► Always have a safe attitude when using tools and equipment.
► Do not use damaged tools; inspect before using, then clean and inspect again before putting them away.
► Lockouts and tagouts are meant to prevent technicians from using tools and equipment that are potentially unsafe.
► Many tools and measuring instruments have USCS or metric system markings to identify their size.
► Compressed air systems are comprised of a compressor, a pressure regulator, an air hose or fixed piping, and the tool to be powered.
► Standard compressors use a piston to force air into a storage tank, while scroll compressors use rotating scrolls to compress air.
► Always use caution: Compressed air injuries can be fatal.
► Many compressed air systems use air driers to remove all traces of moisture from the compressed air.
► Automatic oilers provide a regular application of lubricating oil to the stream of compressed air which then lubricates air tools and equipment.
► Chassis dynamometers allow technicians to run vehicles at road speed without leaving the shop.
► Threaded fasteners include bolts, studs, and nuts, and are designed to secure vehicle parts under stress.
► Torque defines how much a fastener should be tightened.
► Bolts, nuts, and studs use threads to secure each part; these threads can be in standard or metric measures.
► Thread pitch refers to the coarseness of the thread; USCS bolts, nuts, and studs are measured in threads per inch (tpi), classified as coarse (UNC) or fine (UNF).
► Fasteners are graded by tensile strength (how much tension can be withstood before breakage).
► The SAE rates fasteners from grade 1 to grade 8; always replace a nut or bolt with one of the same grade.
► Torque specification indicates the level of tightness each bolt or nut should be tightened to; torque charts list torque specifications for nuts and bolts.
► Torque (or tension) wrenches tighten fasteners to the correct torque specification.
► Torque value—the amount of twisting force applied to a fastener by the torque wrench—is specified in foot-pounds, inch-pounds, or newton meters.
► Torque wrench styles are beam (simplest and least expensive), clicker, dial, and electronic. Each gives an indication of when proper torque is achieved.
► Bolts that are tightened beyond their yield point do not return to their original length when loosened.
► Torque-to-yield (TTY) bolts can be torqued just beyond their yield point, but should not be reused.
► Torque angle can be used to tighten TTY bolts and requires both a torque wrench and an angle gauge.
► Common wrenches include box end, open end, combination (most popular), flare nut (or flare tubing), open-end adjustable, and ratcheting box end.
► Box-end wrenches can loosen very tight fasteners, but open-end wrenches usually work better once the fastener has been broken loose.
► Use the correct wrench for the situation, so as not to damage the bolt or nut.
► Sockets grip fasteners tightly on all six corners and are purchased in sets.
► Sockets are classified as follows: standard or metric, size of drive used to turn them, number of points, depth of socket, and thickness of wall.
► The most common socket handle is a ratchet; a breaker bar gives more leverage, or a sliding T-handle may be used.
► Fasteners can be spun off or on (but not tightened) by a speed brace or speeder handle.
► Pliers hold, cut, or compress materials; types include slip-joint, combination, arc joint, needle nose, flat, diagonal cutting, snap ring, and locking.
► Always use the correct type of pliers for the job.
► Cutting tools include bolt cutters, tin snips, and aviation snips.
► Allen wrenches are designed to fit into fasteners with recessed hexagonal heads.
► Screwdriver types include flat blade (most common), Phillips, Pozidriv, offset, ratcheting, and impact.
► The tip of the screwdriver must be matched exactly to the slot or recess on the head of a fastener.
► Magnetic pickup tools and mechanical fingers allow for the extraction and insertion of objects in tight places.
► Types of hammers include ball peen (most common), sledge, mallet, and dead blow.
► Chisels are used to cut metals when hit with a hammer.
► Punches are used to mark metals when hit with a hammer and come in different diameters and different points for different tasks; types of punches include prick, center, drift, pin, ward, and hollow.
► Pry bars can be used to move, adjust, or pry parts.
► Gasket scrapers are designed to remove gaskets without damaging surrounding materials.
► Files are used to remove material from the surface of an automotive part.
► Flat files come in different grades to indicate how rough they are; grades are rough, coarse bastard, second cut, smooth, and dead smooth.
► Types of files include flat, warding, square, triangular, curved, and thread.
► Bench vices, offset vices, drill vices, and C-clamps all hold materials in place while they are worked on.
► Taps are designed to cut threads in holes or nuts; types include taper, intermediate, and bottoming.
► A die is used to cut a new thread on a blank rod or shaft.
► Gear and bearing pullers are designed to remove components from a shaft when considerable force is needed.
► Flaring tools create flares at the end of tubes to connect them to other components; types include single, double, and ISO.
► Rivet tools join together two pieces of metal; each rivet can be used only once.
► Solder is a mixture of metals, often in the form of a wire, that is melted with a soldering gun or iron to join metals together.
► Measuring tapes and steel rules are commonly used measuring tools; more precise measuring tools include micrometers, gauges, calipers, dial indicators, and straight edges.
► Micrometers can be outside, inside, or depth.
► Learn to read micrometer measurements on the sleeve/barrel and thimble; always verify the micrometer is properly calibrated before use.
► Gauges are used to measure distances and diameters; types include telescoping, split ball, and dial bore.
► Vernier calipers measure outside, inside, and depth dimensions; newer versions have dial and digital scales.
► Dial indicators are used to measure movement.
► A straight edge is designed to assess the flatness of a surface.
► Feeler blades are flat metal strips that are used to measure the width of gaps.
► Power tools can be stationary or portable, corded or cordless, and are powered by electricity, batteries, compressed air, a propellant, or a gasoline engine.
► Drills are designed to drive a drill bit into metal (or other material) to create a hole; check drilling speed charts for proper drilling speed.
► Portable grinders are designed to grind down metals, but can also be fitted with a cutting disc to cut sheets of metal.
► Air tools use compressed, pressurized air for power; types include the air impact wrench, air ratchet, air hammer, air drill, and blowgun/air nozzle.
► Always wear eye and ear protection when using air tools; never use air nozzles on yourself or other people.
► Pressure washers/cleaners use focused, pressurized water to clean accumulated dirt and grease from vehicle components; water must be directed properly so as not to damage other parts.
► Familiarize yourself with pressure washer operating instructions and waste water disposal regulations.
► Spray wash cabinets are designed to clean automotive parts in a sealed cabinet, much like a dishwasher.
► Solvent tanks are designed for immersion of vehicle parts to remove oil, dirt, grease, and grime; always note the type of solvent being used and take necessary precautions.
► Brake washers are designed to remove brake dust from wheel brake units and their components.
► Sand or bead blasters are designed to clean paint, corrosion, or dirt from metal parts by blasting small abrasive particles onto the surface.
► Thread repair is performed to restore fastening integrity to a damaged fastener.
► Threads can be reshaped with a file, or a thread insert may be used.
► Oxyacetylene torches are designed to heat, braze, weld, and cut metal by combining acetylene with oxygen at a high temperature.
► Flashback arrestors prevent flames from traveling back up the hose in the event the oxygen and acetylene ignite inside the torch handle (flashback).
► Wear protective clothing and gear when using an oxyacetylene torch and follow all related safety precautions.
► Plasma cutters are designed to cut various thicknesses of metal and are an alternative to oxyacetylene torches.
► A wire feed welder has a filler rod automatically feeding into the welding joint at an adjustable rate.
► Battery chargers can be fast or slow, depending on current output; smart chargers calculate and provide the correct amount of charge needed for the battery.
► Vehicle batteries can be dangerous due to their high voltage; hybrid vehicle batteries have extremely high voltage and current flows.
► Batteries should be charged slowly, if possible.