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► Tools and equipment should be used only for the task they were designed to do.

► Always have a safe attitude when using tools and equipment.

► Do not use damaged tools; inspect before using, then clean and inspect again before putting them away.

► Lockouts and tagouts are meant to prevent technicians from using tools and equipment that are potentially unsafe.

► Many tools and measuring instruments have USCS or metric system markings to identify their size.

► Compressed air systems are comprised of a compressor, a pressure regulator, an air hose or fixed piping, and the tool to be powered.

► Standard compressors use a piston to force air into a storage tank, while scroll compressors use rotating scrolls to compress air.

► Always use caution: Compressed air injuries can be fatal.

► Many compressed air systems use air driers to remove all traces of moisture from the compressed air.

► Automatic oilers provide a regular application of lubricating oil to the stream of compressed air which then lubricates air tools and equipment.

► Chassis dynamometers allow technicians to run vehicles at road speed without leaving the shop.

► Threaded fasteners include bolts, studs, and nuts, and are designed to secure vehicle parts under stress.

► Torque defines how much a fastener should be tightened.

► Bolts, nuts, and studs use threads to secure each part; these threads can be in standard or metric measures.

► Thread pitch refers to the coarseness of the thread; USCS bolts, nuts, and studs are measured in threads per inch (tpi), classified as coarse (UNC) or fine (UNF).

► Fasteners are graded by tensile strength (how much tension can be withstood before breakage).

► The SAE rates fasteners from grade 1 to grade 8; always replace a nut or bolt with one of the same grade.

► Torque specification indicates the level of tightness each bolt or nut should be tightened to; torque charts list torque specifications for nuts and bolts.

► Torque (or tension) wrenches tighten fasteners to the correct torque specification.

► Torque value—the amount of twisting force applied to a fastener by the torque wrench—is specified in foot-pounds, inch-pounds, or newton meters.

► Torque wrench styles are beam (simplest and least expensive), clicker, dial, and electronic. Each gives an indication of when proper torque is achieved.

► Bolts that are tightened beyond their yield point do not return to their original length when loosened.

► Torque-to-yield (TTY) bolts can be torqued just beyond their yield point, but should not be reused.

► Torque angle can be used to tighten TTY bolts and  requires both a torque wrench and an angle gauge.

► Common wrenches include box end, open end, combination (most popular), flare nut (or flare tubing), open-end adjustable, and ratcheting box end.

► Box-end wrenches can loosen very tight fasteners, but open-end wrenches usually work better once the fastener has been broken loose.

► Use the correct wrench for the situation, so as not to damage the bolt or nut.

► Sockets grip fasteners tightly on all six corners and are purchased in sets.

► Sockets are classified as follows: standard or metric, size of drive used to turn them, number of points, depth of socket, and thickness of wall.

► The most common socket handle is a ratchet; a breaker bar gives more leverage, or a sliding T-handle may be used.

► Fasteners can be spun off or on (but not tightened) by a speed brace or speeder handle.

► Pliers hold, cut, or compress materials; types include slip-joint, combination, arc joint, needle nose, flat, diagonal cutting, snap ring, and locking.

► Always use the correct type of pliers for the job.

► Cutting tools include bolt cutters, tin snips, and aviation snips.

► Allen wrenches are designed to fit into fasteners with recessed hexagonal heads.

► Screwdriver types include flat blade (most common), Phillips, Pozidriv, offset, ratcheting, and impact.

► The tip of the screwdriver must be matched exactly to the slot or recess on the head of a fastener.

► Magnetic pickup tools and mechanical fingers allow for the extraction and insertion of objects in tight places.

► Types of hammers include ball peen (most common), sledge, mallet, and dead blow.

► Chisels are used to cut metals when hit with a hammer.

► Punches are used to mark metals when hit with a hammer and come in different diameters and different points for different tasks; types of punches include prick, center, drift, pin, ward, and hollow.

► Pry bars can be used to move, adjust, or pry parts.

► Gasket scrapers are designed to remove gaskets without damaging surrounding materials.

► Files are used to remove material from the surface of an automotive part.

► Flat files come in different grades to indicate how rough they are; grades are rough, coarse bastard, second cut, smooth, and dead smooth.

► Types of files include flat, warding, square, triangular, curved, and thread.

► Bench vices, offset vices, drill vices, and C-clamps all hold materials in place while they are worked on.

► Taps are designed to cut threads in holes or nuts; types include taper, intermediate, and bottoming.

► A die is used to cut a new thread on a blank rod or shaft.

► Gear and bearing pullers are designed to remove components from a shaft when considerable force is needed.

► Flaring tools create flares at the end of tubes to connect them to other components; types include single, double, and ISO.

► Rivet tools join together two pieces of metal; each rivet can be used only once.

► Solder is a mixture of metals, often in the form of a wire, that is melted with a soldering gun or iron to join metals together.

► Measuring tapes and steel rules are commonly used measuring tools; more precise measuring tools include micrometers, gauges, calipers, dial indicators, and straight edges.

► Micrometers can be outside, inside, or depth.

► Learn to read micrometer measurements on the sleeve/barrel and thimble; always verify the micrometer is properly calibrated before use.

► Gauges are used to measure distances and diameters; types include telescoping, split ball, and dial bore.

► Vernier calipers measure outside, inside, and depth dimensions; newer versions have dial and digital scales.

► Dial indicators are used to measure movement.

► A straight edge is designed to assess the flatness of a surface.

► Feeler blades are flat metal strips that are used to measure the width of gaps.

► Power tools can be stationary or portable, corded or cordless, and are powered by electricity, batteries, compressed air, a propellant, or a gasoline engine.

► Drills are designed to drive a drill bit into metal (or other material) to create a hole; check drilling speed charts for proper drilling speed.

► Portable grinders are designed to grind down metals, but can also be fitted with a cutting disc to cut sheets of metal.

► Air tools use compressed, pressurized air for power; types include the air impact wrench, air ratchet, air hammer, air drill, and blowgun/air nozzle.

► Always wear eye and ear protection when using air tools; never use air nozzles on yourself or other people.

► Pressure washers/cleaners use focused, pressurized water to clean accumulated dirt and grease from vehicle components; water must be directed properly so as not to damage other parts.

► Familiarize yourself with pressure washer operating instructions and waste water disposal regulations.

► Spray wash cabinets are designed to clean automotive parts in a sealed cabinet, much like a dishwasher.

► Solvent tanks are designed for immersion of vehicle parts to remove oil, dirt, grease, and grime; always note the type of solvent being used and take necessary precautions.

► Brake washers are designed to remove brake dust from wheel brake units and their components.

► Sand or bead blasters are designed to clean paint, corrosion, or dirt from metal parts by blasting small abrasive particles onto the surface.

► Thread repair is performed to restore fastening integrity to a damaged fastener.

► Threads can be reshaped with a file, or a thread insert may be used.

► Oxyacetylene torches are designed to heat, braze, weld, and cut metal by combining acetylene with oxygen at a high temperature.

► Flashback arrestors prevent flames from traveling back up the hose in the event the oxygen and acetylene ignite inside the torch handle (flashback).

► Wear protective clothing and gear when using an oxyacetylene torch and follow all related safety precautions.

► Plasma cutters are designed to cut various thicknesses of metal and are an alternative to oxyacetylene torches.

► A wire feed welder has a filler rod automatically feeding into the welding joint at an adjustable rate.

► Battery chargers can be fast or slow, depending on current output; smart chargers calculate and provide the correct amount of charge needed for the battery.

► Vehicle batteries can be dangerous due to their high voltage; hybrid vehicle batteries have extremely high voltage and current flows.

► Batteries should be charged slowly, if possible.



► Jump-starting a vehicle places a stress on both vehicles; the current can damage electrical components in both vehicles.

► Keep work area, tools, and equipment clean and organized.

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