Scientists affiliated with canadian institutions having expertise or interests in antarctica



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SCIENTISTS AFFILIATED WITH CANADIAN INSTITUTIONS HAVING EXPERTISE OR INTERESTS IN ANTARCTICA

compiled by

C. Simon L. Ommanney

Canadian Committee on Antarctic Research

October 2010

Listed below are the names and contact details for individuals associated with Canadian institutions who have published on some aspect of Antarctic work during the past decade. A short narrative of their research interests is provided, drawn mainly from information on personal or institutional websites, plus a sample reference (names of Canadian affiliates are underlined). At the end is a limited index to areas of research covered by those listed. It is hoped that this compilation will facilitate collaboration between Canadians and others scientists with high-latitude interests by drawing attention to Canadian expertise available for addressing problems in either the Antarctic or Arctic regions.



Dr W. Peter Adams, P.C.

779 Aylmer Street North, Peterborough, Ontario, K9H 3X7

E-mail: peter.adams1@sympatico.ca; Tel: (705) 745-6904; Cell: (705) 761-6904

URL: www.trentu.ca/geography/faculty_adams.php


Emeritus Professor Peter Adams established the Geography Department at Trent University prior to becoming the Member of Parliament for Peterborough and a Privy Councillor. His research has focused on the biological and hydrological aspects of ice and snow and he maintains an active interest in Canadian polar science, education, and the governance of polar regions.
Adams, P. 2003. Canada, the Antarctic and the Madrid Protocol. Arctic, 56(4), iii–iiv.

Dr Joselito M. Arocena

Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9

E-mail: arocenaj@unbc.ca; Tel: (250) 960-5811; Fax: (250) 960-5539

URL: http://web.unbc.ca/~arocenaj/


Lito Arocena studies how soil integrates the uniqueness of minerals, climate, living things, topography, its role as a habitat for many organisms and source of water and essential elements for plants, and the age of specific ecosystems.
Arocena, J.M. and K. Hall. 2003. Calcium phosphate coatings on the Yalour Islands, Antarctica: formation and geomorphic implications. Arct. Ant. Alp. Res., 35(2), 233–241.

Prof. Don R. Baker

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montréal, Quebec, H3A 2A7

E-mail: don.baker@mcgill.ca; donb@eps.mcgill.ca; Tel: (514) 398-7485; Fax: (514) 398-4680

URL: http://eps.mcgill.ca/Faculty/faculty_personal.php?loginid=donb


Don Baker investigates igneous processes through experimental geochemistry in the laboratory. His goal is to understand the structure, thermodynamics, and transport properties (diffusion and viscosity) of silicate melts and to apply this knowledge in the investigation of igneous petrogenesis.
Ashkenazy, Y., D.R. Baker, H. Gildor and S. Havlin. 2003. Nonlinearity and multifractality of climate change in the past 420,000 years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(22), 2146. (10.1029/2003GL018099.)

Prof. Jacques Barbier

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1

E-mail: barbier@mcmaster.ca; Tel: (905) 525-9140 x 23477; Fax: (905) 522-2509

URL: www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/barbier/


Jacques Barbier is studying the crystal chemistry of inorganic and mineral oxides and oxy-salts (e.g. borates, phosphates etc.), including the determination and description of crystal structures, the study of polymorphic transformations, and the synthesis and characterization of new compounds.
Barbier, J., E.S. Grew, E. Halenius, U. Halenius and M.G. Yates. 2002. The role of Fe and cation order in the crystal chemistry of surinamite, (Mg, Fe2+)3(Al, Fe3+)3O[AIBeSi3O15]: a crystal structure, Mössbauer spectroscopic, and optical spectroscopic study. Am. Mineral., 87(4), 501–513.

Emeritus Prof. William Barr

1190 Ranchview Road N.W., #71, Calgary, Alberta, T3G 1Y2

E-mail: wbarr@ucalgary.ca; Tel: (403) 208-2907; Tel: (403) 220-4046

URL: www.arctic.ucalgary.ca/index.php?page=people&cop=view&id=4


Bill Barr is a Research Fellow in residence at the Arctic Institute of North America. From 1985 to 1997 he was head of the Department of Geography at the University of Saskatchewan. Although a glacial geomorphologist by training, his major research focus since 1972 has been on the history of exploration of the Arctic, and to a lesser degree, the Antarctic.
Barr, W. and J.P.C. Watt. 2005. Pioneer whalers in the Ross Sea, 1923–33. Polar Rec., 41(4), 281–304.

Barr, W. 2007. Belgian Antarctic (Belgica) Expedition (1897–1899) / British Antarctic (Erebus and Terror) Expedition (1839–1843) / Dallmann, Eduard / de Gerlache de Gomery, Baron Adrien / Filchner, Wilhelm / International Polar Years / Ross, James Clark. In Riffenburgh, B., ed. Encyclopedia of the Antarctic, Vol. 1. New York, NY, Routledge. Taylor and Francis Group, 136–137 / 181–183 / 321–322 / 325–326 / 394–395 / 537–539 / 809–810.

Dr Sonia D. Batten

Continuous Plankton Recorder Coordinator, 4737 Vista View Crescent, Nanaimo, British Columbia, V9V 1N8

E-mail: soba@sahfos.ac.uk; Tel: (707) 478-1381

URL: www.faralloninstitute.org/team.php; www.sahfos.ac.uk/about-us/staff/sonia-batten.aspx


Sonia Batten is a biological oceanographer with a focus on zooplankton and their role as indicators of the marine environment. After working for 6 years with the North Atlantic Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) dataset at the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS) she transferred to the west coast of Canada to set up and coordinate the Pacific CPR survey.

Batten, S. and G. Hosie. 2009. SCAR Southern Ocean Continuous Plankton Recorder survey. From ecosystem function to prediction, 3rd GLOBEC Open Science Meeting, 22–26 June 2009, Victoria, BC, Canada. Abstracts. Nanaimo, B.C., Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Pacific Biological Station, 116. (Abstract WF-O3.) (www.confmanager.com/communities/c1345/files/osm/abstracts_book_web.pdf)

Dr Jean H. J. Bédard

Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec, G1K 9A9

E-mail: jean.bedard@nrcan.gc.ca; Tel: (418) 654-2671; Fax: (418) 654-2615

URL: http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/dir/index_e.php?id=6270


Jean Bédard’s expertise covers igneous petrology, melting mechanisms, geochemistry, and Archaen and Appalachian tectonics.
Bédard, J.H. and 7 others. 2005. Evidence for channelized transfer of residual melts and fluids in the basement sill, Ferrar Province, Antarctica. [Abstract.] Eos, Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., V14C-05.

Prof. Martin Beech

Department of Physics, Campion College, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2

E-mail: martin.beech@uregina.ca; Tel: (306) 359-1216; Fax: (306) 359-1200

URL: www.campioncollege.ca/about-us/faculty-listing/dr-martin-beech


Martin Beech is a leading Canadian researcher on the structure of comets.
Beech, M. 2006. From Antarctica to Manitoba - the 14th Annual MIAC meeting. J. R. Astron. Soc. Can., 100(1), 26.

Steven C. Bigras

Executive Director (Retired January 2012), Canadian Polar Commission, 360 Albert Street, Suite 1710, Ottawa, Ontario, K1R 7X7

E-mail: mail@polarcom.gc.ca; Tel: (613) 943-8605; Fax: (613) 943-8607

URL: www.polarcom.gc.ca


Steven Bigras is former Chief Delegate to SCAR for Canada. The Canadian Polar Commission, established in 1991, is responsible for: monitoring, promoting, and disseminating knowledge of the polar regions; contributing to public awareness of the importance of polar science to Canada; enhancing Canada's international profile as a circumpolar nation; and recommending polar science policy direction to government. It is the adhering body to SCAR and established the Canadian Committee on Antarctic Research (CCAR) as Canada's National Antarctic Committee under the provisions of SCAR.
Bigras, S.C. 2005. SCAR XXVIII delegate’s report. CARN Newsl., 19, 7–8.

Dr Erik W. Blake

Icefield Instruments Inc., PO Box 30036, #300 - 116 Galena Rd., Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 5M2

E-mail: erik@icefield.yk.ca; Tel: (867) 633-4264; Fax: (867) 633-4217

URL: www.icefield.yk.ca


The capabilities of Icefield Instruments cover the complete spectrum of mechanical design, electronic design, software authoring, prototype fabrication, field-testing, field services, and commercial production. Through work on ice coring, in particular AUTOCORE and ultra-clean drill technology, the company has expertise in delivering clean samples with extremely low contamination levels. It also has experience in sub-glacial water-sampling design for high-pressure environments and low-pressure environments (Mars), and for thermal/environmental extremes, as well as the use of exotic materials.
Blake, E. 2001. A proposal for sampling a subglacial lake at South Pole. In Loken, O.H. and N.J. Couture, eds. Subglacial lake and deep ice exploration: Canadian expertise and international opportunities. Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Polar Commission, May, 15–16.

Dr J. Richard Bond

Director, Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics (CITA), McLennan Phys Labs, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H8

E-mail: bond@cita.utoronto.ca; Tel: (416) 978-6874; Fax: (416) 978-3921

URL: www.cita.utoronto.ca/~bond/


Dick Bond’s interests are in astrophysics and cosmology (physics of the very early universe); the origin and evolution of cosmic structure; cosmic radiation backgrounds; dark matter and dark energy problems; and particle and gravitational theory.
Piacentini, F. and 36 others (including J.R. Bond, C.R. Contaldi, C.J. MacTavish, C.B. Netterfield, E. Pascale and D. Pogosyan). 2006. A measurement of the polarization-temperature angular cross-power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background from the 2003 flight of BOOMERANG. Astrophys. J., 647(2), Part 1, 833–839.
Piacentini, F. and 39 others (including J.R. Bond, C.R. Contaldi, C.J. MacTavish, C.B. Netterfield, E. Pascale and D. Pogosyan). 2007. CMB polarization with Boomerang 2003. New Astron. Rev., 51(3–4), 244–249.

Prof. Christopher D. Boone

Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1

E-mail: cboone@uwaterloo.ca; Tel: (519) 888-4567 x 2723; Fax: (519) 746-0435

URL: www.ace.uwaterloo.ca


Chris Boone is responsible for the development and application of data-processing software for generating science data products in the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) project.
Carleer, M.R. and 25 others (including C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, P.F. Bernath, K. Strong, R.J. Sica, J. Kar, C.E. Sioris, M.R.M. Izawa, C.T. McElroy, J.R. Drummond, C.R. Nowlan, J. Zou and F. Nichitiu). 2008. Validation of water vapour profiles from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (ACPD), 8(2), Special Issue, 4499–4559.

Dr Jan Bottenheim

Air Quality Research Division, Atmospheric Science and Technology, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Downsview, Ontario, M3H 5T4

E-mail: jan.bottenheim@ec.gc.ca; Tel: (416) 739-4838; Fax: (416) 739-5704

URL: www.oasishome.net/docs/OASIS_brochure_(English).pdf


Jan Bottenheim is a specialist in atmospheric chemistry. He was the first to observed ozone missing from parts of the Canadian Arctic and conclude it probably had something to do with ice. The ice-level ozone falls victim to reactive bromine atoms released naturally from saline polar waters. He has also been studying whether disappearing mercury in the air is linked to the presence of increased levels of the substance in plants and animals in the polar regions.
Tarasick, D.W. and J.W. Bottenheim. 2002. Surface ozone depletion episodes in the Arctic and Antarctic from historical ozonesonde records. Atmos. Chem. Phys. (ACP), 2(3), 197–205.

Grannas, A.M. and 34 others (including J. Bottenheim and J. McConnell). 2007. An overview of snow photochemistry: evidence, mechanisms and impacts. Atmos. Chem. Phys. (ACP), 7(16), Special Issue, 4329–4373.



Dr Peter G. Brown

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1150 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7

E-mail: pbrown@uwo.ca; Tel: (519) 661-2111 x 86458; Fax: (519) 661-4085

URL: http://aquarid.physics.uwo.ca/%7Epbrown/contact.htm


Peter Brown is investigating basic questions about the origin and evolution of small bodies in the solar system. These include the origin of metoroids and meteorites, their physical structure, and the flux and interaction of larger meteoroids at the Earth’s surface.
Klekociuk, A.R. and 8 others (including P.G. Brown and W.N. Edwards. 2006. Lidar, satellite and acoustic measurements of a multi-kiloton asteroidal airburst over Antarctica on September 4, 2004. [Abstract.] J. R. Astron. Soc. Can., 100(1), 14th Annual MIAC meeting, 29.

Prof. Douglas A. Campbell

Biology Department, 205 Flemington, Mount Allison University, 63B York Street, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1G7

E-mail: dcampbell@mta.ca; Tel: (506) 364-2521; Fax: (506) 364-2505

URL: www.mta.ca/faculty/science/bio/BIOSITE/FACULTY/douglascampbell.html


Douglas Campbell’s group uses molar quantitations of key protein complexes, in parallel with optical measurements, to understand photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and phytoplankton under changing conditions.
Petrou, K.L., R. Hill, M. Doblin, A. McMinn, D. Campbell and P.J. Ralph. 2008. Light stress in bottom ice microalgal communities from the East Antarctic pack ice. In Klepikov, A., ed. Polar Research: Arctic and Antarctic Perspective in the International Polar Year. SCAR/IASC IPY Open Science Conference, 8–11 July 2008, St. Petersburg, Russia. Abstract volume. Saint Petersburg, Elektronstandart-Print Joint-Stock Company. Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, 92. (Abstract S1.2/O28.)

Dr Martin Charron

Atmospheric Numerical Weather Prediction Research, Atmospheric Science and Technology, Environment Canada, 2121 Trans Canada Highway, Dorval, Quebec, H9P 1J3

E-mail: martin.charron@ec.gc.ca; Tel: (514) 421-4664; Fax: (514) 421-2106

URL: www.ec.gc.ca/scitech/default.asp?lang=En&n=F97AE834-1&xsl=scitechprofile&xml=F97AE834-A762-47A6-A2D9-9C397FD72F37&formid=D29F2CCA-7EDA-4E2D-B831-4B6D20D31CA0


Martin Charron is researching numerical weather prediction at local to global scales, ranging from minutes to seasons.
Sioris, C.E., S. Chabrillat, C.A. McLinden, C.S. Haley, Y.J. Rochon, R. Ménard, M. Charron and C.T. McElroy. 2007. OSIRIS observations of a tongue of NOx in the lower stratosphere at the Antarctic vortex edge: comparison with a high-resolution simulation from the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. Can. J. Phys., 85(11), 1195–1207.

Emeritus Prof. Garry K.C. Clarke

Geophysics, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 129, 2219 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4

E-mail: clarke@eos.ubc.ca; Tel: (604) 822-3602; Fax: (604) 822-6088

URL: www.eos.ubc.ca/about/faculty/G.Clarke.html


Garry Clarke’s research is devoted to understanding the physics of glaciers and ice sheets; in particular, the ice-flow instabilities that cause extreme oscillations in flow rate in some glaciers, and which, during the last Ice Age, appear to have triggered rapid changes in global climate. Improved knowledge of ice-sheet physics is being used to construct computational models that simulate the dynamics of ancient and modern ice sheets. He is attempting to unravel some secrets of the Ice Age and discover what factors account for the rapid and ugly surprises that characterized the Ice Age climate system.
Clarke, G.K.C. 2006. Ice-sheet plumbing in Antarctica Nature, 440(7087), 1000–1001.

Lhomme, N., G.K.C. Clarke, C. Ritz, F. Parrenin and S. Marshall. 2004. The cryosphere: the last vast water reservoir. Isotopic composition of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. [Abstract A44A-05.] Eos, Trans. AGU, 85(17), Jt. Assem. Suppl., JA54.

Tikku, A.A., R.E. Bell, M. Studinger, G.K.C. Clarke, I. Tabacco and F. Ferraccioli. 2005. Influx of meltwater to subglacial Lake Concordia, East Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 51(172), 96–104.



Dr J. Graham Cogley

Geography Department, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8

E-mail: gcogley@trentu.ca; Tel: (705) 748-1454; Fax: (705) 748-1205

URL: www.trentu.ca/geography/faculty_cogley.php


Graham Cogley is a physical geographer with interests in glaciology, climatology, geomorphology and geographical-information science. He maintains a database of worldwide mass-balance and hydrographic measurements.
Cogley, G. 2009. Greenhouse gas and the Gamburtsev Mountains. environmentalresearchweb, digital media. (http://environmentalresearchweb.org/blog/2009/08/greenhouse-gas-and-the-gamburt.html)

Dr Kathleen E. Conlan

Research Services, Canadian Museum of Nature, Natural Heritage Building, P.O. Box 3443, Station D, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 6P4

E-mail: kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Tel: (613) 364-4063; Fax: (613) 364-4027

URL: www.polarcom.gc.ca/content.php?doc=41; www.nature.ca/


Kathy Conlan is currently Chief Officer of SCAR’s SSG-LS. Her systematics research concerns the evolution and behaviour of amphipod crustaceans. She has named two new genera and 48 new species and has two species named for her. Her marine-ecology research concerns the effects of seabed disturbance on community structure, including the impact of humans in the Antarctic.
Conlan, K.E., S.L. Kim, A.R. Thurber and E. Hendrycks. 2010. Benthic changes at McMurdo Station, Antarctica following local sewage treatment and regional iceberg-mediated productivity decline. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 60(3), 419–432.

Hendrycks, E.A. and K.E. Conlan. 2003. Monoculodes curtipediculus (Amphipoda, Oedicerotidae), a new species from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Crustaceana, 76(1), 49–63.

Kim, S.L., K. Conlan, D.P. Malone and C.V. Lewis. 2005. Possible food caching and defence in the Weddell seal: observations from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Ant. Sci., 17(1), 71–72.



Dr Luke Copland

Department of Geography, University of Ottawa, 60 University Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5

E-mail: luke.copland@uottawa.ca; Tel: (613) 562-5800 x 2826; Fax: (613) 562-5145

URL: www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/geography/prof/lcopland.htm


Luke Copland’s research focuses on improving our understanding of glacier dynamics and recent changes of ice masses, and their links to climate variability. He uses both satellite-image analysis and fieldwork to make these measurements, and in recent years has undertaken fieldwork in the Antarctic.
Glasser, N., B. Goodsell, L. Copland and W. Lawson. 2006. Debris characteristics and ice-shelf dynamics in the ablation region of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 52(177), 223–234.

Prof. Steeve D. Côté

Département de biologie, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, 1045 avenue de la Médecine, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6

E-mail: steeve.cote@bio.ulaval.ca; Tel: (418) 656-2131 x 3490; Fax: (418) 656-2043

URL: www.bio.ulaval.ca/no_cache/en/department/professors/professors/professeur/11/245/


Steeve Côté is interested in population ecology, conservation biology and behavioural ecology. His research projects aim to understand the effects of individual differences at the behavioural and genetic levels on reproductive success and population dynamics. He has studied the behavioural ecology of king penguins in the Crozet Archipelago.
Dewasmes, G. and 6 others (including S.D. Côté). 2001. Effects of weather on activity and sleep in brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Polar Biol., 24(7), 508–511.

Viera, V.M., C. le Bohec, S.D. Côté and R. Groscolas. 2006. Massive breeding failures following a tsunami in a colonial seabird. Polar Biol., 29(8), 713–716.

Dr Nicole J. Couture

Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E8

E-mail: nicole.couture@nrcan-rncan.gc.ca; Tel: (613) 995-3527; Fax: (613) 992-0190
Nicole Couture’s interests include the response of permafrost landscapes to development activities and changing environmental conditions, the influence of coastal processes on nearshore and onshore permafrost, including the assessment of material fluxes from degrading permafrost (sediment, organic carbon, and contaminants), and how these are affected by the distribution of ground ice.
Loken, O.H., N.J. Couture and W.H. Pollard. 2004. Polar connections: planning Canadian Antarctic research. Report of an International Workshop held at the University of Alberta, 25-27 September 2003. Ottawa, Ont., Canadian Polar Commission, February, 63 pp.

Yves Crevier

Technology Management and Applications, John H. Chapman Space Centre, Canadian Space Agency, 6767 route de l'Aéroport, Saint-Hubert, Quebec, J3Y 8Y9

E-mail: yves.crevier@asc-csa.gc.ca; Tel: (450) 926-4841; Fax: (450) 926-4352

URL: www.asc-csa.gc.ca


Yves Crevier has been facilitating the development and acquisition of remote-sensing technologies for applications to the polar regions.
Crevier, Y., G. Rigby, D. Werle, K. Jezek and D. Ball. 2010. A RADARSAT-2 snapshot of Antarctica during the 2007–08 IPY. CARN Newsl., 28, 1–5.
Prof. John J. Cullen

Center for Environmental Observation Technology and Research, Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J1

E-mail: john.cullen@dal.ca; Tel: (902) 494-6667; Fax: (902) 494-2039

URL: http://oceanography.dal.ca/person/John_Cullen.html


John Cullen and his team have established a Marine Environmental Prediction System that uses automated tools to take measurements from moorings and satellites, for direct use in simulations of the ocean. They hope to enhance the system with robotic sensors that stay in the ocean for months and expect that, through computer animation, an ocean forecast will be able to provide real-time tracking of storm surges, strong currents and blooms of plant life in the sea. He is interested in phytoplankton processes and the mass culture of microalgae for fuel and protein.
Boyd, P.W. and 22 others (including J.J. Cullen, M. Levasseur and R.B. Rivkin). 2007. Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993–2005: synthesis and future directions. Science, 315(5812), 612–617.

Prof. Philip Currie

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9

E-mail: philip.currie@ualberta.ca; Tel: (780) 492-6572; Fax: (780) 492-9234

URL: www.biology.ualberta.ca/faculty/philip_currie/


Philip Currie works on dinosaurs, focusing on problems with growth and variation, the anatomy and relationships of carnivorous dinosaurs, and the origin of birds. He is interested in what can be learned about dinosaurian behaviour, including annual and intercontinental migrations.
Currie, P.J. 2004. Hunting dinosaurs in Antarctica. CARN Newsl., 18, 14.

Smith, N.D., P.J. Makovicky, D. Pol, W. Hammer and P.J. Currie. 2007. The dinosaurs of the Early Jurassic Hanson Formation of the central Transantarctic Mountains: phylogenetic review and synthesis. In Cooper, A.K. and others, eds. Antarctica: a keystone in a changing world. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Santa Barbara, California, August 26 to September 1, 2007. Washington, DC, National Academies Press. Polar Research Board, National Research Council, U.S. Geological Survey, digital media. (U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep. 2007-1047.) (Short Research Paper 003.) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/srp/srp003/of2007-1047srp003.pdf.)




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