(b Southbridge, MA, 3 July 1917; dNew Haven, CT, 28 Feb 1980). American musicologist. At Yale he took the BA (1939), MusB (1940) and PhD (1951). He taught at Yale from 1947; in 1968 he was appointed Henry L. and Lucy G. Moses Professor of Music. He was director of graduate studies in music from 1959 to 1967 and served as chairman of the department from 1964. He specialized in the medieval period, particularly music of the 12th and 13th centuries. His dissertation The Rhythm of Twelfth-Century Polyphony, was the first extensive study of two-voice Notre Dame organa. Limiting his research to the Notre Dame school, Waite devoted the first half of his monograph to the rhythmic modes and their notation and then dealt specifically with the notation of Léonin's organum duplum; the second half of the book is a transcription of the Magnus liber organifrom the manuscript D-W 677. Waite presented both provocative theories on rhythmic transcription and a modern edition of an important body of music. He is also a co-author of The Art of Music (1960), a history for students of the development of musical styles.
The Rhythm of the Twelfth-Century Organum in France (diss., Yale U., 1951; New Haven, CT, 1954/R as The Rhythm of Twelfth-Century Polyphony: its Theory and Practice)
‘Discantus, Copula, Organum’, JAMS, v (1952), 77–87
with B.C.Cannon and A.H.Johnson: The Art of Music (New York, 1960)
‘The Era of Melismatic Polyphony’, IMSCR VIII: New York 1961, 178–83
‘The Lag of Theory behind Practice: the Musicological Background’, College Music Symposium, i (1961), 23–5
‘Two Musical Poems of the Middle Ages’, Musik und Geschichte: Leo Schrade zum sechzigsten Geburtstag (Cologne, 1963), 13–34
‘Bernard Lamy, Rhetorician of the Passions’, Studies in Eighteenth-Century Music: a Tribute to Karl Geiringer, ed. H.C.R. Landon and R.E. Chapman (London and New York, 1970), 388–96
Waiteata Music Press.
New Zealand music publisher. It was established in 1967 by Douglas Lilburn at the School of Music, Victoria University of Wellington. Lilburn's aim was to make inexpensive editions of New Zealand music available to conductors, performers, students and libraries worldwide. Preference was given to works which had recordings commercially available from Kiwi Pacific Records. Most publications are facsimile reproductions of composers' original manuscripts but since 1990 many new editions have been computer typeset. Jack Body was appointed editor in 1981, and by 1996 he had extended the catalogue to list more than 170 scores. More than 50 New Zealand composers are represented, including established figures such as Jack Body, Edwin Carr, Lyell Cresswell, David Farquhar, Douglas Lilburn, Annea Lockwood, Jennifer McLeod, Larry Pruden, John Rimmer, William Southgate, Anthony Watson and Gillian Whitehead, and younger composers such as Ross Carey, Gareth Farr and John Psathas.
Yoruba percussive and vocal genre. Waka has its origins in south-west Nigeria, where extensive Islamic conversion during the 19th century produced a variety of musical genres performed during key periods in the Muslim calendar. Waka (Hausa term for song or poem) was originally sung by women, accompanied by handclaps and beaten seli or pereseke (tin discs with metal rings attached), and remains one of the earliest of these genres. With the addition of drums in the Ijebu area, waka increasingly parted company with Islam by the 1920s, and with the involvement of professional musicians it became a more commercial and recreational music, devoid of religious purpose. The style continued to flourish informally over the next 40 years, until it assumed a new significance in the 1970s through the recordings of leading purveyors such as Madam Comfort Omoge and Salawa Abeni, the queen of Waka.
With men confined to instrumental ensembles, the modern waka chorus is dominated by women under the direction of a female leader and supported financially by female patrons. The ensemble typically comprises five or six singers plus assorted Yoruba drums (adamo and akuba), the sekere (gourd) and occasionally the agidigbo (lamellophone). The style peaked in the 1980s, when Kubarat Alaragbo poached Abenis chorus and added the modern trap drum set to produce a hard, driven version of waka against which few other performers could compete. Waka remains a staple of modern Yoruba recreational music and survives as an African retention, played on three drums, as the waka waka music of Guadeloupe.
(b Tokyo, 31 May 1935). Japanese conductor. He studied singing and conducting at the Tōkyō Geijutsu Daigaku, 1956–63, and also received private instruction from Hideo Saito and Jean Fournet. While still a student he made his début with the Niki Kai production of Le nozze di Figaro in 1959, and quickly became recognized as an opera conductor, undertaking the Japanese premières of Parsifal (1967) and Das Rheingold (1969). In 1969 Wakasugi co-founded the Tokyo Chamber Opera Theatre, conducting Orff’s Die Kluge and the medieval Play of Daniel. Meanwhile he also worked as a concert conductor, and in 1965 began an association with the Yomiuri Nippon SO, taking the orchestra on a European tour in 1971. Since then he has worked with many orchestras and opera companies in Japan, Europe and the USA, and served as principal conductor of the Yomiuri Nippon SO, 1972–5, the Cologne RSO, 1977–83, the Tonhalle Orchestra, Zürich, 1987–91, and the Tokyo Metropolitan SO, 1987–95. He was musical director of the Deutsche Oper am Rhein, Düsseldorf, 1981–6, and was appointed musical director of the Dresden Staatsoper in 1991 and of the Tokyo Chamber Opera Theatre in 1995. His broad repertory ranges from the early Baroque to contemporary music, and he has given the premières of many works, including Takemitsu’s Winter (1971) and Spirit Garden (1994).