Jv packet •Mars Colonization Affirmative •Mars Colonization Negative


Article: Space Science, Earth Science and Politics



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Article: Space Science, Earth Science and Politics



Space politics: Human Spaceflight versus Earth Sciences? February 9th, 2011.
A letter signed by several members of Congress is the latest evidence that a new battle line is forming over NASA funding: human spaceflight versus Earth sciences. In a letter to House Appropriations committee chairman Rep. Hal Rogers and CJS subcommittee chairman Frank Wolf, six Republican members of Congress asked the appropriators to prioritize NASA funding on what they consider to be the agency’s primary mission, human spaceflight. To do that, they argue that funding for NASA’s climate change research be redirected to human spaceflight accounts. “With your help, we can reorient NASA’s mission back toward human spaceflight by reducing funding for climate change research and reallocating those funds to NASA’s human spaceflight accounts, all while moving overall discretionary spending towards FY2008 levels,” the letter’s authors—Reps. Bill Posey (R-FL), Pete Olson (R-TX), Rob Bishop (R-UT), Jason Chaffetz (R-UT), Sandy Adams (R-FL), and Mo Brooks (R-AL)—argue.

There are a number of issues with the letter. They claim that NASA spent “over a billion dollars” on “studying global warming/climate change” in FY2010. The agency got about $1.4 billion for all Earth sciences research in FY10, according to agency budget documents. There’s no breakout for how much of that went specifically to climate change research, though. The letter also claims that the “lion share” of NASA’s share of stimulus funding went to climate change studies. In fact, only about a third of the agency’s stimulus funding, $325 million, went to Earth sciences programs, to accelerate development of Earth science spacecraft. Human spaceflight got even more: $400 million, including $50 million for the CCDev program. And their claim that NASA’s core mission is human spaceflight is not supported by other documents, ranging from the National Aeronautics and Space Act from 1958 to the latest NASA authorization act, which declared that NASA “is and should remain a multi-mission agency with a balanced and robust set of core missions in science, aeronautics, and human space flight and exploration” and that “NASA plays a critical role through its ability to provide data on solar output, sea level rise, atmospheric and ocean temperature, ozone depletion, air pollution, and observation of human and environment relationships”.

A bigger issue, though, is that this letter may be indicative of a bigger battle some in Congress want to wage between human spaceflight and Earth science. Some members have openly expressed their skepticism about the validity of climate change research, questioning either the existence of global warming or the role of human activities in causing climate change. The letter to appropriators makes no judgment on the quality of validity of such research, only NASA’s role in supporting it, but some might see that unspoken argument there. For example, one of the letter’s signers, Rep. Brooks, said last week in regards to NASA funding that there would be “hearings soon on global warming” by the House science committee without going into more details. An attack on Earth sciences funding to support human spaceflight could create or reinvigorate opponents of human spaceflight programs, reminiscent of previous debates between human spaceflight and robotic space exploration advocates—a battle that the agency presumably would want to avoid.

NASA Tradeoff Disadvantage Affirmative

NASA Tradeoff DA Affirmative





Mars Colonization Affirmative 2

Explanation 3

Glossary 4

1AC [1/6] 5

1AC [2/6] 6

1AC [3/6] 7

1AC [4/6] 8

1AC [5/6] 9

1AC [6/6] 10

Overview Effect Advantage 11

Inherency Extensions 12

Extinction Inevitable – Human Weapons 13

Extinction Inevitable – Asteroids 14

Extinction Inevitable – Overpopulation 16

Answers To: War in Space 17

Overview Effect Extensions 18

Overview Effect Extensions 19

Solvency Extensions 20

Answers To: Can’t Establish a Colony Fast Enough 21

Answer To: Health Risks in Space 22

Answers To: Colonization Technologically Impossible 23

Answers To: Colonization Technologically Impossible 24

Answers To: Privatization DA / CP 25

Article: Why Spaceflight Has Ended 26

Article: Why We Must Return to Space 28

Article: Why a Mars Colony Would Be Possible 31

Mars Colonization Negative 38

Glossary 39

Answers To: Inherency 40

Answers To: Colonization Advantage 41

Answers To: Colonization Advantage 42

Answers To: Colonization Advantage 43

Answers To: Colonization Advantage 44

Answers To: Humans Will Cause Extinction 45

Answers To: Overpopulation Will Cause Extinction 46

Answers To: Asteroids Will Cause Extinction 47

Answers To: Overview Effect Advantage 48

Answers To: Overview Effect Advantage 49

Answers To: Solvency 50

Answers To: Solvency 51

Answers To: Solvency 52

Answers To: Solvency 53

Article: Why We Should Not Seek to Colonize Mars 54

Article: Space Travel Has Many Health Risks 57

SETI Affirmative 59

Explanation 60

Glossary 61

1AC [1/6] 62

1AC [2/6] 63

1AC [3/6] 64

1AC [4/6] 65

1AC [5/6] 66

1AC [6/6] 67

Extraterrestrial Perspective Advantage 68

Extraterrestrial Perspective Advantage 69

Space Debris Advantage 70

Space Debris Advantage 71

Space Debris Advantage 72

Inherency Extensions 73

Alien Contact Extensions – Aliens Exist 74

Alien Contact Extensions – Alien Contact Good 75

Extraterrestrial Perspective Extensions 76

Space Debris Extensions – ATA Helps Tracking 77

Space Debris Extensions – Plan Mitigates Debris 78

Space Debris Extensions – Debris Impacts 79

Solvency Extensions – ATA Leads to Contact 80

Solvency Extensions – Radio Searching Best 81

Solvency Extensions – Can Identify Alien Signals 82

Answers To: Privatization DA / CP 83

Article: The Allen Telescope Array 84

Article: Overview of SETI’s History 86

SETI Negative 91

Glossary 92

Answers to: Inherency 93

Answers to: Inherency 94

Answers to: Alien Contact Advantage 95

Answers To: Alien Contact Advantage 96

Answers To: Alien Contact Advantage 97

Answers To: Alien Contact Advantage 98

Answers To: Extraterrestrial Perspective Advantage 99

Answers To: Extraterrestrial Perspective Advantage 100

Answers To: Space Debris Advantage 101

Answers To: Space Debris Advantage 102

Answers To: Space Debris Advantage 103

Answers To: Solvency 104

Answers To: Solvency 105

Answers To: Solvency 106

Answers To: Solvency 107

Article: Aliens Don’t Exist 108

Article: Problems With Alein Communication 110

NASA Tradeoff Disadvantage 113

Explanation 114

Glossary 115

Budget Tradeoff 1NC [1/2] 116

Budget Tradeoff 1NC [2/2] 117

Overview 119

Uniqueness – NASA Focusing on Earth Science 120

Uniqueness – NASA Focusing on Earth Science 121

Link - Space Exploration Trades off With Earth Science 122

Link - Space Exploration Trades off With Earth Science 123

Specific Link – Colonization Affirmative 124

Specific Link – Constellation Affirmative 126

Specific Link – SETI Affirmative 127

Specific Link – Asteroids Affirmative 128

Impact – Earth Science Solves Global Warming 129

Impacts – Earth Science Solves Global Warming 130

Impact – Warming Causes Extinction 131

Impact – Warming is Man Made 132

Impact – Warming Not Inevitable 133

Article: The State of NASA’s Budget 134

Article: Space Science, Earth Science and Politics 136

NASA Tradeoff DA Affirmative 138

Glossary 139

Uniqueness – NASA Overbudget now 140

Uniqueness – Earth Science Not Funded Now 141

Uniqueness – Earth Science Not Funded Now 142

No Link – Tradeoff Happens Between Agencies 143

No Link – Budget Flexibility now 144

Link Turn – Spending Increases the Budget 145

No Impact – NASA Program Unnecessary 146

No Impact – Warming Not Caused by Humans 147

No Impact – Warming Inevitable 148

Privatization Disadvantage 150

Explanation 151

Glossary 152

Privatization DA 1NC [1/2] 153

Privatization DA 1NC [2/2] 154

Overview 155

Uniqueness – Privatization Occuring Now 156

Uniqueness – Privatization Occuring Now 157

Links – NASA Crowds Out Private Sector 158

Links – NASA Crowds Out Private Sector 159

Links – NASA Crowds Out Private Sector 160

Impact – Economic Growth 161

Impact – Leadership 162

Impact – Turns Case 163

Impact – Turns Case 164

Article: NASA and the Privatization of Space 165

Privatization DA Affirmative 169

Glossary 170

Uniqueness – Private Sector Doesn’t Exist 171

Uniqueness – Private Sector Doesn’t Exist 172

Link Turn – Government Action Spurs the Private Sector 173

Link Turn – Government Action Spurs the Private Sector 174

No Impact – Privatization Won’t Achieve Goals 175

No Impact – Privatization Won’t Work 176

Impact Turn – Leadership 177

Impact Turn – Leadership 178



Impact Turn – Space Debris 179


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