and anti-drug operations because they are based away from the areas of
operation, and their families are less at risk than police who live in the
communities where they work. Nevertheless, there have been concerns
that nothing but internal deployment risks damaging both democracy and
the army as national institutions, hence the new police force and the
national development program described by Urbalejo.
-see Urbalejo, “Reforming the police system under the Fox Government”41
-see Anozie et al, “Reducing Incentives for Corruption in the Mexico City Police Force”42
Constitution restricts overseas deployments; conscription for the army, but all volunteer service for navy and air; very low expenditure per capita on defence 0.5% of GDP (161st , compare Canada, 1.1% gdp 131st)
Secretary of Public Security, Secretary of the Navy, Secretary of National Defence.
- Universidad del Ejército y Fuerza Aérea (university of army and air force) (This appears to be the rebranded heroico colegio militar de mexico, but may now include graduate students from later in their military careers, like the Canadian model?)43
-the schools listed below look like a mixed bag—some technical schools for other ranks, some dealing with cadets and future officers, some both together, like the combat arms schools at CFB Gagetown.
- Escuela Militar graduados de sanidad (sanitation school)
- Escuala Medico Militar (medical school)
- Escuela Militar de Ingenieros (engineering school)
- Heroico Colegio Militar (this appears to be a four year west point model military college)44
- Escuela Militar de Enfermeras (nursing school)
- Escuela militar de transmisiones (signals school)
- Escuela militar de especialistas (aeronautical engineering school)
- Public Security Superior Academy in the central state of San Luis Potosi, 800-1000 police officers, future police commanders (like a staff college for mid-career police)
- corruption in state, municipal and local police forces is thoroughly institutionalized (case study near Mexico city)45
- new police academies face rapid infiltration by organized crime and corrupt practices46
-policia federal preventiva, directed by the secretaria de seguridad publica, created in 1998 from merging other federal police forces; considered a gendarmerie due to paramilitary structure; focus on dealing with organized crime; institutional development involves basic police school, police college, and higher institute for specialization47 (which seems to have icitap support and aim at international standards; I don’t know if this is the one in San Luis Potosi, or another one)