative, self-serving and dangerous.

2.Read the following short story and determine how the specific details reveal and refine a theme: Annotate as you read:

Learning Goal: I can determine how specific details in the text reveal and continually refine a theme.

The Open Window” by Saki



"My aunt will be down presently, Mr. Nuttel," said a very self-possessed young lady of fifteen; "in the meantime you must try and put up with me."

     Framton Nuttel endeavoured to say the correct something which should duly flatter the niece of the moment without unduly discounting the aunt that was to come. Privately he doubted more than ever whether these formal visits on a succession of total strangers would do much towards helping the nerve cure which he was supposed to be undergoing.

     "I know how it will be," his sister had said when he was preparing to migrate to this rural retreat; "you will bury yourself down there and not speak to a living soul, and your nerves will be worse than ever from moping. I shall just give you letters of introduction to all the people I know there. Some of them, as far as I can remember, were quite nice."

     Framton wondered whether Mrs. Sappleton, the lady to whom he was presenting one of the letters of introduction came into the nice division.

     "Do you know many of the people round here?" asked the niece, when she judged that they had had sufficient silent communion.

     "Hardly a soul," said Framton. "My sister was staying here, at the rectory, you know, some four years ago, and she gave me letters of introduction to some of the people here."

     He made the last statement in a tone of distinct regret.

     "Then you know practically nothing about my aunt?" pursued the self-possessed young lady.

     "Only her name and address," admitted the caller. He was wondering whether Mrs. Sappleton was in the married or widowed state. An undefinable something about the room seemed to suggest masculine habitation.

     "Her great tragedy happened just three years ago," said the child; "that would be since your sister's time."

     "Her tragedy?" asked Framton; somehow in this restful country spot tragedies seemed out of place.

<  2  >

     "You may wonder why we keep that window wide open on an October afternoon," said the niece, indicating a large French window that opened on to a lawn.

     "It is quite warm for the time of the year," said Framton; "but has that window got anything to do with the tragedy?"

     "Out through that window, three years ago to a day, her husband and her two young brothers went off for their day's shooting. They never came back. In crossing the moor to their favourite snipe-shooting ground they were all three engulfed in a treacherous piece of bog. It had been that dreadful wet summer, you know, and places that were safe in other years gave way suddenly without warning. Their bodies were never recovered. That was the dreadful part of it." Here the child's voice lost its self-possessed note and became falteringly human. "Poor aunt always thinks that they will come back someday, they and the little brown spaniel that was lost with them, and walk in at that window just as they used to do. That is why the window is kept open every evening till it is quite dusk. Poor dear aunt, she has often told me how they went out, her husband with his white waterproof coat over his arm, and Ronnie, her youngest brother, singing 'Bertie, why do you bound?' as he always did to tease her, because she said it got on her nerves. Do you know, sometimes on still, quiet evenings like this, I almost get a creepy feeling that they will all walk in through that window - "

     She broke off with a little shudder. It was a relief to Framton when the aunt bustled into the room with a whirl of apologies for being late in making her appearance.

     "I hope Vera has been amusing you?" she said.

     "She has been very interesting," said Framton.

     "I hope you don't mind the open window," said Mrs. Sappleton briskly; "my husband and brothers will be home directly from shooting, and they always come in this way. They've been out for snipe in the marshes today, so they'll make a fine mess over my poor carpets. So like you menfolk, isn't it?"



<  3  >

     She rattled on cheerfully about the shooting and the scarcity of birds, and the prospects for duck in the winter. To Framton it was all purely horrible. He made a desperate but only partially successful effort to turn the talk on to a less ghastly topic, he was conscious that his hostess was giving him only a fragment of her attention, and her eyes were constantly straying past him to the open window and the lawn beyond. It was certainly an unfortunate coincidence that he should have paid his visit on this tragic anniversary.

     "The doctors agree in ordering me complete rest, an absence of mental excitement, and avoidance of anything in the nature of violent physical exercise," announced Framton, who laboured under the tolerably widespread delusion that total strangers and chance acquaintances are hungry for the least detail of one's ailments and infirmities, their cause and cure. "On the matter of diet they are not so much in agreement," he continued.

     "No?" said Mrs. Sappleton, in a voice which only replaced a yawn at the last moment. Then she suddenly brightened into alert attention - but not to what Framton was saying.

     "Here they are at last!" she cried. "Just in time for tea, and don't they look as if they were muddy up to the eyes!"

     Framton shivered slightly and turned towards the niece with a look intended to convey sympathetic comprehension. The child was staring out through the open window with a dazed horror in her eyes. In a chill shock of nameless fear Framton swung round in his seat and looked in the same direction.

     In the deepening twilight three figures were walking across the lawn towards the window, they all carried guns under their arms, and one of them was additionally burdened with a white coat hung over his shoulders. A tired brown spaniel kept close at their heels. Noiselessly they neared the house, and then a hoarse young voice chanted out of the dusk: "I said, Bertie, why do you bound?"

     Framton grabbed wildly at his stick and hat; the hall door, the gravel drive, and the front gate were dimly noted stages in his headlong retreat. A cyclist coming along the road had to run into the hedge to avoid imminent collision.



<  4  >

     "Here we are, my dear," said the bearer of the white mackintosh, coming in through the window, "fairly muddy, but most of it's dry. Who was that who bolted out as we came up?"

     "A most extraordinary man, a Mr. Nuttel," said Mrs. Sappleton; "could only talk about his illnesses, and dashed off without a word of goodby or apology when you arrived. One would think he had seen a ghost."

     "I expect it was the spaniel," said the niece calmly; "he told me he had a horror of dogs. He was once hunted into a cemetery somewhere on the banks of the Ganges by a pack of pariah dogs, and had to spend the night in a newly dug grave with the creatures snarling and grinning and foaming just above him. Enough to make anyone lose their nerve."

     Romance at short notice was her speciality.


  1. The author plays with the theme of hunting in the story. How is Vera like a hunter and Mr. Nuttle the prey? Provide three examples from the text that support this theme.

-Vera actions manipulate Mr. Nuttle so his restful vacation now turns into an uncomfortable stay.

List three pieces of TE that support theme of the hunt. (how is Vera—hunter? Nuttle—prey?)

1.      "Out through that window, three years ago to a day, her husband and her two young brothers went off for their day's shooting. They never came back. In crossing the moor to their favourite snipe-shooting ground they were all three engulfed in a treacherous piece of bog. It had been that dreadful wet summer, you know, and places that were safe in other years gave way suddenly without warning. Their bodies were never recovered. That was the dreadful part of it." Here the child's voice lost its self-possessed note and became falteringly human. "Poor aunt always thinks that they will come back someday, they and the little brown spaniel that was lost with them, and walk in at that window just as they used to do. That is why the window is kept open every evening till it is quite dusk.

2.      "The doctors agree in ordering me complete rest, an absence of mental excitement, and avoidance of anything in the nature of violent physical exercise," announced Framton, who laboured under the tolerably widespread delusion that total strangers and chance acquaintances are hungry for the least detail of one's ailments and infirmities, their cause and cure. "On the matter of diet they are not so much in agreement," he continued.

3.      "Here they are at last!" she cried. "Just in time for tea, and don't they look as if they were muddy up to the eyes!"

b. Explain what message is supposed to be revealed about the hunt. Write a theme statement below (theme statement=topic + message)

There will always be people in the world who want to stir up mischief so it is better to stir clear of their selfish intentions.

3.Read the following short story by Ray Bradbury and determine how complex character develop over the course of a text to reveal a theme, inference can be drawn from reading, diction creates an impact and tone on a piece of writing.

Learning Goals:


  • I can analyze how complex characters develop over the course of the grade-appropriate text to reveal a theme

  • I can read closely and find answers explicitly in text and answers that require an inference.

  • I can analyze substantive topics or texts to compare information

  • I can analyze how specific word choices build upon one another to create a cumulative impact on the overall meaning and tone of a text (i.e., denotative, connotative, figurative)





“The Last Night of the World” By Ray Bradbury

Jun 6, 2012 , Huffington Post

http://www.esquire.com/entertainment/books/a14340/ray-bradbury-last-night-of-the-world-0251/



Originally published in the February 1951 issue of Esquire

"What would you do if you knew this was the last night of the world?"

"What would I do; you mean, seriously?"

"Yes, seriously."

"I don't know — I hadn't thought. She turned the handle of the silver coffeepot toward him and placed the two cups in their saucers.



He poured some coffee. In the background, the two small girls were playing blocks on the parlor rug in the light of the green hurricane lamps. There was an easy, clean aroma of brewed coffee in the evening air. (1)


1.What tone is revealed in this passage? Why?

The tone can be revealed as contented. First because the girls were playing with their blocks shows that they are happy and engaged in their imagination and being kids, Second, “the light of the lamp” shows that the room is illuminated and pleasant. Lastly, because the smells of coffee and evening air all have a positive tone of being peaceful.

"Well, better start thinking about it," he said.

"You don't mean it?" said his wife.

He nodded.

"A war?"

He shook his head.

"Not the hydrogen or atom bomb?"

"No."


"Or germ warfare?"

"None of those at all," he said, stirring his coffee slowly and staring into its black depths. "But just the closing of a book, let's say."

"I don't think I understand."

"No, nor do I really. It's just a feeling; sometimes it frightens me, sometimes I'm not frightened at all — but peaceful." He glanced in at the girls and their yellow hair shining in the bright lamplight, and lowered his voice. "I didn't say anything to you. It first happened about four nights ago."

"What?"


2. How is this passage similar to 1984? Explain and support answer with TE.

Winston also hears a voice in a dream. He hears O’Brien saying “we will meet in the place with no darkness”. This dream propels Winston’s relationship with O’Brien and enables him to quickly trust him. In the short story, the father also believes the dream and doesn’t question where it came from or its credibility. He just prepares to kill his daughter because he was “told” to do so. Both stories show that listening to dreams or voices without further investigation can lead to disaster.
"A dream I had. I dreamt that it was all going to be over and a voice said it was; not any kind of voice I can remember, but a voice anyway, and it said things would stop here on Earth. I didn't think too much about it when I awoke the next morning, but then I went to work and the feeling as with me all day. I caught Stan Willis looking out the window in the middle of the afternoon and I said, 'Penny for your thoughts, Stan,' and he said, 'I had a dream last night,' and before he even told me the dream, I knew what it was. I could have told him, but he told me and I listened to him."(2)

"It was the same dream?"

"Yes. I told Stan I had dreamed it, too. He didn't seem surprised. He relaxed, in fact. Then we started walking through offices, for the hell of it. It wasn't planned. We didn't say, let's walk around. We just walked on our own, and everywhere we saw people looking at their desks or their hands or out the windows and not seeing what was in front of their eyes. I talked to a few of them; so did Stan."

"And all of them had dreamed?"

"All of them. The same dream, with no difference."

"Do you believe in the dream?"

"Yes. I've never been more certain."

"And when will it stop? The world, I mean."

"Sometime during the night for us, and then, as the night goes on around the world, those advancing portions will go, too. It'll take twenty-four hours for it all to go."


3. What can you infer about this passage? Explain?

This shows they are unfazed by the fact that they are so brainwashed by their government that or fine with the fact that this is the end of the world- When it states, they sat , then lifted, then looked. It shows they pause for a moment in the harshness of the situation, but then carry on with enjoying the evening. No choice. So they just sit paralyzed.
They sat awhile not touching their coffee. Then they lifted it slowly and drank, looking at each other. (3)

"Do we deserve this?" she said.



"It's not a matter of deserving, it's just that things didn't work out. I notice you didn't even argue about this. Why not?" (4)


4. How does this passage parallel Julia’s behavior in 1984?

This parallels Julia because she just accepts certain behavior of the party instead of challenging them or engaging the youth to overthrow government. Likewise, the woman contemplates change, but never engages with anyone else to talk and change the result.


"I guess I have a reason," she said.

"The same reason everyone at the office had?"

She nodded. "I didn't want to say anything. It happened last night. And the women on the block are talking about it, just among themselves." She picked up the evening paper and held it toward him. "There's nothing in the news about it."

"No, everyone knows, so what's the need?" He took the paper and sat back in his chair, looking at the girls and then at her. "Are you afraid?"

"No. Not even for the children. I always thought I would be frightened to death, but I'm not."


5. How would Winston respond to this passage? Why?

Winston would be upset that the father is not trying to stop this. He would shake this man and say the only way to change your life is to speak your truth. And the truth is that things can change if one wants to fight/ speak up for it. At least ask questions---Try to stop the end.
"Where's that spirit of self-preservation the scientists talk about so much?"(5)

"I don't know. You don't get too excited when you feel things are logical. This is logical. Nothing else but this could have happened from the way we've lived."

"We haven't been too bad, have we?"

"No, nor enormously good. I suppose that's the trouble. We haven't been very much of anything except us, while a big part of the world was busy being lots of quite awful things."

The girls were laughing in the parlor as they waved their hands and tumbled down their house of blocks.

"I always imagined people would be screaming in the streets at a time like this."

"I guess not. You don't scream about the real thing."

"Do you know, I won't miss anything but you and the girls. I never liked cities or autos or factories or my work or anything except you three. I won't miss a thing except my family and perhaps the change in the weather and a glass of cool water when the weather's hot, or the luxury of sleeping. Just little things, really. How can we sit here and talk this way?"

"Because there's nothing else to do."(6)


6. What can be inferred by his passage? Why?

A few things can be inferred. First, when she says she will miss her family, it can be inferred that the relationships and love that families create are the most important things in a life. They bring purpose and joy. Therefore, caring and loving others is more important than any other action. Secondly, she states that the little things will be missed. For example, it is not wealth, or status, but the small pleasures of life that should be treasured.


"That's it, of course, for if there were, we'd be doing it. I suppose this is the first time in the history of the world that everyone has really known just what they were going to be doing during the last night."

"I wonder what everyone else will do now, this evening, for the next few hours."

"Go to a show, listen to the radio, watch the TV, play cards, put the children to bed, get to bed themselves, like always."

"In a way that's something to be proud of — like always."

"We're not all bad."

"Well," he said. "What shall it be? Wash the dishes?"

They washed the dishes carefully and stacked them away with especial neatness. At eight-thirty the girls were put to bed and kissed good night and the little lights by their beds turned on and the door left a trifle open.

"I wonder," said the husband, coming out and looking back, standing there with his pipe for a moment."

"What?"


"If the door should be shut all the way or if it should be left just a little ajar so we can hear them if they call."

"I wonder if the children know — if anyone mentioned anything to them?"

"No, of course not. They'd have asked us about it."

They sat and read the papers and talked and listened to some radio music and then sat together by the fireplace looking at the charcoal embers as the clock struck ten-thirty and eleven and eleven-thirty. They thought of all the other people in the world who had spent their evening, each in their own special way.

"Well," he said at last. He kissed his wife for a long time.

"We've been good for each other, anyway."

"Do you want to cry?" he asked.

"I don't think so."

They went through the house and turned out the lights and locked the doors, and went into the bedroom and stood in the night cool darkness undressing. She took the spread from the bed and folded it carefully over a chair, as always, and pushed back the covers. "The sheets are so cool and clean and nice," she said.

"I'm tired."

"We're both tired."

They got into bed and lay back.

"Wait a moment," she said.


7. What is the inferred irony? Because the world is ending so turning off the water is not impt.

The irony is that the world will end and that turning off the water doesn’t matter because the end of the world is happening
He heard her get up and go out into the back of the house, and then he heard the soft shuffling of a swinging door. A moment later she was back. "I left the water running in the kitchen," she said. "I turned the faucet off." (7)


8. what can you infer about the last line “dear….”?----The world ends-----ends abruptly in mid sentence.

9. Write three character traits of the wife throughout the short story



Character trait

summary

Text evidence

Theme statement

concerned










Conscientious










Powerless




"I guess I have a reason," she said.

"The same reason everyone at the office had?"

She nodded. "I didn't want to say anything. It happened last night. And the women on the block are talking about it, just among themselves." She picked up the evening paper and held it toward him. "There's nothing in the news about it."





What theme can be revealed about the short story based on the wife’s character? Write it below
Something about this was so funny that he had to laugh.

She laughed with him, knowing what it was that she had done that was so funny. They stopped laughing at last and lay in their cool night bed, their hands clasped, their heads together.

"Good night," he said, after a moment.

"Good night," she said, adding softly, "dear..." (8)

10. What is the purpose of expository writing? To explain

11. What is the format for an expository essay? (use a double chunk paragraph)

Intro? Lead, Background Information, Thesis

Body? TS, TE, COMM, TE, COMM, CS

Conclusion? Restate/reimagine thesis, summarize, leave audience with a lasting impression

12. Write an expository essay using the following theme statement:



  1. Using two examples from Winton’s character in Books I, II or III, explain how he reveals that technology will eventually lead to dehumanization of a culture.

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