Security Education Narrative Database Patterns of Professional Education

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Antigua and Barbuda

Mainly an importer – links with Jamaica, UK, US

Population 85k, area 426 sqkm




Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defence Forces

Royal Police Force of Antigua and Barbuda, 350 officers

Ministry of the Interior added police and police training school to its mandate in 20048


Defence and Military links9

-Centro de Estudios Estrategicos de Ejercito Argentino

-Gendarmerie Nacional Argentina, Ministerio de Justicia, Seguridad y Derechos Humanos10, organization includes Direccion de Educacion e institutos, under the direccion de operaciones y educacion.

-education and doctrine command, includes an institute of military pedagogy, war college, and technical college under “academic education”

-under “military education”: operational and doctrine directorate; arms schools; combined arms school; colegio military de la nacion, NCO college, Mountain school, and riding school.
Army, colegio military de la nacion -
Navy – Escuela Naval Militar
Air Force – escuela de aviacionón_Militar





-operates in Armenian; second language appears to be Russian; growing western influence

Army only, CW era had three military high-schools plus military institute, but higher education was centralized in Soviet Union. Since 2000 has been seeking military reforms as a NATO partner for peace. Conscription for 2 years, but officers do four years at defense academy, one of which entails serving as a platoon leader for conscripts [see further notes from Alan’s guests, 1 Jul 09]

-Military Academy V. Sargsyan

-Military Aviation Institute

-Military Medical Faculty

-has an Individual Partnership Action Plan with NATO (

-200 officers a year educated in Russia; Russian is still the most common second language amongst mid-to-senior officers11





a net exporter of defence and security education, with a focus in South East Asia

Australian Defence Forces


-RMC Duntroon

-Naval academy

-Air Academy

-Australian Joint Command and Staff College

-Australian Defence College

  • Australian Defence Force Academy

  • Royal Military College, Duntroon

  • Officer Training School RAAF

  • Royal Australian Naval College

Australian Defence College (ADC), Canberra, opened 1999, a joint organization comprising:

Centre for Defence and Strategic Studies (CDSS), Weston Creek

Australian Command and Staff College (ACSC), Weston Creek and

Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA)
Prior to 1999, separate single-service staff colleges existed:

Army Command and Staff College, Fort Queenscliff, Victoria

RAAF Staff College, Canberra

RAN Staff College at HMAS Penguin, Sydney

Australian Police Forces

New South Wales Police College Goulburn


Structured with army, air force, interior ministry,12 federal police, includes defence academy,13

Austrian National Defence Academy

Theresian Military Academy, Wiener Neustadt


Officer Training

Founded in 1751 by Maria Theresia as a "cadet school" with the intent of providing an excellent military education to the most able young men, the Theresan Military Academy remains a world leading institution to this day. The combination of a heart of tradition with modern education on a college level is mainly responsible for the internationally recognised high level of qualification of Austrian officers.
From Cadet School to College Course

Since 1998, the officer cadet course is an officially recognised college course. One of the larger changes during the course of the reform preceding this arrangement was the opening of the academy to civilian students, with the intention of providing them with the skills necessary for hands-on management in fields such as disaster relief organisations. In order to be granted a place at the course, a prospective student will have to be qualified for higher education entrance in Austria – in most cases this means being in possession of an Austrian high school diploma – and pass a series of entry exams. A military applicant aiming to pursue a career as an officer in the Austrian Armed Forces will additionally need to have completed a preparation semester during the course of a one-year voluntary service or already be an NCO.

Officers as Expert Managers

The “Military Leadership” course focuses on communication, teamwork and organisational skills as well as problem analysis and autonomous development of solution methodologies. This provides the academy’s students with a funded background in leadership and crisis management and qualifies them as expert managers in both a military and civilian context. Upon completion of the four-year course, the students graduate with the rank of Lieutenant and a Master’s degree in “Military Leadership”. While civilian students receive the same degree as military students, they do not receive a military rank.

[National Defence Academy]

The Royal and Imperial Kriegsschule [War School] may be viewed as the predecessor of the National Defence Academy. The War School was founded on 14 February 1852 by Emperor Francis Joseph and was designed to "train officers of all services for the higher executive service, especially for the General Staff". Originally the School was located at Stiftskaserne, but then, in 1865, it was moved to the War School building at what today is Lehargasse. After WW I the School was disbanded, because, under the stipulations of the St. Germain peace treaty, the Republic of Austria was not allowed to have a General Staff.

On 1 September 1956, the "Kommando höhere Offizierskurse" [Command for Higher Officer Courses], a precursor of the National Defence Academy, was set up at Stiftskaserne. On 1 September 1961, its was renamed "Stabsakademie" [Staff Academy]. Finally, in 1967, under General Spannocchi, who later became Army Commander, the "Stabsakademie" was renamed "Landesverteidigungsakademie".
History of the Stiftskaserne

1656 Acquisition of the property by Freiherr von Richthausen, aka "Freiherr von Chaos" [Baron Chaos]

1673 Building of the first houses on the property

1746-49 Building of the "Savoy'schen Stiftung" [Savoy Foundation] as Ritterakademie [Knights' Academy] (comprising the "Akademietrakt" wing, riding school and adjoining buildings)

1752 Building of the "Pflanzschule" wing, now known as "Sappeurtrakt"

1851-53 Building of the "Mitteltrakt" and use of Stiftkaserne as a barracks for infantry forces

1873-75 Remodelling, building of the "Mosertrakt" wing and alignment of the facade to that of the "Akademietrakt"

1943-44 Building of the air defence bunker

1991-92 Rebuilding of the mess and kitchen facilities, and living quarters at the place of the former riding hall

1998 Start of the complete refurbishment of the "Akademietrakt"



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