SIEC Statewide Interoperability Executive Committee SOP Standard Operating Procedures
SPR Strategic Petroleum Reserve
TBTU Trillion British Thermal Units
UCG Unified Command Group
US United States of America
Louisiana is a significant exporter of fuel and energy in the United States. As such, the extensive oil, gas, refinery, and petrochemical infrastructure within the state define a very different energy profile than most other states. Almost all of the energy consumed in Louisiana is produced within the state, making this infrastructure particularly critical to the state’s energy assurance.
Hurricanes are the single most consistent high-probability, high-impact threat to the state’s energy profile and energy assurance. In the last seven years alone, with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, and Gustav and Ike in 2008, the state has suffered more deaths, property damage, and historical power outages, and has seen the largest evacuations in the nation to date. Hurricanes threaten life and property, and cause preemptive business interruptions and large scale citizen evacuations. In Louisiana, hurricanes also cause preemptive shutdown of the nationally significant petrochemical infrastructure component of the state’s energy profile, causing impacts to Louisiana to be felt throughout the nation.
Louisiana has built a sophisticated and resilient set of public private partnerships to enhance energy assurance, particularly in emergency situations. The Louisiana Fuel Team, a cooperative effort between the state Department of Natural Resources and industry and trade organizations, has developed a detailed Play Book particularly focused on emergency evacuation fuel. With the Louisiana Business Emergency Operations Center, the state has built processes for more effective communication between industry and government. These organizations, working cooperatively with the Governor’s Office of Homeland Security and the state Emergency Operations Center, and with academic partners at the National Incident Management Systems and Advanced Technologies (NIMSAT) Institute, make for a highly effective team in providing energy assurance to the state.
This document describes the current state of the Louisiana energy profile, discusses the major threat of hurricanes to that profile, and discusses the various plans and procedures the state has implemented to mitigate, respond to, and recover from, events which impact the energy profile, particularly those processes whose purpose is to ensure electricity and fuel during and immediately after these events.
Louisiana’s energy assurance plan was created by considering the following four components: (1) understanding the energy infrastructure, Louisiana’s Energy Profile, and system interdependencies (2) assessing potential risks that threaten Louisiana’s critical infrastructure, including studying historical disruptions, (3) developing effective plans and procedures to help minimize the impacts an energy supply interruption and rapidly restore the energy infrastructure should an emergency occur, and (4) increasing public awareness and participation.
The Louisiana State Energy Assurance Plan complies with the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) guidelines , the NASEO Energy Assurance Planning Framework, the National Response Framework , the National Infrastructure Protection Plan  and the National Incident Management System . LDNR will review and update the Louisiana State Energy Assurance Plan annually or as needed to reflect changing response trends and strategies and to incorporate lessons learned from exercises to response to actual energy emergencies.
Louisiana Energy Overview
Louisiana Energy Production
Louisiana is rich in crude oil and natural gas. Oil and gas deposits are found in abundance both onshore and offshore in State-owned waters. However, the vast majority of Louisiana’s crude oil reserves and a large share of its natural gas reserves are found offshore in the Louisiana section of the federally administered Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico OCS is the largest U.S. oil-producing region, and the Louisiana section, which contains many of the Nation’s largest oil fields, holds more than nine-tenths of the crude oil reserves in that region. Louisiana’s crude oil reserves account for nearly one-fifth of the total U.S. oil reserves, and its natural gas reserves account for nearly one-tenth of the U.S. total. Louisiana’s fossil fuel resources also include minor deposits of lignite coal, located in the northeastern part of the State .
According to statistics from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Louisiana ranks 3rd in total energy production in 2009 with 7,302 trillion Btu of total production.  This is only behind Texas and Wyoming. Louisiana ranks 4th in crude oil  and 3rd in natural gas.  The crude oil numbers understate the importance of Louisiana because the Federal offshore production is counted separately. This is the largest source of domestic crude, and much of it is supported from Louisiana facilities and comes into Louisiana for refining. In 2011, approximately 20% of all the refining capacity of the U.S. was in South Louisiana. (3,241 thousand barrels a day out of a total of 15,282 barrels)
The discovery of these large quantities of crude oil led to the development of the refining and petrochemical industry in Louisiana. Louisiana’ refining capacity grew with oil production until about 1970 when Louisiana’s oil production peaked and began to decline. Refinery capacity continued to grow by processing more foreign oil and oil from other states as well. Approximately two thirds of refinery input is foreign crude. This changes weekly, but for the week of June 15, 2012, imports were 11,865 thousand barrels /day and total refining was at a level of 15,687 thousand barrels /day. In 2011, three of the top five refineries in the U.S. were located in Louisiana and owned by Exxon, Marathon, and Citgo . Citgo is wholly owned by the Venezuelan Government’s national oil company.
Commercial oil production began in Louisiana in the early 20th century, soon after the discovery of the Spindle Top oil field in neighboring Texas. Louisiana’s onshore production increased until about 1970, when it peaked at more than 1.35 million barrels per day. Output quickly declined thereafter and has fallen to a little more than one-tenth of the 1970 peak in recent years. As of 2009, Louisiana was the country’s top crude oil producer when production from its section of the federally administered Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) is included. When that production is excluded, Louisiana ranks fourth in the nation behind Texas, Alaska, and California . Figure 1 below represents the amount of crude oil produced in thousands of barrels per year between the years of 2005 and 2011, including OCS production.
Figure 1: Louisiana Oil Production in Thousands of Barrels
Louisiana is also a major importer of crude oil from around the world, typically bringing in about one-fifth of all foreign crude oil processed in the United States. The State receives petroleum supplies at several ports, including the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), the only port in the United States capable of accommodating deep draft tankers. LOOP, which began receiving foreign crude oil in 1981 after domestic U.S. production peaked in the 1970s, can import up to 1.2 million barrels per day and is connected through a network of crude oil pipelines to about one-half of U.S. refining capacity. Associated with LOOP are Clovelly Dome, a 40-million-barrel salt cavern storage facility, and the Capline pipeline, which is the largest pipeline system delivering crude oil from the Gulf Coast to the Midwest.  Because Louisiana’s infrastructure provides multiple connections to the nation's commercial oil transport network, the U.S. Department of Energy chose the state as a site for two of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve’s four storage facilities. The two facilities are located in salt caverns in Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry . There are more than 1,100 companies that produce crude oil in the state of Louisiana. Many of them are privately owned and relatively small companies, but for the most part the largest producers are large, investor owned corporations. Figure 2 lists the top oil producing companies for the year 2011 in Louisiana oil fields.