Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Wiesner, Ferdo. See Livadić, Ferdo. Wiest [Wiestius], Paul

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Wiesner, Ferdo.

See Livadić, Ferdo.

Wiest [Wiestius], Paul.

See Wüst, Paul.

Wietor [Büttner, Philovalensis, Doliarius], Hieronim

(b Lubomierz, Silesia, c1480; d 1546/7). Polish printer, publisher and bookseller. Probably a pupil of Jan Haller he worked in Vienna from 1510 to 1517 and moved to Kraków in 1519. Around 1527 he became ‘royal printer’. He was the first in Poland to use an italic type and the first to print music from movable mensural type in double- and, later, single-impression methods. Among his music publications were treatises, songbooks and numerous anonymous secular and sacred partsongs. After his death Łazarz Andrysowicz (b Stryków; d Kraków, 1577) married Wietor’s widow and took over the firm. He published many works by Polish composers, mostly popular partsongs, psalms and hymns. After his death his son Jan Łazarzowicz Januszowski (b Kroki, 1550; d Kraków, 1613) continued the printing firm. Known for publications of a high standard, he too became ‘royal printer’. In music he widened the firm’s output to include lute tablatures, missals and other service books, as well as treatises and partsongs.



M. Bohonos: ‘Wietor Hieromin’, Słownik pracowników książki polskiej [Dictionary of the Polish book trade], ed. I. Treichel (Warsaw, 1972)



See Wipo.

Wiggen, Knut

(b Buvika, nr Trondheim, Norway, 13 June 1927). Swedish pedagogue, administrator and composer. As well as studying the piano with G. Boon and H. Leygraf and composition with Blomdahl, he completed a business course, and composing has always taken second place to his administrative work. Up until 1962 he taught the piano, including in Darmstadt (1953–5). As the energetic chairman of Fylkingen (1959–69) he established an electronic music studio for the Workers’ Educational Association and organized the congresses ‘Art and Technology’ (1966) and ‘Music and Technology’ (1970) in Stockholm. With technical assistance he invented Music Box, a programme for computer music generation, and the Music Machine no.1, which produced random, complex sound structures and gave birth to the idea of a much larger Music Machine no.2. In 1964 he was commissioned by Swedish radio to build up an advanced electronic music workshop (known from 1968 as the Electronic Music Studio), which he directed from 1969 to 1976. In 1962 he was responsible for the first Swedish ‘happening’.


(selective list)

Qt, fl, cl, bn, pf, 1955; Aida, sounds for happening by Ö. Fahlström, 1962; Composition 8, inst theatre for pianist, 1962, under pseudonym O.M. Freed; Rendez-vous 1963, inst theatre for pianist, 1964, under pseudonym T.E. Libér; Resa, computer-music, 1974; elec music


‘Varför och hur en ny notation’, Nutida Musik, v/2 (1961–2), 22–4

Att spela piano (Stockholm, 1966)

‘Memorandum 1965’, Fylkingen Bulletin (1967), no.1, p.2

‘The Musical Background of Computer Music’, Fylkingen International Bulletin (1969), no.2, p.8

‘Elektronmusikens utveckling och dess ställning i Sverige’, Svenska musikperspektiv, ed. G. Hilleström (Stockholm, 1971), 583–90

‘Das Studio für elektronische Musik in Stockholm: Entstehen und Aufbau’, Klänge aus Schweden: elektronische Durchreise 1971, ed. Swedish Music Information Centre (Stockholm, 1971), 20ff

‘The Electronic Music Studio in Stockholm’, in B.E. Johnson and K. Wiggen: Electronic Music in Sweden (Stockholm, 1972), 28–52

De två musikkulturerna (Stockholm, 1972)

Den strukturerende verden (Fredrikstad, 1991)

K. Wiggen: ‘Visioner av nuet 1966: en kommentar’ [Visions of the present time 1966: a commentary], Fylkingen: ny musik & intermediakonst, rikt illustrerad historieskrivning & diskussion för radikal & experimentall konst 1933–1993, ed. T. Hultberg (Stockholm, 1994), 29–39


Wigglesworth, Frank

(b Boston, MA, 3 March 1918; d New York, 19 March 1996). American composer. He studied at Columbia University (BS 1940) and Converse College (MMus 1942), taking composition with Ernest White, Luening, and Cowell. Wigglesworth also worked with Varèse for three years (1948–51). From 1947 to 1951 he was chairman of the editorial board of the New Music Edition and New Music Recordings. He held teaching appointments at a number of institutions, including Converse College (1941–2), Greenwich House, New York (1946–7), Columbia University and Barnard College (1947–51), Queens College , CUNY (1955–6), and the New School for Social Research, New York (from 1954, as chairman of the music department from 1965). He was a Fellow at the American Academy in Rome (1951–4) and later returned as composer-in-residence (1969–70). Among other honours, he received the Alice M. Ditson Award (1945), an award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters (1951), and two MacDowell Colony fellowships (1965, 1972). He served as president of the Composers’ Forum, New York, and in 1981 was elected president of the ACA: in 1989 he received from the latter organization its second Laurel Wreath for outstanding contribution to American music.

Wigglesworth was an iconoclastic composer, whose New England heritage had its roots in the works of Lowell Mason, Billings, and other early American composers; a grand-nephew of Elizabeth Sprague-Coolidge, he was strongly influenced by the New England chamber-music tradition. He also had an unusual insight into 20th-century trends in American composition. His interest in the French Ars Nova, in particular the works of Machaut, was stimulated by Varèse.

Wigglesworth’s compositions use sharply defined motifs that expand into phrases and melodic lines, mostly lyrical in character but sometimes abstract and even harsh in their effect. Such melodic lines often develop into long linear statements with harmonies used both as punctuation and as chordal accompaniment. His works can be tonal, atonal, and sometimes polytonal and polymodal (as in the virtuoso Duo for oboe and viola or clarinet). In the atonal opera with slides, The Willowdale Handcar, transparent contrapuntal accompaniments, sudden tempo changes, simple rhythmic contrasts, and clear vocal prosody enhance the lyric-dramatic fantasy of the text and pictures. Telesis (1951) and Three Portraits for Strings (1970) demonstrate Wigglesworth’s brilliant command of orchestral resources, while the chamber works, right up to the late duo Trillium (1992) are notable for their textural lucidity and often playful counterpoint. The polymodal setting of Psalm cxlviii and the two Short Masses (1961, 1970) are striking examples of the composer’s sacred music.


(selective list)

Stage: Young Goodman Brown (ballet), 1951; Between the Atoms and the Stars (play with music, J. Timmons), 1959; Hamlet (incid music, W. Shakespeare), 1960; Ballet for Esther Brooks, 1961; The Willowdale Handcar (The Return of the Black Doll) (op, E. Gorey), 1969, New York, Lincoln Center, 16 March 1973; Police Log of the Ipswich Chronicle (op, Wigglesworth, based on police log of Ipswich, MA), New York, New School Opera Workshop, 10 Feb 1984

Orch: New England Conc., vn, str, 1941; Music for Str, 1946; Fantasia, str, 1947; 3 Movts, str, 1949; Summer Scenes, 1951; Telesis, 1951; Concertino, pf, str, 1953; Sym. no.1, 1953; Concert Piece, 1954; Lullaby, S, str, 1954; Sym. no.2, 1958; Sym. no.3, 1960; Concertino, va, orch, 1965; 3 Portraits, str, 1970; Music for Str, 1981; Aurora, 1983; Sea Winds, 1984; Janus, 1988; Sage City Lives, 1993; A Tale of Summer, hn, str, 1993; Lo Behold!, 1995

Vocal: Isaiah (Bible), chorus, orch, 1942; Choral Study, S, chorus, 1947; Alleluia, SSA, 1950; Sleep Becalmed (D. Thomas), chorus, orch, 1950; Short Mass, chorus, 1961; Super flumina babilonis (Ps cxxxvii), SATB, 1965; Madrigal (R. Whitmore), SAB, pf, 1969; Short Mass, boys’ vv/SATB, 1970; Prayer (P.C. Weed), SSATB, 1972; Psalm cxlviii, SATB, 3 fl, 3 trbn, 1973; Duets (R. Frost), song cycle, Mez, cl, 1977–8; Autumn Songs (E. Cook Wilson), S, pf, 1987; More Songs of Autumn, S, pf, 1988; Calm Soul of All Things (M. Arnold), SATB, 1991; Easter Music (9th century Anglo-Saxon, Dante, A.E. Houseman, Bible), chorus, orch, 1991

Chbr and solo inst: Lake Music, fl, 1947; Serenade, fl, va, gui, 1954; Sonata, hpd, 1956; Brass Qnt, 1958; Sound Piece, va, pf, 1959; Sonata, hpd, 1960; Trio Sonata, 2 tpt, trbn, 1960; Sonata, vn, pf, 1960; Duo, ob, va/cl, 1961; Trio, 3 fl, 1963; Sonata, va, pf, 1965; Leaves, fl, 1970; Str Trio, 1972; Wind Qnt, 1975; 4 Winds, hn, 2 tpt, trbn, 1978; Brass Qnt, 1980; Sonata, va, 1980; After Summer Music, fl, va, gui, 1983; Wind Shadows, fl, 1983; Honeysuckle, va, 1984; Trio 1989, str trio, 1989; Trillium, fl, vn, 1992; Summer Music, b cl, 1993; Double Star, vn, vc, 1994; Twin Songs, baroque fl, 1995

Principal publishers: ACA, Presser


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