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    15O. O. Winther, Express and Stage Coach Days in California (Palo Alto, 1936); tables, p. 8.

    16Stone, Men to Match My Mountains, p. 131.

    17Woodward, "Trapper Jim Waters," p. 11; he had just parted trails with John Brown, Rube Herring, Alex Godey, et al. Hafen and Hafen, Journals of Forty-Niners, p. 49, of the Chino Registration Book.

    18Hafen and Hafen, Journals, James Brown Diary, p. 113.

    19Ibid. p. 31.

    20Ibid. Henry Bigler's Diary, p. 142; Evans, Chas. Coulson Rich, pp. 180-193.

    21Journals of Forty-Niners, Pratt, p. 75.

    22Ibid. p. 35; also Farrer Diary, p. 198; another tale says Walkara had drawn him a map in the wash sand, which he copied. Other writers call this the "Williams Cut-off" for the man who guided Joseph Reddeford Walker in 1833-1834. No historian claims his return was different from the Owens-Humboldt route he came, but legend does.

    23Hafen and Hafen, Journals of Forty-Niners, Bigler Diary, p. 150.

    24Ibid. James Brown Diary, p. 119; Evans, Chas. Coulson Rich, p. 185.

    25Hafen and Hafen, Journals, Bigler Diary, p. 163.

    26Ibid. p. 155.

    27Ibid. Addison Pratt Diary, p. 96.

    28Ibid. p. 101.

    29Ibid. Bigler Diary, p. 171.

    30Ibid. Rollins Recollection, p. 267.

    31Ibid. Gruwell Memoirs (collected by Bancroft, 1887), Hafen Journals, p. 55; Farrer Diary, p. 21; Pratt, p. 100 and p. 107.

    32Ibid. Pratt Diary, p. 106.

    33Ibid. Sidney Waite Sketch, p. 129 (from Brown and Boyd, History of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Vol. III, pp. 284-285.

    34Ibid. Pratt Diary, p. 107.

    35August Waite, whose wife was the daughter of James Beckwourth and may have been a friend of Viejo Slover, Agua Mansa resident.

    36He used some rope, too, getting the wagons over the Virgin-Muddy divide. Hafen and Hafen, Journals, p. 313.

    37Hafen and Hafen, Journals, George Q. Cannon Narrative, pp. 250-251; Egan Diary, p. 311, December 2, 1849. After "eating mule meat 16 days," Smith had decided to face East and save his life. (He did not tell the 85 people he had urged into Death Valley.) Stone, Men to Match My Mountains, p. 140.

    38January 21, 1850. Hafen and Hafen, Journals, p. 297. David Seely sketch.

    39Hafen and Hafen, Journals, Bigler Diary, p. 175, entry for December 18, 1849.

    40Evans, Chas. Coulson Rich, p. 194.

    41Patton, By Sail and Trail, p. 116.

    42Pioneer Notes from the Diaries of Judge Benjamin Hayes (Los Angeles, 1929), p. 54. Approximately January 17, 1850, at Warners'.

    43Benjamin Hayes, Pioneer Notes, p. 67; newspaper man Horace Bell ("Reminiscences of a Ranger," p. 299), also speaks of "corps of Mexican assistants and villages of Indian vassals."

    44Later evidence points to the mine as in Arrastre Canyon, Lone Valley.

    45This Sanford Road is located by desert historians as up across the Phelan dump. The wagon-trace is visible from the air, almost under the modern Boulder Highline. Interview with Jean Goldbrandsen, Victorville artist and on-the-ground researcher.

    46Beattie, Heritage of the Valley, pp. 173-174.

    47At the time Walkara was occupied with trying to be a good brother to the Mormons, and could not see why he was not accorded the honor of a white wife. Bailey, Walkara, Hawk of the Mountains, p. 119.

    48 . . . as Camp Cajon was known.

    49 . . . but not conviction. A full account of the trial is given by Judge Benjamin Hayes who tried it, and got shot at. Hayes, Pioneer Notes, pp. 75-81. Also W. W. Robinson pamphlet, People vs. Lugo (Dawson, Los Angeles, 1962).

PART 1, CHAPTER 4

"STATEHOOD"

    Sonorans, accustomed to arrastre work, were more successful in dry places than Americans.

    2Stone, Men to Match My Mountains, p. 144.

    3O. O. Winther, Express and Stage Coach Days (Stanford Press, 1936), p. 35.

    4Cleland, Transportation (New York, 1944), p. 280. $2.00 cattle @ $16.00; $4.00 cattle @ $75.00. Carey McWilliams, Southern California Country (Los Angeles, 1954), p. 62.

    5Evans, Chas. Coulson Rich, p. 198.

    6Ibid. p. 200. (Beattie has seen the letter.)

    7Ibid. p. 204.

    8 . . . who used ten teams of oxen.

    9A composite of Rich, Addison Pratt, and pioneer memories.

    10The stone Monument on Highway 138 marks their line of descent, above; the Camp Cajon monument, their 49er memories as they passed Coyote Canyon.

    11After 75 days of travel, 769 miles, privation, but little loss of stock and no loss of life.

PART 2, CHAPTER 1

"MORMAN SETTLEMENT"

    W. W. Robinson, People versus Lugo (pamphlet, Los Angeles, 1962).

    2Hayes, Pioneer Notes, p. 75, San Timoteo Canyon; Old Lugo in La Vida un Ranchero says, "on an old logging road near Ukipe," p. 19. Frank Ramirez, Maria Arminta's grandson, said in July, 1929, Sun, "on the Frank Mulvihill Ranch."

    3Lugo, La Vida un Ranchero, p. 20.

    4Eighteen leagues were mentioned. Fine print in Spanish, in regard to choosing eight leagues from it, were learned when verifying title.

    5Pauline Weaver, holder of an (unconfirmed) grant of land in San Gorgonio Pass, lost sixty horses and brought word.

    6Another part of the peace was a parley at Chino Ranch at which Isaac Williams gave the Indians $3000 worth of supplies. The U.S. Indian Agent did not attend. Los Angeles Star Weekly, March 1, 1856.

    7Robert Glass Cleland, Transportation, p. 360.

    8"Aliso" is Spanish for sycamore; a mighty specimen grew at Vignes' home, hence the nickname.

    9Daniel Sexton at Vignes Mill, December 26, 1852, attested by Benjamin Wilson while Indian Agent; also Boyd and Brown, History, Vol. I, p. 16.

    10W. D. Frazee, Climate and Resources of San Bernardino County, p. 26; water disputes concerning the zanja occasioned Sexton testimony. Elliot and Company, History of San Bernardino County, p. ___ (San Francisco, 1883).

    11A Mormon teamster who moved up from Chino.

    12Lyman letter of May 18, 1852, H. E. Raupt, Growth of a Pass-Site City (U. of California, 1938), p. 22. (From the Journal of Church History at Salt Lake.)

    13George W. Beattie, Collection, Lyman letter of July 20, 1852, published in Deseret News of September 4, 1852.

    14Nancy Hunt Daley affirmed the location. Semi-Centennial Edition of the San Bernardino Sun, May, 1897.

    15Raupt, Growth of a Pass-Site City, p. 23, quotes the Los Angeles Star of August 7, 1852: "the steam sawmill will be put in operation next week. Prices will be $50 per thousand, taken at the pit."

    16Beattie, Heritage, p. 205. Quoting from Hopkins' Church Journal of November 7th and 8th, 1852.

    17Harris Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern California (Cambridge, 1930), p. 350, interpreted by Beattie, Heritage, pp. 194-195.

    18Caballeria, History of San Bernardino Valley, p. 105; La Estrella de Los Angeles, correspondent, December 5, 1852.

    19Raupt, A Pass-Site City; per the February 6, 1853, La Estrella de Los Angeles, the cost in San Francisco was $4,000.

    20Photostat of Hazen Kimball Possessory Claim Application: Possessory Book A3, San Bernardino County Hall of Records.

    21Mortgage book 1, p. 1. (Fully paid off, December, 1855.)

    22Beattie, Heritage, p. 209. Gives a graphic description furnished by David Seely himself or by David Randolph Seely at the Native Son dedication of the Seely Mill historical plaque. San Bernardino Daily Sun, July 31, 1936.

    23Talmadge Annals (unpublished manuscript compiled by W. B. Coombs, April, 1937). The John Talmadge copy and many pictures were loaned to me by his daughter, Bernice Gray, Victorville.

    24del Carmen Lugo said in La Vida un Ranchero, p. 27, that even in Mission Days, Indians were allowed to go to the mountains for their customary foods.

PART 2, CHAPTER 2

"MORMAN LUMBERING & TRADE"



    In the flat now occupied by Gregory Village, directly behind Goodwin's Market.

    2Beattie, Heritage, p. 222. (per Byron Waters' "Mountain Manuscript.")

    3A "salamander." Ralph Andrews, This Was Sawmilling, p. 19.

    4A Mississippian who, with negro servants, operated the principal San Bernardino tavern. Benjamin Hayes, Pioneer Notes, p. 104, February 21, 1854.

    5Albert R. Lyman, Francis Marion Lyman Biography (Delta, Utah, 1958), p. 7. The Mormon leader's eldest son spoke always of "Uncle David Frederick" as he did of "Uncle Sidney Tanner," his mother's brother.

    6Grades of 22% to 41% were later recorded by Historian Beattie and City Engineer Howard Way. Beattie, Heritage, p. 197. D. R. Seely spoke (as nobody else has) of horsemen with lassos that they pulled for holdbacks.

    7Bettie, Collection, (County Library). Amasa Lyman letter.

    8O. O. Winther, Express and Stage Coach Days in California, p. 35, table.

    9Guinn Harris Heap, Central Route to the Pacific, p. 20, p. 296.

    10Per the order of Jefferson Davis, U.S. Secretary of War, 1853.

    11Beattie, Heritage, pp. 214-215. Barley and beef, flour, fish and butter.

    12Tom Hughes, History of Banning, p. 7. Blake writes of Pauline Weaver's half-ruined adobe house near the summit of San Gorgonio Pass, also his fruit trees. So also Boyd and Brown, History, Vol. I, p. 32.



13Probably the Crismon portable.

    14Bettie, Heritage, p. 195. From Amass Layman’s Diary. Both F. Marion Layman, who drove teams there at age 15 (Francis Marion Layman biography), and Joseph Rich (Ezra Pulse, Versatile Pioneer, Salt Lake, 1958, p. 34), verified work done there, at least in 1855.

    15Ibid. Location of Mormon Mill in Mill Creek Canyon near Forest Home.

    16Mrs. Elias P. (Robbins) Crafts, Pioneer Days in San Bernardino Valley (Redlands, 1906), p. 16.

    17According to Frank Ramirez (San Bernardino Daily Sun, July 20, 1929), "Uncle Jose Bermudas" operated a Mill Creek Sawmill in California times.

    18Agreement Book A, p. 20. According to Chas. Coulsen Rich biography, p. 220, the Mormons drew $36,000 for fencing Chino lands; young Francis Lyman's diary says they were "unable to fill the contract," p. 26.

    19Compare Lease A5, September 18, 1856, and Note 64, this section.

    20Beattie, Heritage, p. 215. Again from the Amasa Lyman Diary.

    21Cleland, Transportation, p. 209.

    22Burr Belden, History in the Making, San Bernardino Sun, September 18, 1960. $25,000 more was provided for the road from San Pedro to the California state line.

    23Beattie, Heritage, p. 209.

    24An October letter of Judge Hayes in the Southern Californian speaks of 700 buildings erected in Los Angeles in the preceding four Mojaves. Harris Newmark, p. 88, in My Sixty Years, says all Los Angeles lumber needs, as well as eggs, butter and flour, are supplied from San Bernardino.



25Beattie, Heritage, pp. 209-211; D. R. Seely Memoirs, San Bernardino Daily Sun, July 31, 1936.

    26Mortgage Book A, p. 2 and p. 17.



27Per David Randolph Seely, San Bernardino Daily Sun, July 31, 1936.

    28By date in the Possessory Claim book, he both filed and recorded on February 2, 1855 (A7).

    29The Southern Californian, October, 1854.

    30Deed A30 @ $6,000, November, 1854.

    31Memoirs of Jeff Daley, a grandson. Cf. memories of Huldah James, Note 2, Change of Pioneers period.

    32Raymond Holt, "The Mountain They Put in Sacks," Westways, Vol. 50, No. 6, June, 1958.

    33This could have been the local mail (Sheldon Stoddard made 24 trips) or Chorpenning's man, T. S. Williams. Both went.

    34Los Angeles Star, October 12, 1854.

    35Chattel Mortgage Book A, page 48, October, 1854.

    36Bailey, Walkara, Hawk of the Mountains (January 29, 1855), p. 170. Also, March 24th, Los Angeles Star Weekly.

    37Los Angeles Star Weekly, February 8, 1855. The California Stage Company has reorganized and extended a line south from San Francisco; Banning and Alexander add it to their services. Winther, Express and Stage Coach Days, pp. 135-136.

    38 . . . of the February 23, 1855, crash. Los Angeles Star Weekly, March 1, 1855. Winther, Express and Stage Coach Days, p. 112.

    39Los Angeles Star Weekly, March 17, 1855 - April 14th.

    40Ibid. January 24, 1855.

    41Very nearly Highway 138, above the Historical Marker, though without benefit of an artificial cut, as now.

    42Los Angeles Star Weekly, May 5, 1855.

    43David W. Alexander, earlier a partner of Francis Mellus, had lived a while in Salt Lake City. Newmark, My Sixty Years, p. 74.

    44Los Angeles Star Weekly, April 14, 1855.

    45Ibid. June 2nd, when Mr. Sanford's brother returned from seeing him out Cajon.

    46Los Angeles Star Weekly, March 3, 1855, June 30th; also Evans, Chas. Coulson Rich, p. 220.

    47Los Angeles Star Weekly, September 22nd. Newmark, My Sixty Years, p. 187, says he brought back some wagons with spoke wheels.

    48John Brown, Sr., Jim Waters' trapper-friend, had chosen land in Ukipe Valley which he felt sure they would not choose. He met surveyors Fred Perris and rodman Joseph Rich with a shotgun in the summer of 1855. (Poulsen, Versatile Pioneer, pp. 38-40.)

    49Mortgage Book A17; Deed N356 to Mrs. Granger, A327 to H. Hancock.

    50Los Angeles Star Weekly, June 23, 1855. On the Upper San Gabriel River.

    51Ibid. July 7th. (Bear Lake at this time was the lake we know as Baldwin Lake.)

    52Mortgage A172. (The Possessory Claim he speaks of is not listed.)

    53Los Angeles Star Weekly, October 13th. (See February 23, 1856, Star, when Jefferson Davis declares Parallel 33 is through sterile deserts, that 32 would be better.)

    54Ibid. November 3, 1855.

    55Ibid. November 17th.

    56The Hopkins Church Journal says $20,000 loss, and laments the reduction of their capacity to supply lumber and meet debts. Beattie, Heritage, p. 222.

    57In the midst of all this, a heroic and dramatic story was taking place: Some of Duff Weaver's Indian friends had let him know that there was a white girl in a party of Yuma Indians up along the Colorado. With provisions, and presents from the military, a friendly Yuma named Francesca was sent in to bargain for the release of Miss Olive Oatman, 16, who with her late sister had been a slave, first of the Apaches who had captured them in 1851, and later of the Yumas to whom they had been sold. She and Francesca boated dangerously down the Colorado before their hosts could change intention. The girl was brought to El Monte on February 22, 1856, to old Iowa neighbors of her massacred parents. The first comment was that "she had not been made a wife." (Harris Newmark, who saw her, said she had been tattooed. My Sixty Years, p. 218.)

It took her some months to regain her speech and earlier memories. Assemblyman Hunt of San Bernardino recommended that the legislature appropriate a $1500 state fund for her, which she got at the end of March. Los Angeles Star Weekly, April 19, 1856.

    58Los Angeles Star Weekly, February 16, 1856.

    59Ibid. April 5, 1856.

    60Newmark, My Sixty Years in California, p. 191.

    61John M. Lewis had never prospered very well. He placed numerous mortgages against his half of the sawmill. See A53, A61.

    62 Los Angeles Star Weekly, June 21, 1856. "5,000 head of Yorba cattle are on the plains; also 10,000 head of Mormon cattle."

    63To Brigham Young, unwitnessed. Revealed in April, 1844, as winning laurels for salvation. Amasa M. Lyman biography, p. 114. In San Bernardino the practice seemed largely limited to the leaders.

    64Henry G. Sherwood and Jerome Benson were of this group. Poulsen, Versatile Pioneer, p. 65, gives Charles Rich's explanation of the trouble.

    65Beattie, Heritage, p. 244, pp. 258-259.

    66Possessory Claim Book A13.

    67Leases Book A, page 5, made September 18, 1856 (five days after the death of Col. Williams) and recorded October 17, 1857.

    68Per Father Caballeria, History of San Bernardino Valley, p. 96.

    69Judge Benjamin Hayes, Pioneer Notes, p. 147, October 16, 1856.

    70Ibid.

    71Newmark, My Sixty Years, pp. 270-272.

    72Evans, Chas. Coulson Rich, p. 228.

    73Beattie, Heritage, pp. 270-272.

    74Ibid. p. 270.

    75Stone, Men to Match My Mountains, pp. 182-184.

    76Hunt-Rowland Deed B234, November 24, 1857.

    77Cox-Pico Deed B252, December 8, 1857.

    78Taylor (#11) - Crosby (#9), Eames-Dickson Deed B268; Mortgages A93, B48. The mortgages referred also to "their interest if any in the possessory claims of Lyman, Rich and Frederick . . . which were all taken up at the same time for the purpose of sawmilling."

    79Lyman (Poss. #10), Rich and Frederick (#1) to Bachman Mercantile Mortgage B6, June 22, 1858. Per Harris Newmark, Bachman always had a good deal of Salt Lake trade.

    80In June of 1859. Mortgage B101 (June 30th) @ $5,000.

    81They are en route to army headquarters at Ft. Tejon.

    82Guinn Harris Heap, Central Route to the Pacific; Earle Crowe, Men of El Tejon.

    83Burr Belden, History in the Making, San Bernardino Sun, November 25, 1957.

PART 2, CHAPTER 3

"CHANGE OF PIONEERS"



    Beattie, Heritage, p. 301.

    2From an unpublished manuscript of daughter Huldah James Mecham, to whom we are indebted for all these memoirs. She remembered her father to have brought up a boiler that had come all the way around the Horn. (Cf. Jeff Daley: note 28 in Mormon Lumbering.)

    3Ibid.

    4Ibid.

    5Ibid.

    6Later newspaper reports.

    7Huldah James Mecham, unpublished manuscript.

    8Ibid.

    9Claire Mecham Hayman, a James granddaughter who has the pistols and written memoirs from her mother, and five Sawmill Ledgers.

    10Per the June 26th Los Angeles Star Weekly, Bachmans were rebuilding Child's burned store.

    11Possessory Claims: Book A, page 16, March 7, 1857.

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