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Abdul Sayeed - Isaac Hoffman - Kishen Desai - Aika Miah


Research paper 2 ( lsbu hnd students) Page Number:

Abdul Sayeed - Will streaming movies online eventually be the downfall of the cinema companies? 2-7
Isaac Hoffman - Contributions of Edward Frank Ted Codd to field of computing 8-13
Kishen Desai - What’s all the fuss about Cloud computing 14-23
Aika Miah - business & information technology 24-32
Appia gyamerah - What do you think the future holds for computer games? 33-39
Brain Muyambo - The exploitation of an influential technology: Computers 40-44
Charlie Lawrence - will printed newspaper soon become a thing of the past 45-50
Christian Baeza - What was the importance of Steve Jobs to Apple? 51-55
Cleveland Forte - What contribution have computers made to the film industry. 56-59
Jackson Cabulo - Open-source software can be downloaded for free: so why do people still purchase expensive software such as Microsoft Office? 60-65
Martinho Do Reino - history of microsoft corporation 66-74
Muridi Mohammed - Should we have more laws restricting certain freedom on the Internet? 75-77
Myles Toussaint - Is it unethical for line managers to ban their staff from checking and sending personal emails through Hotmail and Gmail during office hours? 78-79
Richard Cottington - Do computers/video games have a place in the learning environment? 80-89
Zamin Zulfiqar - Do computers/video games have a place in the learning environment? 90-98

Will streaming movies online eventually be the downfall of the cinema companies?


In this report paper I will research whether ‘Will streaming movies online eventually be the downfall of the cinema companies?’ I will document my findings and explain in detail how and why online movies effect the cinema industry and what can be done to solve this issue. I will also talk about the advantages and disadvantages of both online movies and cinemas.

Online Movies


Online movie streaming has become very popular lately the main reason for this is because internet users can watch or download movies for free at no extra cost, even the latest movies can now be found online with no compromise to quality. The internet provides good quality movies with most in 1080 HD or DVD standard with vivid sound quality, plus language barriers are broken with the convenience of subtitles or dubbed (Voice covers) movies. This is also available 24/7 and can be watched from anywhere in the world where there is a stable internet connection. According to another benefit of online movies is the availability “to watch old and classic movies which are hard to find on DVDs” (, 2015)

The internet has a vast amount of websites dedicated to online movies these sites are safe and reliable to users making it so easy for anyone to access via all sorts of devices such as computers, laptops, mobile phones, tablets and even smart TVs etc. Also companies such as Netflix, Love film, Sky TV and Now TV provide consumers with video entertainments including box sets of TV programmes and movies etc. Furthermore apps such as Show Box can be downloaded on to smartphones which provides greater availability of movies or shows to users as nowadays most people have such devices. According to “The number of smartphone owners has reached 72 per cent in the UK, growing by 14 per cent in the last 10 months alone, according to research from Deloitte.” (Styles, K. 2013) This figure just shows how much of the UK population have access to online streaming of movies just from their mobile device.

Melissa Maerz from says: “The old-fashioned idea that you can only experience total immersion in a theatre isn’t true anymore, since home theatre technology is catching up with the multiplexes, and you—not the film’s director or the theatre manager—can control every aspect of your viewing at home” (Great debates: Are movies better in a theatre or at home? 2015). Modern day technology has made watching movies more convenient and suitable for the user for example by being able to watch movies from home it means you do not need to suffer the problems you’ll face in a cinema such as disruptions from other viewers, background noise, uncomfortable seating or environment, limited snacks etc. Streaming videos from home has changed the experience of movie time as now the possibilities are endless, the user can pause the movie whenever they like or even rewind or forward to a certain point. The power of watching a film is now in the viewers hands.

Furthermore from my research I have found out that the prices of cinema tickets are pretty expensive because of this many consumers turn to online movies as a better alternative. Cinema companies such as VUE charge adults £11.79 per ticket, why would an individual pay this price? When they can subscribe to Netflix at £5.99 a month and have access to unlimited movies and TV programmes. There many benefits and advantages to online streaming of movies.


However there are some issues with online streaming firstly the websites you use maybe untrustworthy and unsafe it can contain viruses which can hack your details and affect your device. Also these sites can be displaying unauthorised content or allowing illegal downloads of movies breaking copyright laws. Therefore it’s always important to view online movies on trustworthy and reliable websites which are safe.

Furthermore another disadvantage of online movies is that if you was to download the movie it can be very time consuming however this can be easily solved by using a faster internet connection which has a higher download speed.

Overall there are many advantages to online movies which exceed the disadvantages, internet users who are knowledgeable can successfully stream online movies without running into any of these cons but benefiting from the pros.

Effect on Cinema Companies

All the above factors make online movies very popular however this effects the cinema industry as numbers of ticket sold by cinemas have been reducing in the past few years. Although there is an obvious correlation between online movies increasing and cinema viewers decreasing, the main factor for the down fall is due to price. However the streaming of online movies has led this trend even more with the large proportion of people now signing up to and subscribing to entertainment platforms such as Netflix. The line graph below shows the number of subscribers to Netflix as you can see more than 10 million customers signed up this year and it’s subscribers are still increasing very vastly.

“The table below shows trends in UK cinema admissions (millions) since 1935.
From an historic high immediately post-war of 1.64 billion in 1946, UK cinema admissions gradually declined to an all-time low of just 54 million in 1984.
Since that time, the advent of the multiplex, and record levels of investment in improving the theatrical experience (still ongoing), have seen admissions recover such that since 2000, they have remained (sometimes significantly so) above 150 million.” (, 2015)

This suggests that the cinema is not that popular as it once used to be also you can see the steady fall since 2012, this trend may continue and could be a result of online movie streaming and companies such as Netflix, Sky TV, Love film, Now TV etc. which provide such services.

Furthermore these results can also be caused because of the change in price of cinema tickets. But there is no specific data to suggest that the downfall for cinema companies is or will be caused by streaming online movies as there are other factors at play.

Although the data shows a fall in admissions, cinemas are still very popular when a latest movie is released sales can exceed up to millions such as this year’s Spectre has already totalled more than £41 million since its release date on October 26th 2015. This suggests how customary cinemas can be and that there will always be a demand for cinemas even though there are fluctuations within the yearly admissions.

Cinemas are a very common sight throughout the world both MEDC and LEDC have cinemas as they are a very popular source of entertainment. The number of cinemas in the UK suggest their popularity as they can be found in most towns especially in London which generates the most amount of box office Admissions in the UK at £40 million last year (, 2015).


The cinema attracts a large number of people every day, nowadays it’s a common saying “going to the cinema” for young people it’s a very sociable event and will be regarded as a hobby. Some say cinemas can be a good learning experience as some movies provide the viewer with information which they can learn from.

Furthermore the cinema provides an experience you can’t find anywhere else such as watching videos on an extremely immense high definition screen with exquisite sound and picture quality. Also the option of 3D movies which brings the cinema and film to life draws customers. The cinema is a great source of socialisation and enjoyment between friends and families.

Another advantage of the cinema is that customers can purchase a monthly member pass which allows them to visit the cinema whenever and however many times they want with only a monthly fee. This can save cinema lovers a lot of money in the long term if they are a regular.


However there are some drawbacks to cinema firstly it can be expensive, ticket prices are pretty high and the snacks available in the cinema aren’t cheap. Secondly another disadvantage of cinemas is the fact that you have to share your experiences with others so there maybe someone who’s causing a scene and disrupting others or just too loud. Also cinemas can be uncomfortable for some people as the seating may not be perfect and then there’s the possibility that you might miss some of the movie if you need to use the toilet or grab more snacks.

But the most talked about problem with cinema is the effect it could have on viewers. Violent and criminal/thrilling movies are increasing and these can influence some individuals to live there life like a movie. These films are made for people over the age of 18 but it’s uncontrollable to stop young audiences from accessing these inappropriate violent movies which can affect them mentally and lead people astray. The cinema can also become very costly if a person visits the cinema to often it can become an addiction


In conclusion my research suggests there are many reasons why there is a fall in cinema viewers, one significant reason is because of streaming movies online however this is only one of many factors which is effecting the cinema industry and its companies. Other factors include the price of cinema tickets which maybe the reason behind the reduction of cinema viewers as most people believe it is too expensive. Also the experience of watching a movie in the cinemas has become uncomfortable nowadays because of the use of mobile phones etc. this has affected people’s choices of revisiting the cinema again. But online movies and entertainment platforms such as Netflix, Sky TV, Love film, Now TV etc. play a major role in the downfall as they provide a more convenient movie experience at no extra cost at all it also offers more options and choices for the user as they can access all sorts of movies which one cannot find in a cinema.

Both online movies and cinema have their advantages which outweigh the disadvantages however online movies are more popular and nowadays due to the availability most people will prefer streaming movies online rather than going to the cinema. Firstly it’s not costly at all and provides access to a greater portfolio of movies compared to a cinema also it’s in the convenience of the user’s home. Whereas cinemas can be pretty expensive for the tickets and the snacks also the cinema environment may not give the best experience as you have to share it with hundreds of other people. The competition from these entertainment providers have affected the cinema market but all is not lost.

Overall streaming movies online may eventually be the downfall of Cinema Company’s however research shows that cinemas will always be an important part of society and that it’s a very popular source of entertainment and socialisation for people young or old. Furthermore modern technology has been adding value to the cinema industry with the introduction of 3D movies and even 4D has completely changed the cinema experience, one which cannot be experienced unless you visit the cinema. Therefore cinemas will always be around as there would always be some demand for it, especially during new movie releases, people tend to watch these movies in the cinema as it provides a better and unique experience which you can’t get from online movie streaming.

In order for cinema companies to overcome the problem of losing customers they can choose to lower ticket prices which will definitely lead to an increase in sales also if cinema companies were to screen different movies or even box sets it may increase their customer base. Likewise advancing the cinema experience will surely entice people to visit the cinema more often, so if cinema companies were to invest in their product such as improving the seating, evolving their screens quality, cheaper and wider snack options etc. Cinemas companies can slowly but surely win back customers and gain more viewers.


The benefits from watching movies online (no date) Available at:
(Accessed: 6 November 2015)

Styles, K. (2013) 7 in 10 people in the UK now own a Smartphone - mobile marketing. Available at: (Accessed: 6 November 2015).

Great debates: Are movies better in a theatre or at home? (no date) Available at: (Accessed: 6 November 2015).

Statista (2015) Number of Netflix streaming subscribers worldwide from 3rd quarter 2011 to 3rd quarter 2015 (in millions) (2013) Available at:

(Accessed: 7 November 2015).

Mariette (2015) UK cinema admissions and box office | annual admissions | UK cinema association. Available at:

(Accessed: 7 November 2015).

Advantages and disadvantages of watching movies online (2011) Available at:
(Accessed: 7 November 2015).

The advantages and disadvantages of the cinema (no date) Available at:
(Accessed: 8 November 2015).

Contributions of Edward Frank Ted Codd to field of computing

I'm doing a research on Edward Frank Ted Codd and his contributions on the field of computing. Edward F Codd was born on August 23, 1923, Portland (Dorset in England) and sadly passed away in April 18, 2003, William Island in Florida. Ted’s work was based on the contribution which was the theory of Relational Database, while working on relational database for IBM he created a relational database which is also known as database management but his work significantly contributes to different departments of computing but the relational model, which was a very convincing general theory of data management; was and still is his most important achievement. He attended Poole Grammar School and he studied mathematics and chemistry at Exeter College at Oxford, before he served as a pilot in the Royal Air Force during World War II in 1948. He moved to New York to work for IBM as a mathematical programmer, he then thought of moving to Ottawa, Canada, whiles living in Canada; within a few year he then returned to the United States where he achieved his degree in Doctor of Computer Science at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbour. Two a half years later he moved to San Jose, California to work in IBM ovom Research Centre Almaden Research Centre.

He worked on his theories of agreement data, at the time of issuing his paper in a relational model of data for large shared data banks in 1970, after an internal IBM paper of the year earlier. To the great disappointment, IBM proved slow to exploit his ideas and work ethic until they were starting to make rivals. Initially, IBM refused to implement the relational model in to preserve revenue. Codd then showed IBM customer achieve the potential of their models, and as a result of him doing that the project system and sub project of the forehead was appointed to him and developers who were not fully aware of the Coddovim ideas, and therefore isolate a team of Codd. As a result he did not use Coddov Alpha language but created non-relation, sequel. Even then, Sequel was so superior self-proclaimed system, that was copied on the basis of the paper which was presented at conference before it got released by Larry Ellison in the Oracle DBMS which was actually released in earlier because by then the ownership status of the original title and sequel was renamed SEQUEL.

Edward continued to developed and expand the relational model that he had started, whiles working he sometimes in collaborated with Chris Date. One of the normalized form back then which was known as Boyce Codd normal form, has been appointed by Codd as the relational model started to be In fashion in the early 1980s, Codd had fought some rough battle to prevent certain violence and abuse to the name of the vendor database that are just old technology that had been labelled relational. As a result of this campaign, 12 rules were published which defined exactly what constitutes a relational database. His campaign has spread to the sequel language which is considered extremely inaccurate implementation of the theory. This made his current position at IBM considerably awkward and Ted was therefore left to form his own company after consulting with Chris Date and others that worked with him.

Ted introduced the 12 laws of on the internet analytical processing as mention earlier on but although they were never truly accepted after being brought up to see that the work he had worked on was sponsored by vendor software. He also expanded the idea of the relational model to cover the problems of database design in its relational model term that were being analysed. Edward Frank Ted Codd also contributed in the field of Cellular Automata. He received the Turning Award in 1981 and after, he became a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. Reflecting on his life and the life that he had lived the reason for his death was a heart attack at home on Islands Williams in Florida at the age of 79 on Friday the 18th April 2003 as mentioned earlier. In 2004, sigmod was renamed the highest award which was sigmod innovations award in Edward Frank Ted Codd honour. According to Edward Frank Codd, future users of large data banks must be protected from having to know the data is organized in the machinery also known as the internal representation. A prompting service with the supplies such information is not a satisfactory solution. Activities of user at terminals and most application programs should remain unaffected when the internal representation of data is changed and even when some aspects of the external representation are changed. Changes in data representation will often be needed as a result of changes in query, update, report, traffic and natural growth in the types of stored information. Existing non- inferential, formatted data systems provide users with tree-structured files or slightly more general network models of the data. In sections 1 inadequacies of these models are discussed. A model based on nary relations, a normal form for data base relations, and the concept of the universal data sub language are introduced. In Section 2, certain operations on relations (other than logical inference) are discussed and applied to the problems of redundancy and consistency in the user’s model.

Computers can store vast amounts of data. But before Dr. Codd’s work found its wat into commercial products, electronics databases were completely and higgledy piggledy, according Chris Dates, a database expert and former business partner of Dr, Codss’s who was known as Ted. Dr. Codd’s, based on mathematical set theory was to store data in cross-reference tables, allowing the information to be presented in multiple permutations; for instance, a user could ask the computer for a list of all baseball players from both the National League and the American League with Batting average over 300. Relational databases now lie at the end of systems ranging from hospitals’ patient records to airlines flights and schedules. While working as a researcher at the IBM San Jose Research Laboratory on the 1960’s and 70’s , Dr. Codd wrote several papers outlining his ideas to his frustration, IBM largely ignored his work as the company was investing heavily at the time in commercializing a different type of database system.

Most of the data transactions we routinely make today that use bank accounts and credit cards, trading stock and making travel reservation and participation in online auctions use relational database based on the work Ted did when he was working at IBM and, abstract and some difficult mathematical theories that Codd first published when he was working at IBM. Ted’s basic idea was that relationships between data items should be based on the item’s value, and not on separately specified or nesting. It was greatly voted and simplified that the specification and queries was allowed to be flexible and to know about data that exists in so many different ways. Reflecting on my research, a staff member at Almaden believed that people who use computers who work on natural language she be able to work more on natural language on a new level and that they shouldn't worry about how or where the data is being stored the more work they produce about the natural language of relational database the more good progress will be accomplished.

A native of England, Edward Frank Ted Codd invented a novel multiprogramming method from IBM’s pioneering this method enabled STRETCH, the forerunner to modem mainframe computers, to run and solve programs at the same time. Multiprogramming is a rudimentary form which is processed in different several programs which runs at the same time on a uniprocessor.

Codd’s relational model of data is one of the most important innovations of the previous 85 years. Codd’s long-time collaborator, Codd’s biggest overall achievement was to make database management into science, he put his work in the science work and provided a theory to prove his work through relational model in different and how important it is for our economy to tackle certain problem they were facing back then

Incidentally, it was not as widely known that Ted not only invented the relational model in particular he invented the whole concept of a data model in general (data model in database management) for both the relational model and data model in general, Codd stressed the importance of the distinction between a data model and its physical implementation. He recognized the potential of using predicate logical as a foundation for a database language. He discussed this possibility briefly in his 1969 and 1970 papers and then using the predicate logic as a basis, he went on to describe in detail what was probably the very first relational language to be defined.

The depth and breadth of Ted’s contribution are reflected in the long list of honour conferred on him during his lifetime. He was an IBM Fellow, an ACM Fellow and a Fellow of the British Computer Society. He was also an elected both the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received the ACM Turning Award, the most prestigious award in the field of computer science alongside all the awards; he also received numerous other professional wards. Ted Codd was a genuine pioneer and an inspiration to everyone who had the good fortune and honour to know him work with him. He was always someone who liked to about crediting other people’s work and contributions and despite his huge achievement, he was careful never to make huge and unwanted claims; for example, he never claimed that the relational model could solve all possible problems or that it would last forever. Yet those who truly understand the model class of problems it can solve is extraordinarily large and that relational model will be there to be used for a very long time to come. Other inspired people may try to build the system built on the basis of Codd’s relational model as his life work has been published and established for as far out as anyone can see.

The concept of importance and essential work that was provided by Ted in this debate is a great aid to the clear thinking in discussions on the nature of the data and database management systems. The information principle which Ted was heard refereeing to one occasion as the fundamental principle underlying the relational model relies on it.

The entire information content of a relational database is represented in one and only one way, naming his work as attribute within relations. In addition to all of his research activities, Ted was active professionally in other areas the field of computing. He found the ACM special interest committee on file description and translation and he changed the name to the special interest group he then changed the name again to special interest group on management of data. Although Ted was an inspiration to others and me he was never tired of his work, he did this while working inside IBM and outside his workplace. Ted’s achievement with the relational model cannot be compared to his original contributions in several other important aspects of his work, such as multiprogramming. He led the team that developed IBM’s first multiprogramming system report on the work that they worked on in addition to his work on natural language, although Ted’s work processing was described in several ways including seven ways of coming to an agreement to meet casual users that Ted worked on in his database management, when he was processing the proceedings work whiles working on conference database management in 1974, his work was edited by J.W Klimbie KK Koffeman (North Holland, in 1974).

To me, I personal think Dr. Edward Frank Ted Codd is a real genius to have invented the relational database model to have been awarded with all those important lifelong awards he really did a remarkable choice in life to provide the world with such complex invention even though it can help solve the world’s problems but it’s a start and that start is something to definitely look forward to as people will be born to fill his shoes and even do much better and improve on Dr, Edward Frank Ted Codd’s work. For someone to have come from the Royal Air Force in England to move in the United States to invented something as complex as his work is really interesting, it’s a shame his not with the world now; I would want to know what he would have done to help the world even more. Although good don’t live long, I hope his spirit and soul lives long in us the new generation embarking the journey he took decades ago.


This is where I got my reference from. Kateie Hafnier, Published in April 23rd, 2003. Communication of the ACM, Volume 12/ Number 6/ June 1970 1974, his work was edited by J.W Klimbie KK Koffeman (North Holland, in 1974). Thomas F Budinger – this website gives you access to Edward’s work on multiprogramming.

All the links above are where I got the contributions of Dr. Edward Frank Ted Codd and how he came about to be one of the greatest men in the field of computing.

What’s all the fuss about Cloud computing


This research assignment will be about cloud computing and how it affects the general world as a whole. The research will give a deeper understanding of what cloud computing is and what the pros and cons of it, consequently then there will be a comparison.

What is a cloud?

It’s a unique IT environment that is equipped for remote storage of data. It is used alongside the world wide web. The cloud hosts an IT resource that can be a servers, operating system and networks, online. Before the cloud was around, the symbol before was used to represent the internet in many documentation and specifications. A cloud is a section of the internet where it is independent therefore it is run by certain protocols where there are regulations. The protocols then allow the devices to communicate with each other. (Marinescu, D. C. (2013) Cloud computing: Theory and practice)

Characteristics of a cloud

On demand Access

Cloud- based resources are on- demand so they are accessible anywhere, which is helpful because it is the future of organisations and their relevant consumers. Once it is up and running, there usually not a need for human interaction because they are automated to run certain tasks. This characteristic therefore essentially carries out the required tasks for the running of the cloud(Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.)


Elasticity is the automated ability for a system to scale a cloud in the background, its not obvious when the cloud is in operation. This is an essential tool for the cloud because, it analyses the cloud and sees what needs to be improved therefore enabling the growing of it. Many cloud providers now offer elasticity because it is helpful.( Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.)

Measured usage

This characteristic means that the cloud can identify the usage of the cloud such as when and how the IT resources were used. This is a way to find out whether the cloud needs, troubleshooting or the cloud providers use this see how much access is given to users. ( Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.)

What is cloud computing?

Cloud computing is a new and innovative way to connect multiple users and data together through the use of networks and servers, this way data and files are stored and exchanged physically. It means storing without the use of a hard drive. (1) Many organisations are in favour of working using the internet because data can be accessed anywhere ,rather than saving data on one system. A good example of cloud computing would be Google Drive and Icloud offered from Apple to their device users. (Types of cloud computing explained (2013, March 19),

Beginning of cloud computing

Cloud computing begin in the early 1990s when the internet first evolved and telecommunication companies, began to try to use virtual network resources because earlier they offered a point to point network where data would only travel in one circuit so therefore to accommodate the modernising world, they introduced more different. (Types of cloud computing explained (2013, March 19),

Types of Cloud Computing

Cloud is described in two ways one is where its location and second what service it is separated as private, public and hybrid. Private cloud is a network in one workplace. The private cloud is not used by other organisations but can be placed ,anywhere if it is hosted elsewhere. The security level of a private cloud is the highest because the cloud is not being shared externally.( Griffith, E. (2013, March 13) What is cloud computing?, Networking & Communications Software - Products. PCMag UK.)

A public cloud is hosted at an organisation its infrastructure such as network is at the company. A benefit of public cloud is that the network is shared however it is liable to attacks because the network is open. ( Griffith, E. (2013, March 13) What is cloud computing?, Networking & Communications Software - Products. PCMag UK.)

Thirdly a hybrid cloud is the use of both public and private cloud. A good example of this would be two companies sharing data with a public cloud but the individual companies have their own private cloud alongside a public cloud for use with sharing.

Cloud as a service

The cloud can be identified as Software as a service (Saas). It is a piece of software that is used primarily over the internet. Many corporate organisation now use Saas to carry out jobs such as financial and HR/admin. An application can be delivered through a subscription and a pay as you go system. It is what the end user model sees and uses. (Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS | knowledge center | Rackspace hosting,2015)

The advantages of using (Saas) are that corporate system can be used globally ,because of it using web access. A second advantage is that software is controlled at a central location which is easier than having many systems. A third advantage is that Saas is widely accepted by the business world, as the Salesforce CRM product. The disadvantages are that some extremely fast such as real time live data is needed. Another one is that there can certain legislations were ,there can be hosting issues where the software can be used or not. (Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS | knowledge center | Rackspace hosting,2015)

Platform as a service

It is focussed on the software developing world because it has the characteristics, to develop, host and maintain an application because it is web based. Paas is good because web based systems can constantly be developed because, it has the tools and testing so the software is checked continuously for faults. Paas’s downsides are that it can rather less portable in where it is hosted. Secondly the system can be sometimes to overly automatic because of the developer tools. (Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS | knowledge center | Rackspace hosting,2015)

Infrastructure as a service

Iaas is a way of implementing systems to a company, with the use of networks, servers and applications. The infrastructure consists of ‘when needed system’ it is out sourced generally, which consequently tends to reduce the pressure to manage the infrastructure. Generally Iaas’s are usually connected to a public network to create a wider range of sharing resources. (Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS | knowledge center | Rackspace hosting,2015)

It includes many users on the software so that’s a benefit to developing. organisations where there are multiple systems and requirements. It is helpful when organisational needs change over time to introduce innovation, trial, error and improvement.

A disadvantage to this type is that when demand increases in an organisation, the system cannot sometimes handle the pressure because the size of the software. (Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS | knowledge center | Rackspace hosting,2015)

Challenges of Cloud Computing

The challenges of cloud computing can be bandwidth because that determines speed and connection responses. There can be a load on the system as well such as the level of data can be intensive and possess a difficulty on the system. Another challenge, could be shared infrastructure that means there are multiple user that could have negative impact on the server which could therefore have a knock on effect on the security and how it functions. Reliability could be a liability because of the demands and many data intensive applications which can be big files and software that can slow down the system. (Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.)


Scaling is measuring the demands of servers; there are two types of scaling one is horizontal scaling and vertical scaling. Horizontal scaling is known as scaling out it analyses the cloud and identifies what to implement on a system, such as extra servers to balance out tasks. A few advantages of horizontal scaling are that IT resources are accessible also they can be easily replicated. A third advantage is that hardware is not limited to hardware capacity whereas vertical scaling is. A disadvantage however is that more IT resources needed to meet the demands of the cloud as it increases. (Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.)

Vertical scaling is known as scaling up and down. It is carried when an IT resource needs to be changed by a different specification. Scaling up means changing to a higher specification that has higher capacity. Scaling down is the changing to a lower specification that has lower capacity. . (Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.)

Vertical scaling helps to maintain a better the efficiency of a cloud and use the resources, to the full to their full potential and therefore being cost effective for an organisation. The benefits are that the IT resources are easily accessible easily and no extra resources are needed, however better specialised servers are needed because of using only single devices. This type of scaling can sometimes limit the maximum capacity. Another limitation is that the some setup may be needed during installing. (Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.)

Cloud computing in corporate organisations

IBM Smart cloud

The book cloud computing theory and practice gives a few examples where cloud computing is used. IBM smart cloud is a cloud ,where they launched the cloud in mid 2012. They had servers, storage management to build private and hybrid cloud environment. They have recently teamed up with the American AT&T telecommunication company to provide cloud infrastructure to their customers. Marinescu, D. C. (2013) Cloud computing: Theory and practice

Oracle Cloud

The oracle cloud is built with Java and a few software systems such as Exadata, Exalogic, Weblogic and Oracle database. The Oracle cloud is continuously developing to provide software and platform services to their users. Fusion HCM (Human Capital Management) and the Oracle social network uses Java, these systems are used to carry out in organisation to make it run smoothly. (Marinescu, D. C. (2013) Cloud computing: Theory and practice)

Cloud computing at Amazon

Amazon in the last 10 years has created a platform for their customers, to make an ecommerce environment such as selling goods, books and CDs. They had identified that they could have an cost effective and easy to use resources to meet the demand of the groups of stakeholders. In the early years they had introduced a AWS (Amazon web services) from a Infrastructure as a service model that they had designed. The cloud service infrastructure has many servers connected with an interconnected network. By using high speed networks they have created a anytime access to their resources. (Marinescu, D. C. (2013) Cloud computing: Theory and practice)

In 2012 the synergy of AWS had made many other businesses to use a similar model. They had found out that businesses would benefit from using AWS infrastructure because they had found out that the running costs would be less because if they set up their own infrastructure the £2,000000 however at Amazon computing bills are less at £100000 which means it would better to use AMS. (Marinescu, D. C. (2013) Cloud computing: Theory and practice)

Amazon web services consists of a computing platform called EC2 known as elastic compute cloud. It is a web service with a simplistic interface under many of the leading operating systems such as Microsoft server, Open solaris, freebird and net bsd. (Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.)

The system was designed through an image known as Amazon machine image. The system has the operating system, the run time environment and libraries that the user has decided upon by the designers. It can create a copy of an image and send it to the other computers with the host name and the mac address. It can start and instance, end an instance, launch an existing AMI, create a new image and reboot one. The communicates with the server through a set of soap messages carry out instructions .( Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.

EC2 runs with the virtual xen strategy, in each virtual server has instances that determine how data can be stored, the images are imported by VM import. The images are stored in S3. ( Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.

Simple storage system

The simple storage system is where data is stored; it is designed to save large objects. It has little functions so therefore it is simplistic such as only write, delete and save. S3 allows an application to carry out a range of objects with various file sizes. Messages throughout the system are sent through Soap this enables good maintenance. ( Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.

The data can range from 1 terabyte to 5 terabyte. S3 maintains productive storage by using a digital bucket and a developer assigned key. A bucket can be stored at a location determined by the user. The system maintains storage by having the name, modification time and a access control time. Objects can be set to public for other users to access the data. S3 has certain commands to delete, write and send buckets in the system. ( Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.

Elastic block store

The elastic block store it has adequate storage volume for the files and it used with the Amazon EC2 server. The store selects and groups raw data in sections and sets a location where it should be. Cloud watch is a monitoring software to optimize performance of applications. ( Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture.


Cloud computing is the new and futuristic way of the developing IT world, it has taken over businesses worldwide and slowly removing the need of physical hardware. As seen it can helps corporate environments become modern and communicate well, this will build good relationships between organisations.


Erl, T., Puttini, R. and Mahmood, Z. (2013) Cloud computing: Concepts, technology & architecture. 1st ed. United States: Prentice Hall, ServiceTech Press.

Griffith, E. (2013, March 13) What is cloud computing?, Networking & Communications Software - Products. PCMag UK. Available from: [Accessed 16 November 2015].

Marinescu, D. C. (2013) Cloud computing: Theory and practice. United States: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers In.

Types of cloud computing explained (2013, March 19), Cloud. GlobalDots - CDN, Security and Performance Solutions. Available from: [Accessed 16 November 2015].

Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS | knowledge center | Rackspace hosting [no date]. Available from: [Accessed 16 November 2015].

Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS | knowledge center | Rackspace hosting [no date]. Available from: [Accessed 16 November 2015].

Understanding the cloud computing stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS | knowledge center | Rackspace hosting [no date]. Available from: [Accessed 16 November 2015].


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