The promise of melatonin targets/ receptors as therapeutic targets in multiple therapy areas



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Supplementary material.

This section is the Table 1 of the essay entitled “The promise of melatonin targets/ receptors as therapeutic targets in multiple therapy areas”. It is central to the understanding of the generation of the idea that melatonin does not act solely through receptors and the hypothetical nuclear factor to exert its multiple actions. Neither does it act per se, or only marginally.

The table is a NON-EXHAUSTIVE survey of the literature reporting on the protection afforded by melatonin on multiple models. Most of the models are animal-based, some cellular and a couple a-cellular. The information brought by the table is essentially a collection of keywords that might attract the reader to go directly to the original paper for further details.

As often in the melatonin literature, the concentrations or the amounts of melatonin used are “pharmacological”: i.e. largely beyond micromolar concentrations.

As mentioned above, this list is exemplary of the melatonin situation, not the complete catalog of its actions.

Table 1: Benefits of melatonin throughout the literature





Authors

Date

Protection against..

Targets

Amount

Species

ref






















Mori et al.

1984

dexametasone-induced injuries

all

1mg/day

rats

[1]

Aoyama et al.

1987

dexametasone-induced injuries

all

Same

rats

[2]

Pieri et al.

1994

oxidative stress

nonenzymatic

0.5 to 4 µM

acellular/

molecular



[3]

Blickenstaff et al.

1994

radiation-induced mortality

whole body

1 mmol/kg

mice

[4]

Maestroni et al.

1994

tumor growth

Tcells

~20 µg/day

mice

[5]

Vijayalaxmi et al.

1995

radiation-induced chromosome damage

cells

0.5 to 2 mM

human cells

[6]

Ben-Nathan et al.

1995

Semliki Forest virus-induced encephalitis

brain

500 µg/kg (x13)

mice

[7]

Melchiorri et al.

1995

paraquat-induced oxidative stress

lung & liver

10 mg/kg

rats

[8]

Giusti et al.

1995

kainate-induced excitotoxicity

neurons

0.5 - 2.5 mM

rat cells

[9]

Vijayalaxmi et al.

1995

radiation-induced micronuclei

lymphocytes

2mM

human lymphocytes

[10]

Daniels et al.

1995

CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation

liver

10 mg/kg

rats

[11]

Sewerynek et al.

1995

H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation

brain

0.1 to 4 mM

rats

[12]

Melchiorri et al.

1995

kainate-induced lipid peroxidation

brain

0.1 to 4 mM

rats

[13]

Sewerynek et al.

1995

lipopolysaccharide-induced toxicity

liver

1 mg/kg

rats

[14]

Manev et al.

1996

kainate-induced apoptosis

brain

2.5 mg/kg

rats

[15]

Hara et al.

1996

swinning-induced oxidative stress

muscle

1 mg/kg

rats

[16]

Giusti et al.

1996

kainate-induced excitotoxicity

brain

10 mg/kg

rats

[17]

Melchiorri et al.

1996

kainate-induced lipid peroxidation

brain

0.1 to 5 mM

rats

[18]

Sewerynek et al.

1996

ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative damage

liver

10 mg/kg

rats

[19]

Yamamoto & Tang

1996

L-Cysteine-induced seizures

brain

20 or 100 mg/kg

mice

[20]

Ellis

1996

Aleutian disease-induced mortality

all

2.7 mg per animal

mink

[21]

Vijayalaxmi et al.

1996

radiation-induced genetic damage

monocytes

300 mg

human monocytes

[22]

Livrea et al.

1997

lipid peroxydation

acellular

5 to 500 µM

lipod bilayers

[23]

Hara et al.

1997

exercice-induced oxidative stress

muscle, liver

1 mg/kg

rats

[24]

Konturek et al.

1997

ischemia/reperfusion-induced lesions

stomach

5mg/kg

rats

[25]

Melchiorri et al.

1997

alcohol-induced injury

gastroduodenum

10 mg/kg

rats

[26]

Cho et al.

1997

ischemia/reperfusion-induced toxicity

forerbrain

10 mg/kg

rats

[27]

Princ et al.

1997

delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced oxidative damage

cerebellum

0.1 to 2 mM

rats

[28]

Abuja et al.

1997

copper-induced oxidative stress

LDL

250 mM




[29]

Morreale & Livrea

1997

oxidative stress

skin homogenates

up to 200mM

human

[30]

De La Lastra et al.

1997

ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury

stomach

up to 20mg/kg

rats

[31]

Brzozowski et al.

1997

stress, ethanol, ischemia, and aspirin-induced acute lesions

stomach

up to 10 mg/kg

rats

[32]

Antolin et al.

1997

H2O2-induced lethal oxidative stress




0.5 mM

dinoflagelate

[33]

Princ et al.

1998

delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced oxidative damage

porphiria

50 to 500 µg/kg

rats

[34]

Carneiro & Reiter

1998

delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced oxidative damage

brain

10 mg/kg

rats

[35]

Kotler et al.

1998

oxidative stress

induction of antioxidant enzymes

500 µg/kg

rats

[36]

Carneiro & Reiter

1998

delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced oxidative damage

kidney & liver

10 mg/kg

rats

[37]

Awara et al.

1998

carbamazepine mutagenesis

luymphocytes

0.5 mM

human cells

[38]

Skaper et al.

1998

enhanced excitatory neurotransmission_induced neuronal death

neurons

10 to 300 µM

rats

[39]

Melchiorri et al.

1998

paraquat genotoxicity

bone marrow and peripheral blood cells

2 mg/kg

mice

[40]

Itzhak et al.

1998

methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity

brain

10 mg/kg

mice

[41]

Dreher et al.

1998

UV irradiation-induced erythema

skin

1 & 2.5 %

human

[42]

Walters-Laporte et al.

1998

LDL peroxidation

endothelial cells

10 to 100 µM

human

[43]




Kato et al.

1998

stress-induced gastric lesions

stomach

1 to 5 mg/kg

rats

[44]




Mayo et al.

1999

6-hydroxydopamine toxicity

antiapoptotic

100 nM

PC12 cells

[45]




Vijayalaxmi et al.

1999

whole body irradiation

whole body

125 to 250 mg/kg

mice

[46]




Alarcon de la Lastra et al.

1999

indomethacin-induced gastric injury

stomach

0.25 to 1 mg/kg

mice

[47]




Borowicz et al.

1999

protection against anti-epileptic drugs

brain

50 mg/kg

mice

[48]




Kumar et al.

1999

cyclosporine-induced nephrotxicity

kidney

0.5 mg/kg

rats

[49]




Kaya et al.

1999

radiotherapy-induced lipid peroxidation

whole body

100 mg/kg

rats

[50]




Crespo et al.

1999

prevents endotoxemia

whole body

10-60 mg/kg

rats

[51]




Sainz et al.

1999

antiapoptotic action

thymocytes & thymus

100 nM

rats

[52]




Siu et al.

1999

nitric oxide-induced lipid peroxidation

retinae

0.5 to 4 mM

rats

[53]




Badr et al.

1999

radioprotective effect

whole body

10 mg/kg

rats

[54]




Vijayalaxmi et al.

1999

irradiation-induced genetic damage

blood & bone marrow

5-10 mg/kg

mice

[46]




El-Missiry

2000

lead-induced toxicity

liver

30 mg/kg

rats

[55]




Behan et al.

1999

NMDA-induced hippocampal damage

brain

40 mg/kg

rats

[56]




Di Mascio et al.

2000

peroxynitrite-induced cytoskeleton protein depletion

cell membranes

1 mM




[57]




Cabrera et al.

2000

quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity

brain

10 mg/kg

rats

[58]




Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

2000

cisplatin-induced ototoxicity

ear

10 mg/L

rats

[59]




Okatani et al.

2000

free radical-induced damage

brain

10 mg/kg

rats

[60]




Lopez et al.

2000

biliary duct ligature-induced oxidative stress

biliary duct

750 mg/kg

rats

[61]





















































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