Sports & Entertainment Marketing Unit One Outline, 7th Edition

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Sports & Entertainment Marketing

Unit One Outline, 7th Edition

Unit 1:

Unit one provides students with an understanding of the evolution of sports and entertainment as it relates to business. Identifying industry “pioneers” and important milestones will assist students in the comprehension of how the sports and entertainment industry has become the multi-billion dollar industry it is today.
Lesson 1.4 of this unit reviews a number of industry pioneers. The list is pretty extensive, but by no means is it “all-inclusive”. Challenge your students to create a list of their own pioneers. Make sure they can identify specific areas where the individual has made an impact and how it helped shape the state of the industry.
History & Evolution of Sports & Entertainment Marketing



1) Define the acronym SEM

2) Identify factors that contributed to the growth of the sports and entertainment industry

3) Understand the concept of “fandom” and its importance to the business of sports and entertainment

4) Discuss the impact specific individuals had on the evolution of the industry

5) Recognize specific milestones relevant to industry growth

6) Define media

7) Understand the importance of media (broadcast) rights



Lesson 1.1 Genesis of Sports & Entertainment Marketing

Lesson 1.2 Factors Contributing to Industry Growth

Lesson 1.3 Media Impact on Industry Growth

Lesson 1.4 Industry Pioneers

Lesson 1.5 Important Milestones in SEM History

Lesson 1.6 Where Are We Now?


Fandom Media Media (Broadcast) Rights


Lesson 1.1

Genesis of Sports and Entertainment Marketing

  1. The origins of sports and entertainment marketing (SEM)

    1. What is SEM?

      1. SEM is the acronym for sports and entertainment marketing

    2. Sports and entertainment marketing is a relatively new player in a field of multi-billion dollar industries.

      1. Forms of sports marketing started as early as 1858 (first known athletic event to charge admission took place at a baseball game)

      2. Entertainment as we know it today (movies, radio, television, music) exploded from 1900 on, and as technology improved, so did the products being offered

        1. Silent movies progressed to sound, and radio eventually expanded to television;

        2. Vinyl records evolved into tape and CD and today’s digital formats

      3. The 1900’s also brought the advent of carnivals, amusement parks, and theme parks which evolved from (but did not completely replace) fairs, circuses and festivals

    3. Many events have influenced the industry’s transition from leisure activity to big business

      1. Evolved as fan support grew with willingness to spend discretionary income

      2. Emergence of radio and television offered more opportunity for consumption of sports and entertainment products

      3. Corporations began to see the benefit with sports and entertainment affiliations, resulting in a marketing and sponsorship boom

      4. Celebrity endorsements and naming rights deals became common industry practice

      5. Advancement of technologies making it easier to consume sports and entertainment while more sports and entertainment properties are introduced

    4. Size and scope of the sports industry

      1. The sports business industry is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the United States

      2. Research conducted in 2012 by Plunkett Research estimates the overall size of the entire sports industry in the U.S. is around $435 billion 1

      3. Comparatively:

        1. More than twice the size of the auto repair services and parking industries 2

        2. Larger than such industries as insurance carriers and legal services 2

    5. Sports industry revenue breakdown (in 2012) 3

      1. $77.3 billion in sales of U.S. sporting goods equipment by manufacturers

      2. $41.5 billion in sales of U.S. sporting goods equipment by retailers

      3. $33.9 billion in racetracks, sports teams and other spectator sports

      4. $24.5 billion in revenues for the “Big 4” U.S. sports leagues

        1. NFL, MLB, NBA, NHL

      5. $21 billion in revenue in fitness and recreation centers

      6. $20 billion in revenue in golf industry

      7. $.78 billion in NCAA sports revenue

      8. $.63 billion in NASCAR revenue

    1. Size and scope of the entertainment industry

      1. Industry extends from movies, television and radio, to theatre, home entertainment, amusement/theme parks, gaming and much more

      2. Consumers have shown an insatiable appetite for entertainment resulting in an industry boom

        1. Broadly measured, the entertainment and media industry spans multiple sectors

          1. There are 9,566 FM radio stations in the United States

          2. Over 1.4 billion movie tickets are sold each year in U.S. theaters

          3. Analysts at Veronis Suhler Stevenson estimate that total U.S. communications and media spending hit $1.12 trillion in 2011 (up from only about $891.5 billion in 2008) and will grow to $1.4 trillion by 2014 4

    2. Entertainment industry revenue breakdown (according to latest US Census Data) 5

      1. $91 billion in film/theatrical/DVD rental/related revenues

      2. $80 billion in TV broadcast and cable revenues

      3. $76 billion in music industry revenues (CDs, downloads, radio, concerts, etc.)

      4. $18 billion in electronic gaming 6

      5. $12 billion in amusement/theme park revenues

      6. $7 billion in theatrical productions

Lesson 1.2

Factors Contributing to Industry Growth

  1. Many factors in sports and entertainment business led to its enormous growth

    1. Increase in numbers of those participating in sports and entertainment

      1. The U.S. Youth Soccer Association reports that there were 100,000 registered players in 1974. Today the organization has grown to 3.2 million registered players and over 800,000 coaches and volunteers. 8

      2. The number of U.S. golfers has risen to 12.6% of the population vs. 3.5% 50 years ago 9

      3. According to the National Federation of State High School Associations, the sport of lacrosse has seen a 280% increase in participation in the last decade 10

      4. Among sports and recreation activities that grew more than 15% the past 10 years, skateboarding led the way with a 74.1% growth, according to the National Sporting Goods Association (NSGA) 11

        1. Skateboarding saw a remarkable increase in the last 10 years, due in part, to the television exposure provided by ESPN’s X-Games,” said NSGA Vice President of Information & Research Thomas B. Doyle (NSGA) 11

    2. Increase in numbers of those following sports and entertainment

      1. U.S. television broadcast 800 hours of sports in 1971 12

      2. NBC, along with its cable channels and website, will broadcast 5,535 hours of the London games—about 2,000 hours more than the Beijing games and compared with a total of 14 hours from the 1964 Tokyo games 13

    3. Increase in sports/entertainment offerings

      1. More options for sports as participants

        1. Disc golf the sport spread to 560 courses nationwide by 1995 and doubled that number by 2000. In 2010, the Professional Disc Golf Association counted 3,276 courses around the U.S. 14

        2. Hawaii will soon become the first state to sanction surfing as an officially recognized high school sport, possibly as early as 2013

      2. Media broadcast offerings

        1. According to the Sports Business Journal, ESPN’s coverage features over 65 sports (including MLB, NBA, NFL’s Monday Night Football, NASCAR, MLS, FIFA World Cup, WNBA, college football, men's and women's college basketball, golf, Little League World Series, fishing, spelling, billiards, poker, arena football, eating championships, and the X Games), 24 hours a day in 15 languages in more than 150 countries

        2. DirecTV now offers over 285 channels as part of their “premiere” package, including over 50 channels dedicated specifically to sports programming (and that doesn’t include the seventeen “specialty” packages that require an additional subscription like the NBA League Pass, NFL Ticket or NHL Center Ice)

    4. Attendance increases had an enormous influence on the size and scope of the sports and entertainment business industry

      1. For the 2011-12 campaign, NHL attendance was 21,470,155, just short of the league record of 21,475,223 set in the 2008-09 season broke the league’s attendance record for the fourth consecutive season (attendance dipped slightly by 2 ½ percent in 2010-11)15

        1. To put the league’s growth into perspective, the NHL’s attendance in 1978-79 was just 7,758,0516

        2. Click here for a link for more attendance figures for other sports leagues for the 2011-12 season and click here to learn more about how social media and marketing have helped the NHL grow its fan base

      2. Over 75 percent of movies in the top 50 all-time highest-grossing films (before inflation) were released after the year 2000. The highest grossing film in the 70s was Star Wars, at just under $800 million and in the 80s was E.T., at just $750 million. 17

        1. In the summer of 2012, Marvel’s the Avengers needed just 19 days in theater to surpass $1 billion in gross sales

This is a good time to gauge your student’s familiarity with the concept of inflation (great way to tie in a quick economic lesson)! Ask students if they think twice as many ticket buying patrons attended Titanic as they did Star Wars. Introduce the concept of adjusted box office gross (reflecting inflation). See the discussion topic presented in the PowerPoint slides for more details and an example illustrating this valuable lesson.

    1. Media coverage of sports and entertainment has grown significantly in the past half-century, placing athletes and entertainers in the public eye with incredible frequency

      1. Television and radio provide alternative news sources to newspapers

      2. Profit potential for media centers encourage increased competition for top stories

      3. Introduction of Internet makes information available “on demand” with increased frequency and accessibility

        1. Tiger Woods explains “Arnold Palmer…came along at the same time television was exploding in America. Now we’ve got global Internet access. Our sport wasn’t global when I began playing the Tour. Now it is. You can log on anywhere in the world and see what any player did in any tournament or for the year. With that international boom, that international stream of information, golf is getting exposed to parts of the world that it never even thought of getting into.” 18

    2. The international marketplace continues to provide a platform for driving sales of sports and entertainment products and services

      1. J.K. Rowling’s (UK) Harry Potter series

      2. Athletes like the NBA’s Dirk Nowitzki (Germany), MLS’s David Beckham (England) and Theiry Henry (France), the NHL’s Alexander Ovechkin and Evgeni Malkin (Russia), the PGA Tour’s Rory McIlroy (Ireland), Tennis stars Maria Sharapova (Russia), Novak Djokovic (Serbia), Rafael Nadal (Spain) and Roger Federer (Sweden), Track star Usain Bolt (Jamaica), Boxer Manny Pacquiao (Phillipines) and MLB’s Albert Pujols (Dominican Republic), Ichiro Suziki and Yu Darvish (Japan) help their respective sports, teams and leagues draw fans from all over the world

        1. Five of the top seven players selected in the 2011 NBA Draft were International players

      3. European musicians like the Rolling Stones, U2, Adele and Coldplay, Columbian artist Shakira, Canadian Justin Bieber and Barbados-born Rihanna sell millions of records (and downloads) to consumers all over the globe

      4. Actors and actresses such as Cate Blanchett, Kate Winslet, Colin Farrell, Emma Watson and Russell Crowe help boost International box office sales for the films in which they have a prominent role

      5. Global events like Wimbledon, the Tour de France, FIFA World Cup, Olympic Games, the Iditarod and Cannes Film Festival attract world-wide attention, providing an exceptional marketing opportunity for ticket sales, sponsorship sales, licensing and merchandise opportunities while providing a tremendous economic impact for host cities

        1. In March of 2010, ESPN, CANAL + Events and Tignes Ski & Snowboard Resort (in France) launched the first Winter X Games to be held outside the United States, providing yet another example of the global growth and expansion of sports, entertainment and events

      6. The global demand for footwear and sports apparel continues to grow with international brands like China’s Li Ning, South Korea’s Fila, Japan’s Mizuno and Germany’s Adidas and Puma fiercely competing with American brands like Nike and Under Armour for market share

        1. A number of NBA All-Stars have recently opted out of relationships with American brands to pursue deals with Chinese sportswear brands, including Steve Nash who left Nike to sign with (Luyou, a Chinese sporting goods manufacturer), Jason Kidd who left to sign with the Chinese footwear brand Peak (who also endorses Shane Battier), Baron Davis left Reebok for Chinese sportswear giant Li-Ning, while Kevin Garnett left adidas to sign with Anta and Kevin Love signed with a new Chinese shoe brand, 361 Degrees 19

      7. Prominent American sport properties are making a push to expand their presence overseas by hosting regular season games (not exhibition games) outside of the U.S.

        1. In 2012, Major League Baseball opened the regular season with a game played in Japan between the Seattle Mariners and Oakland A’s in front of a capacity crowd of 44,227 at the Tokyo Dome

        2. Also in 2012, New England Patriots’ owner Robert Kraft publicly announced that he felt the NFL should bring an expansion franchise to London

        3. Viewers of the 2012 NBA Finals in the United States had the option of listening to ABC’s broadcast of the game in Spanish by sampling pressing the 'Audio' menu button on the television’s remote control

        4. An American mixed martial arts promotion company (UFC) The UFC staged a bout (UFC 120 featuring Michael Bisping and Yoshirio Akiyama) at London’s O2 arena in 2010. The event had an attendance of 17,133, breaking the European attendance and gate receipts record which was set by the MEN at UFC 105. It was also the biggest box office sporting event in O2 Arena history.20

        5. In 2010, the WWE generated almost 30% of its business internationally with sales of about $135 million. According to a report in the Sports Business Journal, WWE is placing more emphasis on its global expansion strategies, ranging from event broadcasts to merchandise sales and live events.21

  1. Signs of continued industry growth

    1. Indications point toward heavy increases in consumption of sports and entertainment

      1. Overall industry revenues continue to climb, domestically and internationally

        1. The worldwide video game industry is poised to reach $70.1 billion by 2015, thanks to the combined growth of console, portable, PC, and online video games, according to market researcher DFC Intelligence.22

        2. According to the 2012 mid-year U.S. music sales report from Nielsen SoundScan, sales of digital music albums were up 14% from the previous years while digital tracks were up 6% 23

        1. Pandora radio now boasts over 150 million users 24

        2. The global theme parks market is projected to reach $29.5 billion by 2015, according to a report by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. 25

        3. Also according to Global Industry Analysts, Inc., the global footwear market is expected to reach $195 billion by 2015 26

        4. Electronic books accounted for $282.3 million in sales in the first quarter of 2012, up 28.1% from 2011 and for the first time in history, ebook sales generated more revenue than hardcover books 27

        5. In 1994, Nike’s soccer brand revenues were $40 million. In 2012, the company reported soccer revenues of more than $2 billion (adidas’ soccer division also surpassed $2 billion in sales in 2012). 28

        6. NFL media fees will reportedly double to $8 billion annually by the end of the decade 29

        7. Forbes reports that NBA revenues will likely eclipse $4 billion for the first time in 2012-13, up from $3.8 billion realized during their last full season in 2010-11 30

        8. Centerplate, the leading hospitality partner to North America's premier sports, convention and entertainment venues, is now also the fastest growing restaurant chain in America, according to Nation's Restaurant News. Centerplate served over 100 million guests in 2010 alone 31

        9. Newsweek reported that ESPN had record revenues of $8.5 billion in 2011 32

      1. Television audiences continue to grow in size while sports and entertainment properties expand the various means for distributing content (social media, streaming etc)

        1. The Game 5 telecast of the 2009 The 2012 NBA Finals on ABC between the Miami Heat and Oklahoma City Thunder was broadcast in 215 countries and 47 languages

        2. The 2012 NBA Finals was also generated the second highest ratings since ABC started carrying the series in 2003 was covered by 55 international TV, radio & websites and generated approximately 30 million daily page views on web around the world throughout the finals

          1. 278 million people around the world follow the NBA through social media alone

        3. American viewers tuned into the European Championships 2012 Final in record numbers on ESPN, as the sport continues to grow in popularity in the U.S. The average viewing attendance for all 31 matches at Euro 2012 was 1.3 million, which represented a 51 percent increase on the numbers from the 2008 edition of the tournament. 33

      2. The value of major league sport franchises continues to grow at a furious pace. In 1973, the late George Steinbrenner bought the New York Yankees for just under $9 million. In 2012, Forbes magazine valued the historic franchise at $1.85 billion.33

        1. Also in 2012, Forbes reported that the Dallas Cowboys franchise was the most valuable in the NFL at $1.85 billion 34

        2. Forbes also reported that the average NFL team is now worth over $1 billion over 250 percent more than when Forbes began calculating team values ten years ago and up 66 percent from just five years ago 34

  1. Fandom

    1. The level of “fandom” in today’s culture shows no signs of slowing down

      1. Fandom is a term used to refer to a subculture of fans characterized by a feeling of sympathy and camaraderie with others who share a common interest 35

        1. Ultimately, fandom is what motivates the sports and entertainment consumer to make purchase decisions relating to available sports and entertainment products

      2. The term fandom can be used to describe all types of fan groupings or “subcultures”

        1. Star Wars or Star Trek fans

        2. Fans of the Black Eyed Peas music group

        3. Manchester United fans

        4. Based on a study commissioned by the popular English soccer club, Manchester United claims to be the most popular sports franchise in the world. Its fan base has doubled in the past five years to 659 million people, nearly one tenth of the world's population.

        5. Fans of the Broadway musical Lion King

        6. Fans of Madden Football video games

        7. Fans of a particular comic book series

      3. Impact of fandom

        1. ESPN’s “State of Sports 2007” survey found that a whopping 90% of male respondents claimed to be sports fans on some level 36

        2. ESPN’s “State of Sports 2008” survey found that over 50% of respondents claimed to more of a sports fan than they were five years ago 37

        3. ESPN’s “State of Sports 2010” survey found that 58% of respondents would prefer to receive free season tickets to their favorite sports team than be promoted at work 38

        4. Fans have, in a limited number of occasions, successfully organized on behalf of a cancelled television series to lobby networks to bring back their favorite show (examples include Jericho in 2007 and Chuck in 2010)

      4. The intensity levels of fandom vary, ranging from a casual sports fan who might take in one NBA game per year to those fans that put the “fan” in “fanatic” (and otherwise engage in behavior that other fans might otherwise find to be irrational)

        1. Self-named Clippers fan “Clipper Darrell” spent $12,000 customizing his BMW to reflect his love for the Los Angeles Clippers (complete with the license plate “CLIPERD”) 39

        2. A rabid Alabama Crimson Tide fan allegedly poisoned the 130-year-old live oak trees at Auburn University's historic Toomer's Corner (just after hundreds of Tigers fans gathered soon after the team won the 2011 football national championship) 40

        3. On opening night, Activision says that approximately 1.5 million gamers lined up outside 13,000 stores to buy a copy of Modern Warfare 3 at midnight 41

        4. In 2012, University of Kentucky fans paid between $7,500 to $12,500 for the opportunity to attend a basketball camp (called John Calipari Basketball Fantasy Experience) and “essentially experience what it’s like to be a Kentucky basketball player” 42

        5. Fandom explains why people propose at sporting events

      5. The existence of fandom is what ultimately fuels today’s non-stop, around the clock media coverage of celebrities and sports stars and drives a culture in which athletes and celebrities are often quickly forgiven for highly publicized transgressions when they perform

        1. Four years after dropping Michael Vick as a product endorser, Nike re-signed the star quarterback to a new deal in 2011 after his play on the field and public appearances helped him to rehabilitate his image

        2. While many media pundits publicly chastised LeBron James’ decision to announce which team he would be joining in 2010 in a one hour ESPN special, the show (aptly named “The Decision”) drew very high ratings as nearly 10 million people tuned in to watch 43

        3. Despite all the scrutiny surrounding singer Chris Brown (including his widely publicized assault of then-girlfriend Rihanna, a disturbance in a nightclub with rapper Drake, and poor album reviews), his 2012 release of “Fortune” managed to debut at the top of the Billboard 200 chart 44

      6. Because of the strong emotional connection fans maintain with their favorite sports teams, wins and losses on the grandest of stages can yield incredible influence (both positive and negative) on a community at large

        1. After struggling with one of the worst national disasters in US history (Hurricane Katrina), fans in the New Orleans area often cited the New Orleans Saints Super Bowl win as an inspiration for the city’s resurrection

        2. Representing their country just four months after a devastating tsunami rocked Japan, their women’s soccer team pulled off one of the greatest upsets in sports history by defeating the heavily favored Germans in the 2011 World Cup and, ultimately, beating the United States in the championship game. “Our playing is to be an encouragement for the victims of the disaster,” said Coach Norio Sasaki after the monumental victory while the headline in the New York Times the following day read: “A Resilient Team Soothes a Nation.”

        3. On the flip side, after beating Louisville in the 2012 Final Four for the right to play in the NCAA basketball championship game, University of Kentucky fans turned destructive in celebration in downtown Lexington, including setting fires and couches on fire

        4. Violence also erupted on the campus of Penn State in 2011 after students (fans) learned of the school's decision to fire legendary football coach Joe Paterno in the wake of the now infamous child sex abuse scandal

        5. Fandom can, unfortunately, also result in an unhealthy (and potentially dangerous) subculture of fans that become too emotionally invested and obsessive with their favorite sports teams or celebrities

        6. In 2012, a man was sentenced was sentenced to serve time in prison after he broke into rap mogul Sean “Diddy” Combs’ vacation home in the Hampton and reportedly ate food, drank soda and went to sleep in an upstairs bedroom. The suspect, who told police he "was actually hoping to stay like 15 to 17 days”, was also ordered to stay away from Diddy's house for at least five years. 45

        7. After missing a crucial last second shot in the 2012 NBA playoffs, Los Angeles Lakers guard Steve Blake reported to authorities that his wife had received various threats to the family (including death threats) on Twitter

        8. An Ohio State fan, after learning that a high school recruit announced his decision to attend rival school Michigan by posting a photo of the player burning a recruiting letter from Ohio State, pledged on Twitter to pay "$2,000 to whoever sidelines this kid permanently.” He would later apologize and offer to donate the money to the University of Michigan. 46

        9. In 2012, marketers at StubHub and ESPN tapped into the concept of fandom and created the “Hall of Fans”, a new exhibit that will “honor and celebrate the nation’s best fans.”

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