Hunt-Sanchez, Short History of California (New York, 1929), pp. 30-40; Irving Stone, Men to Match My Mountains (Garden City, New York, 1956), p. 13 . . . quoting from a 1510 fantasy by Ardonez de Montalvo credited with giving California its name, after their Amazonian queen, Calafia.
2Hildegarde Hawthorne, California Missions (New York, 1942), pp. 6-11.
3Ibid. p. 5; J. N. Guinn, Southern Coast Counties (Chicago, 1907), p. 97.
4Joseph Jacinto Mora, Californios (New York, 1942): Illustration, p. 25.
5Earle Crowe, Men of El Tejon (Los Angeles, 1957), p. 20, p. 31. Some of the escaped soldiers remained at large; Fray Garces learned of one living among El Tejon Indians four years later.
6". . . wild roots, herbs, nuts, field mice, worms, lizards, grasshoppers and other insects, birds, fish, small game . . ." A quote from Pedro Font's Diary on the Second Anza Expedition of 1775, Robert Glass Cleland, From Wilderness to Empire (New York, 1944), p. 87.
7Elliott Coues, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer (New York, 1900); Diary and Itinerary of Francisco Tomas Hermenegilde Garces, p. 232.
8Ibid. p. 243.
9Ibid. pp. 246-247: i.e., "the Santa Ana River and our valley."
10Gauchamas in the valley, Serranos on the foothills and mountains, Cahuillas and Chemehueves in and beyond San Gorgonio Pass, Mojaves and some Paiutes on the high desert from Cajon to the Colorado River: Father Juan Caballeria, History of the San Bernardino Valley (San Bernardino, 1902), p. 56.
11Hildegarde Hawthorne, California Missions, p. 69.
12George W. Beattie, historian, obtained from Spain a translation of Father Esteban Tapis' 1809-1810 San Gabriel report: San Bernardino Sun, March 21, 1930. Also Charles E. Chapman, History of California - Spanish Period (New York, 1922), p. 427.
13Ibid. p. 429 - per Father Luiz Martinez.
14Caballeria, History of San Bernardino Valley, p. 39. (Hipolito's corral, "Politana," was below present Bunker Hill.)
15Ibid. p. 40.
16Joseph Jacinto Mora, Californios, p. 40, pp. 47-52.
17W. W. Robinson, "The Story of San Bernardino County" (pamphlet - Pioneer Title, San Bernardino, California, 1958), p. 10; also Burr Belden, "History in the Making," Sun Telegram, May 6, 1951, likewise from the Zalvidea report.
18Maybe Moraga again: per Chapman, History of California - Spanish Period, p. 433. He pursued them to the Colorado with forty-five soldiers and two cannon in November, 1819.
PART 1, CHAPTER 2
"MEXICAN FEDERAL REPUBLIC"
Desert Magazine, March, 1964, p. 39: Mason and Bean, "Diary of Brevet Captain Jose Romero," who lost a packtrain and 376 mares in an attempt to go out San Gorgonio Pass in December, 1823.
3Maurice S. Sullivan, Travels of Jedediah Smith (A Documentary Outline, including the Journal of the Great American Pathfinder) (Santa Ana, California, 1934), p. 14, note 25: Harrison Rogers, clerk; Hanna, McCoy, Lazarus, Gaither, Ferguson, Read, Wilson, Black, Goebel, Reubescon, Evans, Pombert, La Plante and Ranne.
4Robert Glass Cleland, History of California (New York, 1927), p. 48; (from Rogers' Journal of the expedition).
5Robert Glass Cleland, This Reckless Breed of Men (New York, 1927), p. 17: Beside food staples each man required a gun, 100 flints, 25 lbs. of gunpowder and 100 lbs. of lead; also 4-6 metal traps.
6Ibid. pp. 75-78.
7 . . . including 64 yards of cloth out of which they made new shirts. Maurice S. Sullivan, Jedediah Smith, Trader and Trailbreaker (New York, 1936), p. 83.
8San Bernardino Sun, September 7, 1926: Maurice S. Sullivan extraction of Harrison Rogers Diary.
9 . . . "the Stanislaus," per research of the Sierra Club. Francis C. Farquahar, Sierra Club Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 3, June, 1943.
10Maurice S. Sullivan, Travels of Jedediah Smith, p. 34.
11The Pattie-Young party, Smith learned, had killed an Indian chief over a requested tribute of horses. Hafen and Hafen, Old Spanish Trail, pp. 122-125; also R. G. Thwaite, Pattie Narrative, pp. 133-135.
12Sullivan, Travels of Jedediah Smith, p. 34. Virgin and Galbraith remained two Mojaves.
13Ibid. p. 35. The Indian was freed.
14Ibid. p. 40; also Cleland, Reckless Breed of Men, p. 120.
15Cleland, Reckless Breed, p. 120.
16Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California (San Francisco, 1886), Hebberd reprint. Vol. III, Chap. 3, p. 51.
17Ibid. Vol. III, Chap. 6, p. 177.
18James Ohio Pattie and father entered via the Gila Route and were imprisoned; per Cleland, $20,000 worth of furs were taken from them.
19Cleland, Reckless Breed, p. 264. "History has not yet positively identified the trader . . ."
20Ibid. pp. 226-230. Most quotes are from Kit Carson's Autobiography.
21Ibid. p. 230.
22Ibid. pp. 264-269; also Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 1. Per Hafen and Hafen, Old Spanish Trail, pp. 159-164, Rafael Rivera, who had been in California before, was their guide.
23Bancroft, History of California, Vol. III, Chap. 14, p. 386.
24Cleland, Reckless Breed, p. 234.
25The next near, bringing "pack mules of pesos," Ewing Young and a partner did realize their horse-buying plan, but they came and went by a southerly route. Cleland, History of California, p. 85. Hafen and Hafen, Old Spanish Trail, p. 139.
26Probably Antonio San Estevan, mentioned in Los Angeles Department of State papers, April, 1831. Bancroft, History, Vol. III, Chap. 14, p. 395.
27George W. and Helen Pruitt Beattie, Heritage of the Valley (Pasadena, 1939), p. 27, Iris Higbee Wilson, William Wolfskill (Glendale, 1965), pp. 84-85.
28Bancroft, History of California, Vol. III, Chap. 6, p. 72, says a trip for newly‑maimed "Pegleg" Smith in 1829 was verified only by a story in the San Francisco Bulletin the week of his death in 1866. Horace Bell, Reminiscences of a Ranger (Santa Barbara, 1927), has a Pegleg interview, p. 290. Hafen and Hafen, Old Spanish Trail, pp. 135-136, p. 230, unearthed a tale that Pegleg and another trapper had been sent in from the Virgin River to dispose of a lush 1829 fur catch, and eventually went out with 400 horses. Iris Higbee Wilson, pp. 66-67 of her Wolfskill biography, lists Wolfskill's trappers and they do not include Thomas L. Smith. It could be that Thomas L. Smith was with the earlier branch of the Ewing Young men who came in to Los Angeles and went north; he had trapped the Gila Route with them, p. 50.
29Bancroft, History, Vol. III, Chap. 14, p. 396, footnote. Hafen and Hafen, Old Spanish Trail, p. 179.
30Eleanor Lawrence, "On the Old Spanish Trail," Touring Topics, Vol. XXII, No. 11, p. 36 (November, 1930).
31Bancroft, History, Chap. 14, p. 395.
32Caballeria, History of San Bernardino Valley, p. 67; del Carmen Lugo in La Vida Un Ranchero (translated in April, 1930, by Nellie Van de Grift Sanchez) said their new buildings were "higher up on Barton Hill."
33Caballeria, History of San Bernardino Valley, p. 76.
34Ibid. According to Daniel Sexton who came later and married into the Cahuilla tribe, he was whipped.
35Ibid. p. 70. August 17, 1833, though not enforced for a year.
36Hawthorne, California Missions, Chap. 5, pp. 62-72; Caballeria, p. 74.
37Paul Bailey, Walkara, Hawk of the Mountains (Westernlore Press, Los Angeles, 1954), p. 33.
38Ibid. p. 35; Bailey's fictional account, Claws of the Hawk (Los Angeles, 1966), p. 66, added the "lure of mares, brought down from Bridgers'."
39Ibid. p. 36; also Bancroft History, Vol. III, Chap. 22; Dept. of State papers, May 14, 1840.
40George D. Brewerton, Overland with Kit Carson (New York, 1930), p. 70. From tales he had heard, Kit Carson credited mountain-men with the whole plot. He specified Bill Williams. David Lavender, Bent's Fort (Doubleday, 1954), p. 154, p. 230, names some of the fifteen Americans who left Brown's Hole for the raiding adventure. Hafen, Old Spanish Trail reference, pp. 236-241. A Joseph J. Hill biography of "Bill Williams, Free Trapper," Touring Topics, Vol. XXII, No. 3 (March 1930), quotes Bill Williams, himself, as saying the Indians took all the horses, letting him walk back to Taos. (Bents had a similar tale for when he returned from the 1833-34 trip to California with Joseph Reddeford Walker.)
41Horace D. Bell, Reminiscences of a Ranger, p. 290.
42Eleanor Lawrence, "Horse Thieves on the Spanish Trail," Touring Topics, Vol. XXIII, No. 1 (January, 1931).
43Bailey, Walkara, p. 16; Thomas L. Kane in a lecture at Salt Lake reported the suit a gift from Jim Bridger, Journal of Church History (Latter Day Saints), March 26, 1850.
44Bailey, Walkara, p. 38.
45Bancroft, History (old edition), Vol. XXII, p. 742. Documented with letters and dates.
PART 1, CHAPTER 3
"CALIFORNIA LAND GRANT PERIOD"
Beattie, Heritage of the Valley, p. 122; p. 39. In the interior Yorba had been granted Santa Ana de Santiago in 1801; Antonio Maria Lugo had received San Antonio Rancho (Compton), 1810; a Yorba son-in-law received La Serrano in 1817.
2Beattie, Heritage of the Valley, Illustration, pp. 6-7.
3Logs were placed on the chopped-out crotch of a large tree and pulled by oxen. Beattie, Heritage, p. 46; Jensen, Thos. V. Patterson, Landmarks of Riverside (Press-Enterprise, 1964), p. 23.
4Per Bancroft, Vol. IV, pp. 278-279. There were 134 people beside the caravan, including a party of American naturalists.
5 . . . who wed Dona Ramona Yorba and built a house with foothill timber on part of the Jurupa Rancho, likewise a two-story house on the Rincon Rancho four years later, the now-famous Cota House. Beattie, Heritage, p. 46.
6Brown and Boyd, History of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties (Chicago, 1922), Vol. I, pp. 683-684; WPA Writers, The Old West, Pioneer Tales of San Bernardino County (San Bernardino, 1940), p. 45.
7Tom Hughes, History of Banning (Banning, 1938), p. 4. In Edgar Canyon, north of Beaumont.
8W. D. Frazee, Climate and Resources of San Bernardino County (San Bernardino, 1876), p. 26. He said the Indians asked him if we had no "feast days." To show them he concocted a red-white-and-blue flag and saluted it with blasting powder. Also regaled them with grape brandy. (Banning Sentinel Editor, 1900.)
9The Agua Caliente Rancho, "from the sierra del Yucaipe to the Cerrito Sola and the arroyo de Cajon, from the Lomerias to the falda de la Sierra." Deed. #A89.
10Jose del Carmen Lugo, La Vida un Ranchero, p 7. L. Burr Belden, History in the Making, Sun Telegram, June 17, 1952, names the 27 colonists.
11Names per 1857 Mortgage of Maria Arminta in San Timoteo Canyon.
12Caballeria, History, p. 113.
13Bancroft, Vol. VI, p. 122. Department of State papers.
14West of the mouth of Cable Canyon, along the north border of Muscupiabe Rancho, per informants of Historian Beattie. Beattie, Heritage, pp. 58-59.
15Paul Bailey, Walkara, p. 44; Caballeria, History, p. 103. "nearly every full moon." del Carmen Lugo called them "chagunosos."
16Cleland, History of California (New York, 1927), pp. 99-100, The American Period.
17Ibid. pp. 156-157; J. N. Guinn, Southern Coast Counties (Chicago, 1907), p. 109.
18Cleland, History of California, American Period, p. 138. According to Fremont's narrative of the trip (published in Washington, D.C., 1844) he had been in Cajon April 18, 1844.
19Bancroft, History, Vol. VI, p. 115.
20James Waters Sketch, Brown and Boyd, History of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties (Chicago, 1922), Vol. II, p. 676. Arthur Woodward, "Trapper Jim Waters," Los Angeles Corral of Westerners 1954, p. 9.
21Beattie, Heritage, p. 65. Pegleg made no raids after statehood.
22Benjamin Wilson Narrative, as told in Big Bear Panorama, p. 18.
23Adaptations of accounts in Caballeria and Jo Mora's Californios.
24Cleland, This Reckless Breed, p. 41.
25Beattie, Heritage, pp. 64-65.
26Caballeria, p. 94; Bancroft, Vol. XXII, p. 37. Minutes of Assembly, March 13, 1846.
27Irving Stone, Men to Match My Mountains, p. 62. Vallejo letter to Mexico City.
28Ibid. p. 64.
29Ibid. p. 65. . . . of the Golden Bear Flag of the Independents. (About the middle of May, Courier Gillespie had brought Fremont a letter from President Polk. Cleland, History, American Period, p. 198.)
30Stone, Men to Match My Mountains, p. 74.
31Ibid. p. 75; Cleland, History, American Period, p. 207; known by the fleet at Mazatlan May 17, 1846; in California August 12, 1846.
32Jose del Carmen Lugo story, Los Angeles Vida Un Ranchero, pp. 11-12.
33Arthur Woodward, "The Lances of San Pasqual," Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. XXV, No. 4, December, 1946; Vol. XXVI, No. 1, March, 1947; pp. 32-37.
PART 1, CHAPTER 3
. . . for which the Mormons received $100, per Standage's Journal, Burr Belden, History in the Making, Sun Telegram, July 29, 1951.
2John H. Evans, Charles Coulson Rich (New York, 1936), p. 201.
3Annaleone Patton, By Sail and Trail, p. 51. (All other biographers route him by Donner Pass with the Battalion, who reached Salt Lake in October.) Brigham Young had arrived in Salt Lake July 24th.
4Leroy R. Hafen and Ann W. Hafen, Journals of the Forty-Niners (Glendale, California, 1954), p. 25. Quoting from one of the sons, John Hunt.
5Ibid. p. 22.
6Evans, Chas. Coulson Rich, p. 180.
7Hafen and Hafen, Journals of Forty-Niners, p. 26.
8Anna Patton (and many Mormons) credit them with finding and testing the nuggets which Marshall took down to Sutter. By Sail and Trail, pp. 42-43.
9Patton, By Sail and Trail, pp. 51-56.
10George W. Brewerton, Overland with Kit Carson (New York, 1930), p. 54.
11Ibid. p. 54.
12Francisco Estevan Vigil's train, the last of a nearly twenty-year exchange between the two Spanish-rooted territories. Brewerton must have been ahead of the Mormon Battalion men with the wagon.
13Gwinn Harris Heap, Central Route to the Pacific (Glendale, 1957), p. 19.
14Stone, Men to Match My Mountains, p. 116; Patton, By Sail and Trail, p. 46.