Review of policy: importation of grapevine



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FINAL


Review of policy: importation of grapevine (Vitis species) propagative material into Australia

April 2013

© Commonwealth of Australia

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Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (2013) Final review of policy: importation of grapevine (Vitis species) propagative material into Australia. CC BY 3.0.



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Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (2013) Final review of policy: importation of grapevine (Vitis species) propagative material into Australia. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.



Internet

Final review of policy: importation of grapevine (Vitis species) propagative material into Australia is available at daff.gov.au.

Inquiries regarding the licence and any use of this document should be sent to: copyright@daff.gov.au.



Disclaimer

The Australian Government acting through the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry has exercised due care and skill in the preparation and compilation of the information in this publication. Notwithstanding, the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, its employees and advisers disclaim all liability, including liability for negligence, for any loss, damage, injury, expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying upon any of the information in this publication to the maximum extent permitted by law.


Biosecurity–Plant

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

GPO Box 858

CANBERRA ACT 2601

AUSTRALIA

Telephone +61 2 6272 3933

Facsimile +61 2 6272 3307

Email plant@daff.gov.au

Website daff.gov.au/ba

Contents


Tables and figures 3

Acronyms and abbreviations 4

Summary 4

1 Introduction 6

1.1 Australia’s biosecurity policy framework 6

1.2 This review of existing policy 6

1.2.1 Background 7

1.2.2 Scope 7

1.2.3 Permitted species of grapevine 8

2 Pest risk analysis 9

2.1 Stage 1: Initiation 9

2.2 Stage 2: Pest Risk Assessment 9

2.2.1 Pest categorisation 10

2.2.2 Assessment of the probability of entry, establishment and spread 13

2.2.3 Assessment of potential consequences 14

2.3 Stage 3: Pest Risk Management 16

2.3.1 Identification and selection of appropriate risk management options 16

3 Recommended risk management measures for grapevine propagative material 18

3.1 Propagative material from all sources (non-approved sources) 18

3.1.1 Dormant cuttings 18

3.1.2 Tissue cultures (microplantlets) 24

3.1.3 Seed for sowing (non-approved sources) 24

3.2 Propagative material from approved sources) 25

3.2.1 Seed for sowing (approved sources) 25

4 Framework for approval of high health sources and production requirements 27

4.1 Framework for approval of high health sources 27

5 Conclusion 28

Appendix A: Initiation and pest categorisation of pests associated with Vitis species worldwide 29

Appendix B: Additional quarantine pest data 153

Glossary 165

References 168


Tables and figures

Table 1.1 List of Vitis species permitted entry into Australia from all sources 8

Table 2.1 Quarantine pests for grapevine propagative material 11

Table 3.1 Recommended screening procedures for bacteria, fungi and phytoplasma 20

Table 3.2 Recommended grapevine virus indexing procedures 23



Acronyms and abbreviations

Term or abbreviation

Definition

ALOP

Appropriate level of protection

APPPC

Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission

APPD

Australian Plant Pest Database

CABI

CAB International

CMI

Commonwealth Mycological Institute

COSAVE

Comité de Sanidad Vegetal del Cono Sur

CPPC

Caribbean Plant Protection Commission

DAFF

Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

EPPO

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

IAPSC

Inter African Phytosanitary Council

IMF

Immunofluorescence

IPC

International Phytosanitary Certificate

IPM

Integrated Pest Management

IPPC

International Plant Protection Convention

IRA

Import Risk Analysis

ISPM

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures

JUNAC

Comisión del Acuerdo de Cartagena

NAPPO

North American Plant Protection Organization

NPPO

National Plant Protection Organization

OEPP

Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PEQ

Post-entry quarantine

PRA

Pest risk analysis

RT-PCR

Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction

SPS

Sanitary and phytosanitary

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

WTO

World Trade Organisation

Summary


Australia initiated this review as new pathogens have been identified on grapevines (Vitis species) and several pathogens have extended their global range. Uncontrolled movement of infected propagative material has helped to spread these pathogens into new areas. Additionally, the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation requested Plant Biosecurity to review and develop PEQ protocols for Vitis nursery stock that will minimise the time imported cultivars spend in quarantine. The review recommends several changes to the existing policy that will reduce the PEQ period for dormant cuttings and tissue cultures (microplantlets), while maintaining quarantine integrity.

Recommended risk management measures

The recommended risk management measures for propagative material are detailed below.



All sources (unknown health status)

Dormant cuttings

  • Mandatory on-arrival inspection; fumigation; hot water treatment; and surface sterilisation;

  • Mandatory growth in a closed government PEQ facility for a minimum period of 16 months for pathogen screening (visual observation; culturing; and electron microscopy); and

  • Active pathogen testing through herbaceous host indexing and molecular tests including, but not limited to, PCR or ELISA.

Tissue cultures (microplantlets)

  • Mandatory on-arrival inspection;

  • Mandatory growth in a closed government PEQ facility for a minimum period of 12 months for pathogen screening (visual observation; culturing; and electron microscopy); and

  • Active pathogen testing through herbaceous host indexing and molecular tests including, but not limited to, PCR or ELISA.

Seed

  • Mandatory on-arrival inspection, surface sterilisation, fungicidal treatment, and growth in a closed government PEQ facility for a minimum period of nine months for pathogen screening (visual observation and electron microscopy); and

  • Active pathogen testing through herbaceous host indexing and molecular tests including, but not limited to, PCR.

Approved sources (High health sources)

Foundation Plant Services, California, USA is currently an approved source to supply pathogen tested grapevine propagative material to Australia. However, Plant Biosecurity will consider requests for approval of other overseas sources (e.g. institutions, NPPOs), based on the framework recommended in this review.

The recommended changes to import requirements for dormant cuttings and tissue cultures from non-approved sources will also apply to material from approved sources (e.g. the PEQ period will be reduced to 16 months for dormant cuttings and 12 months for tissue cultures). Seed for sowing from approved sources is currently not subject to PEQ and this is recommended to continue.

Plant Biosecurity has made several changes following consideration of stakeholder comments on the Draft review of policy – importation of grapevine (Vitis spp.) propagative material into Australia. However, these changes have no impact on recommended risk management measures. The major changes made in the finalisation of this policy include:



  • the addition of three viruses (Grapevine Pinot gris virus, Grapevine red blotch-associated virus and Grapevine virus F) as pathogens of quarantine concern; and

  • the inclusion of Daktulosphaira vitifoliae and Pseudococcus maritimus as quarantine pests for grapevine propagative material.

1 Introduction

      1.1 Australia’s biosecurity policy framework

Australia’s biosecurity policies aim to protect Australia against the risks that may arise from exotic pests1 entering, establishing and spreading in Australia, thereby threatening Australia’s unique flora and fauna, as well as those agricultural industries that are relatively free from serious pests.

The pest risk analysis (PRA) process is an important part of Australia’s biosecurity policies. It enables the Australian Government to formally consider the risks that could be associated with proposals to import products into Australia. If the risks are found to exceed Australia’s appropriate level of protection (ALOP), risk management measures are proposed to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. If it is not possible to reduce the risks to an acceptable level, then no trade will be allowed.

Successive Australian governments have maintained a conservative, but not a zero risk, approach to the management of biosecurity risks. This approach is expressed in terms of Australia’s ALOP, which reflects community expectations through government policy and is currently described as providing a high level of protection aimed at reducing risk to a very low level, but not to zero.

Australia’s PRAs are undertaken by Plant Biosecurity and Animal Biosecurity (formerly conjointly known as Biosecurity Australia), within the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), using teams of technical and scientific experts in relevant fields. PRAs involve consultation with stakeholders at various stages during the process. Plant Biosecurity and Animal Biosecurity provide recommendations for animal and plant quarantine policy to Australia’s Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine (the Secretary of the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry). The Director or delegate is responsible for determining whether or not an importation can be permitted under the Quarantine Act 1908, and if so, under what conditions. Plant Import Operations, within DAFF (formerly the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service), is responsible for implementing appropriate risk management measures.

More information about Australia’s biosecurity framework is provided in the Import Risk Analysis Handbook 2007 (update 2009) located on the DAFF website www.daff.gov.au/ba.


      1.2 This review of existing policy

Australia has an existing policy to import grapevine propagative material from all countries. However, this policy has not been reviewed for some time. Propagative material represents one of the highest plant quarantine risks, as it can harbour various forms of pathogens and arthropod pests. The introduction of plant pathogens, especially with latent infection, is of particular concern in propagative material. A range of exotic arthropod pests and pathogens can be introduced and established via propagative material when imported in a viable state for ongoing propagation.



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