3 Structural Classifications



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3 Structural Classifications


3 Functional Classifications

1.Fibrous - Joined by Bone, ligament, or interosseous membrane

1.Synarthrosis

Immovable joint



2. Cartilaginous – joined by hyaline or fibrocartilage

2.Amphiarthrosis

Slightly movable joint



3. Synovial – capsule, synovial membrane and fluid; may contain menisci; bursae, tendons, tendon sheath to support

3.Diarthrosis

Freely movable joint






Type of Articulation

Structural classification

Functional Classification

Specific Example

Features


Sutures

Fibrous

synarthrosis

Lambdoidal suture

Wormian bones joins skull bones

Syndesmoses

Fibrous

Amphiarthrosis

Longitudinal tibiofibular joint

Longitudinal radioulnar joint



Bones joined by interosseus membrane

Gomphoses

Fibrous

Synarthrosis

Tooth in alveolar margin of maxilla and mandible

Periodontal ligament

Synchrondrosis

(most are temporary)



Cartilaginous

Synarthrosis

1)Epiphyseal plate

2)Sternocostal

1st rib and manubrium


1)replaced by bone

2)other rib/sternum joints start as synchrondroses but are replaced by synovial joints



Symphyses

Cartilaginous

Amphiarthrosis

1)Intervertebral joints

2) Pubic symphysis



1)intervertebral disc

Plane Joint

Synovial

Diarthrosis

Intercarpal joints

Gliding movement

Hinge Joint

Synovial

Diarthrosis

Elbow or Cubital Joint



capitulum of humerus and radial head; trochlea of humerus and ulna

Movements of Flexion &Extension



Hinge Joint

Synovial

Diarthrosis

Knee or Genu joint

2 tibiofemoral joints (hinge joints) and 1 Femoropatellar joint (plane joint) within one capsule



features include patellar ligament and ACL;

Flexion, extension rotation movements



Pivot Joint

Synovial

Diarthrosis

Atlantoaxial

Atlas and dens of axis as pivot point



Rotation movement

Saddle Joint

Synovial

Diarthrosis

Carpometacarpal pollicis

(of thumb)



Opposable thumb

Wide range of movements



Ball-and-Socket

Synovial

Diarthrosis

1)Glenohumeral -glenoid cavity of scapula and head of humerus; rotator cuff and biceps tendon to stabilize

2)Coxal joint -Head of femur in acetabulum of coxal bone



Flexion, extension, rotation, abduction,

Adduction, circumduction




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