Table of Contents Coral Reef Cart Collection

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Table of Contents
Coral Reef Cart Collection

Acknowledgments 1

Cart Materials and Presentation 2

Maple Cart and Collection Care 4

Objectives of the Coral Reef Cart Collection 5

Coral Biology 6

Coral Reef Collection Specimens 8

Themes and Concepts 10

What is a Coral? 10

Feeding Strategies 11

Defensive Strategies 14

Commensalism 17

Coral predators 18

Specimen Descriptions 20

Porifera 20

Sponges 20

Cnidarians: Octocorallia 23

Alcyonacea: Soft Corals and Gorgonians 23

Cnidarians: Hexacorallia 27

Scleractinia: Stony Corals 27

Mollusks: Gastropods 33

Cone Snail 33

Tiger Cowrie 35

Murex 37

Triton’s Trumpet 39

Mollusks: Bivalves 41

Tridacna Clam 41

Mollusks: Cephalopods 43

Cuttlefish 43

Chambered Nautilus 46

Octopus 49

Arthropods 52

Hermit Crabs 52

Echinoderms: Sea Stars 54

Sea Stars 54

Echinoderms: Urchins 57

Sea Urchins 57

Vertebrates: Cartilaginous Fishes 59

Rays 59

Sharks 63

Vertebrates: Bony Fishes 67

Parrotfishes 67

Pufferfishes 69

Triggerfish 72

Seahorses 74

Appendix: In the Academy 76


The Coral Reef collection was created in the fall of 2008 to provide Academy docents the opportunity to showcase the new iconic Philippine Coral Reef Aquarium and to enhance the public’s understanding of the diversity of species associated with tropical coral reefs

Initial specimens in this collection were assembled as part of early coral reef training workshops, with the assistance of docents Ingrid Oyen and Delcey Watkins. Nancy Elenberger assumed primary responsibility for this collection in the fall of 2009, and we owe her special thanks for her enthusiastic contribution to the current specimen collection, supporting photos and diagrams, and more emphatically, for her extensive efforts in researching vetted sources for the material contained in this document. Additional thanks to Jill Ross-Kuntz, who developed the section on “Themes and Concepts.” Finally, always special thanks to Academy’s docent staff Kathleen Lilienthal and Velma Schnoll, whose constant guidance and support are critical to the maintenance of this collection.

New material was vetted by _________________ in 2010.

Jacqueline Craig

Cart Team Chair

Cart Materials and Presentation


  • The goal of cart presentations is to engage visitors in exploration and discovery.

  • Cart Collection specimens are chosen for their attractiveness to the public, their availability, their teaching potential (both singly and/or combined with other specimens), and their durability and safety for handling.

  • Research has shown that visitors will have a more positive experience when they have personal interactions with a person representing the Academy.

  • To stimulate curiosity and understanding by giving visitors a docent-guided opportunity to examine and learn from real specimens.

  • To offer a unique, engaging hands-on exploration.

  • To provide insight into Academy exhibits and concepts.

  • Place the cart where there is good light, high visibility, and doesn’t block pathways, emergency information, or fire apparatus (see map).

  • Look interested and eager – show that you want to talk with visitors.

  • Look outward to visitors rather than reading material.

  • Be enthusiastic – about the cart material, your theme, the Academy.

  • Stay with your cart. Get someone to stay with your cart if you need to take a break.

  • Prepare in advance.

  • Choose a theme for which you have been trained and that can be supported by available specimens. (Cart binders include information describing themes for presenting specimens on the public floor.)

  • Study background information before presenting the cart.

  • Highlight only one or two concepts or themes.

  • Choose hands-on items that best support themes using no more than 4-6 specimens (only vetted specimens can be taken on to the pubic floor).

  • Replace materials in their proper boxes or shelf in the cart or cabinets.

  • Return support information or pictures to binder/files.

  • Lock and return cart/bins to proper location (maple carts should be turned so that rear of cart faces the floor and that mirror does not face the exterior).

  • Use Damage Specimen Report Form to report any missing/damaged specimens to Docent Program Staff (send email notice to cart monitor and leave a copy of report in the binder).

Coral Reef Cart Monitors: Nancy Ellenberger and Carrie O’Connell

Maple Cart and Collection Care


Maple Carts are stored at opposite ends of the Academy and should be turned with the drawers to the windows, but the mirror should be turned inward so that birds are not attracted.

  • Drawers should be locked when not in use.

  • Cart drawers are lined with appropriate drawer liners to reduce sliding as drawers and cart are moved.

  • Each drawer contains labels indicating where specimens are stored.

  • Specimens should be returned to appropriate drawers after cart presentation.

  • Fragile specimens should be returned to their labeled boxes or wrapped in bubble wrap.


  • Several cart collections are stored in various locked cabinets in the first level.

  • Maple carts may be used to present these specimens when maple cart collections are not being presented by another docent.

  • Specimens must be returned to locked cabinets after use.

Cart fabric is provided in the day lounge to cover tops of carts. This is to reduce sliding of specimens on cart surface and to give a consistent presentation to the public.

Demonstration stations may also be used for displaying collections. Specimens may be placed on top of table. Demonstration stations may require cleaning before storing.

Directory: 2008
2008 -> Exam 1 of Computer Networks (ice 1230) 2008 7
2008 -> Program description
2008 -> Curriculum Vitae Museok Song
2008 -> Word Wall Chants Use these as fun ways to practice word wall words at home!
2008 -> Rockettothesky
2008 -> "Unique " "dfo " "Glide " "Country" "Other" "Nations" "X. Affected" "Locations" "Rivers" "Began" "Ended" "Days" "Dead" "Displaced" "Damage usd." "Main cause" "Severity " "Affected sq km" "Magnitude m " "Notes and
2008 -> The environment in the news
2008 -> Virginia High School League Scholastic Bowl page 2007-08 District Competition Match #46
2008 -> Missouri State High School Activities Association Match #12 2007-08 Conference & Tournament Competitions page
2008 -> Louisiana state university health science center new orleans emergency medicine residency program policies to supplement lsuhsc house officer manual

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