How Do Pre-Retirement Job Characteristics Shape One’s Post-Retirement Cognitive Performance?



Download 464.26 Kb.
Page4/6
Date29.01.2017
Size464.26 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6

Figure 1: Sample Selection




Fully Retire

(n = 721)



Work 35+,

Not Retired



Work 35+,

Not Retired



Work 35+,

Not Retired



Work 35+, Not Retired

Work 0,

Retired


Work 0,

Retired


Work 35+, Not Retired

Work 35+,

Not Retired


Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4


Stay Full Time

(n = 1,296)


Figure 2: Estimates For Intellectual Complexity



+

Decline (Standard Deviations)

***

Figure 3: Estimates For Mechanical Complexity




*

*

Decline (Standard Deviations)

Figure 4: Depiction of Percentile Change, Time 4 Relative To Time 1, and Retiring Relative To Staying Full-Time




c. Causal Effect of Retirement

a. Fully Retire

b. Stay Full-Time



MECHANICAL COMPLEXITY


***

+

*

*

50-54 year olds Low Moderate High

e. Causal Effect of Retirement

d. Stay Full-Time

c. Fully Retire

INTELLECTUAL COMPLEXITY


Appendix A: O*NET Job Characteristics Variables


Characteristics indicate the degree to which a particular job involves each.
A. Abilities:

  1. Deductive reasoning

  2. Inductive reasoning

  3. Mathematical reasoning

  4. Arm-hand steadiness

  5. Finger dexterity

  6. Multi-limb coordination

B. Activities:



  1. Getting information

  2. Inspecting equipment, structures, or material

  3. Processing information

  4. Analyzing data or information

  5. Making decisions and solving problems

  6. Thinking creatively

  7. Developing objectives and strategies

  8. Handling and moving objects

  9. Controlling machines and processes

  10. Operating vehicles, mechanized devices or equipment

  11. Interacting with computers

  12. Repairing and maintaining mechanical equipment

  13. Repairing and maintaining electronic equipment

  14. Documenting/recording information

  15. Establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships

  16. Assisting and caring for others

  17. Performing for or working directly with the public

  18. Coaching and developing others

C. Contexts:



  1. Face-to-face discussions

  2. Coordinate or lead others

  3. Responsibility for outcomes and results

  4. Spend time making repetitive motions

  5. Impact of decisions on co-workers or company results

  6. Frequency of decision-making

  7. Freedom to make decisions

  8. Degree of automation

  9. Importance of being exact or accurate

  10. Importance of repeating same tasks

  11. Structured versus unstructured work

  12. Pace determined by speed of equipment



Table A1. Potential Outcome Mean Estimate Models by Retirement Status and Intellectual Complexity of Longest Occupation







Intellectual Complexity

Mechanical Complexity







Fully Retired

at Time 3/4



Stayed Working Full-Time

at Time 3/4



Fully Retired

at Time 3/4



Stayed Working Full-Time

at Time 3/4









Coef.

Robust SE

Coef.

Robust SE

Coef.

Robust SE

Coef.

Robust SE

Low Complexity

Non-Hispanic Black

-0.3830+

0.2161

0.0653

0.2118

0.0470

0.2963

-0.0444

0.2054

Cognitive performance (time 2)

0.0192

0.0279

0.0561*

0.0273

-0.0243

0.0269

0.0249

0.0277

Education (years)

-0.0395

0.0451

-0.0301

0.0349

0.0364

0.0412

-0.1749***

0.0098

Age (time 1)

0.0259

0.0326

-0.0061

0.0347

-0.0086

0.0312

-0.0485+

0.0286

Age 62 or Higher (time 2)

-0.3352

0.2997

-0.1254

0.3368

-0.3691

0.2378

0.0536

0.2779

Time Span (Months between time 1 and time 4)

-0.0005

0.0208

-0.0166

0.0171

0.0233

0.0232

-0.0040

0.0126

Female

0.1076

0.1712

0.2259

0.1451

-0.0017

0.1762

0.0406

0.1286

Wealth (in quintiles, time 2)

-0.0445

0.0335

0.0207

0.0270

0.0487

0.0347

0.0185

0.0225

Income (in quintiles, time 2)

-0.0001

0.0326

0.0128

0.0305

-0.0058

0.0431

0.0969***

0.0244

Frailty Score (time 2)

-2.1180*

0.8634

0.1709

0.7830

-0.5853

0.7623

0.6897

0.6719

Change in Self-Rated Health (time 3 relative to time 2)

-0.2901**

0.0999

0.1054

0.0950

-0.0449

0.0932

-0.0966

0.0863

Regular moderate exercise

-0.1462*

0.0640

0.1143

0.0715

-0.1785*

0.0744

0.0320

0.0591

Constant

-1.5140

2.4745

0.1255

2.3278

-1.3650

2.1572

4.1570*

2.0347

Moderate Complexity

Non-Hispanic Black

-1.2356***

0.3349

-0.3570

0.2823

-0.7699+

0.4106

0.3180

0.2948

Cognitive performance (time 2)

0.0067

0.0375

-0.0261

0.0240

0.0594

0.0445

-0.0442

0.0376

Education (years)

0.0450

0.0469

0.0256

0.0328

-0.0525

0.0611

0.0288

0.0416

Age (time 1)

-0.0197

0.0397

-0.0320

0.0273

0.0323

0.0538

0.0129

0.0457

Age 62 or Higher (time 2)

0.1479

0.3605

0.3265

0.3158

-1.2851**

0.4490

-0.0267

0.4764

Time Span (Months between time 1 and time 4)

0.0191

0.0317

-0.0045

0.0177

-0.0856*

0.0379

-0.0524

0.0422

Female

-0.0773

0.2225

0.5057***

0.1504

0.0518

0.2541

0.0039

0.2788

Wealth (in quintiles, time 2)

0.0246

0.0433

-0.0382

0.0264

0.0897

0.0632

-0.0227

0.0393

Income (in quintiles, time 2)

0.0418

0.0581

0.0780**

0.0290

0.0167

0.0666

0.0216

0.0409

Frailty Score (time 2)

-0.3222

1.0318

1.3605

1.1433

0.9789

0.9111

-0.7907

1.3557

Change in Self-Rated Health (time 3 relative to time 2)

0.0285

0.1218

-0.0124

0.1099

-0.2749+

0.1501

0.0212

0.1337

Regular moderate exercise

-0.2034**

0.0791

0.1184

0.0738

-0.2266+

0.1351

0.0910

0.1019

Constant

-1.1811

3.4569

1.3319

1.8136

4.1824

4.8482

2.8195

4.8336

Table A1. Potential Outcome Mean Estimate Models by Retirement Status and Intellectual Complexity of Longest Occupation (cont).







Intellectual Complexity

Mechanical Complexity







Fully Retired

at Time 3/4



Stayed Working Full-Time

at Time 3/4



Fully Retired

at Time 3/4



Stayed Working Full-Time

at Time 3/4









Coef.

Robust SE

Coef.

Robust SE

Coef.

Robust SE

Coef.

Robust SE

High Complexity

Non-Hispanic Black

0.6043

0.4956

0.4172

0.3599

-0.0973

0.2976

-0.4075

0.3430

Cognitive performance time 2)

0.0213

0.0428

-0.0009

0.0289

0.0346

0.0351

0.0386

0.0416

Education (years)

-0.0830

0.0667

0.0111

0.0484

-0.0854

0.0615

-0.0186

0.0440

Age (time 1)

-0.1015*

0.0457

-0.0633*

0.0314

-0.0084

0.0349

-0.0204

0.0304

Age 62 or Higher (time 2)

0.7935*

0.3976

0.5453+

0.3215

0.4806

0.3332

0.5892

0.4105

Time Span (Months between time 1 and time 4)

0.0147

0.0339

0.0183

0.0220

0.0397

0.0327

-0.0069

0.0243

Female

0.0299

0.2638

-0.3214

0.1756

-0.1865

0.2521

-0.0253

0.2149

Wealth (in quintiles, time 2)

0.0514

0.0443

0.0185

0.0296

-0.0796

0.0446

0.0117

0.0383

Income (in quintiles, time 2)

-0.0207

0.0465

0.0353

0.0279

-0.0248

0.0467

0.0902*

0.0420

Frailty Score (time 2)

0.2943

1.2277

1.5608

1.1358

1.1998

1.6700

3.7883**

1.3377

Change in Self-Rated Health (time 3 relative to time 2)

-0.1738

0.1472

-0.0049

0.1121

-0.2009

0.1050

-0.0971

0.1315

Regular moderate exercise

0.0177

0.1047

0.1528+

0.0791

0.0941

0.0886

0.0985

0.0877

Constant

4.7777

3.2651

1.2647

2.8621

-2.1941

3.1228

0.3375

2.5516


Download 464.26 Kb.

Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6




The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2020
send message

    Main page