Public Transport Capacity Analysis Procedures for Developing Cities



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Public Transport Capacity Analysis Procedures for Developing Cities


69719


Jack Reilly and

Herbert Levinson

September, 2011



World Bank, Transport Research Support Program, TRS

With Support from UK Department for International Development

The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of a number of people in the development of this manual. Particular among these were Sam Zimmerman, consultant to the World Bank and Mr. Ajay Kumar, the World Bank project manager. We also benefitted greatly from the insights of Dario Hidalgo of EMBARQ. Further, we acknowledge the work of the staff of Transmilenio, S.A. in Bogota, especially Sandra Angel and Constanza Garcia for providing operating data for some of these analyses.


A number of analyses in this manual were prepared by students from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. These include:
Case study – Bogota Ivan Sanchez

Case Study – Medellin Carlos Gonzalez-Calderon

Simulation modeling Felipe Aros Vera

Brian Maleck

Michael Kukesh

Sarah Ritter

Platform evacuation Kevin Watral

Sample problems Caitlynn Coppinger

Vertical circulation Robyn Marquis

Several procedures and tables in this report were adapted from the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, published by the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.



Contents




Contents 0

List of Tables 1

List of Figures 4

1.Introduction 5

1.1.Objectives 6

1.2.Audiences 7

1.3.Applications 7

1.4.Using the Manual 8

1.5.Manual Organization 9

2.Transit Capacity, Quality, Service and Physical Design 10

2.1.Transit Capacity 10

2.2.Key Factors Influencing Capacity 10

2.2.1.Theoretical vs. Practical Operating Capacity 13

2.3.Quality of Service 15

2.4.Relationship Between Capacity, Quality and Cost 17

3.Bus System Capacity 18

3.1.Introduction 18

3.2.Operating Experience 18

3.3.Bus Service Design Elements and Factors 18

3.4.Overview of Procedures 22

3.5.Operation at Bus Stops 26

3.5.1.Berth (Stop) Capacity Under Simple Conditions 27

3.6.Bus Berth Capacity in More Complex Service Configurations 31

3.7.Stop Dwell Times and Passenger Boarding Times 34

3.8.Clearance Time 36

3.9.Calculation Procedure 37

3.10.Vehicle Platooning 38

3.11.Vehicle Capacity 40

3.12.Passenger Capacity of A Bus Line 43

3.13.Transit Operations At Intersections 44

3.13.1.Curb Lane Operation 44

3.14.Computing Bus Facility Capacity 47

3.15.Median Lane Operation 47

3.16.Capacity and Quality Reduction Due to Headway Irregularity 48

3.16.1.Capacity Reduction 48

3.16.2.Extended Wait Time Due to Headway Irregularity 49

3.16.3.Travel Times and Fleet Requirements 50

3.17.Terminal Capacity 53

4.Rail Capacity 62

4.1.Introduction 62

4.2.Operating Experience 62

4.3.Design Considerations 62

4.4.Overview of Procedures 64

4.5.Line Capacity 67

4.5.1.General Guidance 67

4.5.2.Running Way Capacity 67

4.6.Line Passenger Capacity 74

4.6.1.Passenger Capacity 75

5.Station Platform and Access Capacity 79

5.1.Pedestrian Flow Concepts 80

5.2.Platform Capacity 82

5.3.Station Emergency Evacuation 83

5.4.Level Change Systems 86

5.4.1.Stairways 86

5.4.2.Escalators 86

5.4.3.Elevator Capacity 87

5.5.Fare Collection Capacity 88

5.6.Station Entrances 89

6.Bibliography 90

Appendix A - Sample Bus Operations Analysis Problems 93

Appendix B - Sample Rail Operations Analysis Problems 104

Appendix C - Case Study Data Collection Procedures 109

Data set #1 – Urban Rail Platform Capacity 109

Data set #2 – Vehicle Capacity (bus) 112

Data set #3 – Vehicle Capacity (rail) 114

Data set #4 – Ticket Vending Machine Service Time 114

Data set #5 – Rail Station Dwell Time and Headway Distribution 116

Data set #6 – Passenger Service Times at Rail Stations 118

Data set #7 – Bus Station Dwell Time Distribution 120

Data Set #8 Passenger Service Times at Bus Stops 122

Appendix D – Rail Station Evacuation Analysis Example 125

1.Introduction 125

2.Computation of Design Load 126

2.1.Awaiting Passengers 126

2.2.Arriving Passengers 126

2.3.Total Design Load 127

3.Test 1- Platform Evacuation Assessment 127

4.Test 2 - Station Evacuation Assessment 127

4.1.Walking Time 127

4.2.Waiting Time 128


List of Tables



Table 2‑1 Summary of Transit Vehicle and Passenger Capacity Estimate 11

Table 3‑2 - Hourly Passenger Volumes of High Capacity Bus Transit Systems in the Developing World 19

Table 3‑3 - Transit Design Elements and Their Effect on Capacity 21

Table 3‑4 Capacity Assessment of Existing BRT Line 23

Table 3‑5 Capacity Assessment of a Proposed BRT Line 25

Table 3‑6 Z-statistic Associated with Stop Failure Rates 28

Table 3‑7 Bus Berth Capacity (uninterrupted flow) for a Station with a Single Berth 29

Table 3‑8 Actual Effectiveness of Bus Berths 30

Table 3‑9 Service Variability Levels 32

Table 3‑10 Bus Berth Capacity (uninterrupted flow) for a Station with a Single Berth 33

Table 3‑11 Passenger Service Times (sec./pass.) 34

Table 3‑12 Stop Dwell Time – Bogota Transmilenio 36

Table 3‑13 Re-entry Time 37

Table 3‑14 Stop Capacity for Multiple Berth Stops at Various Dwell Time Levels 40

Table 3‑15 Typical Bus Models in Pakistan 40

Table 3‑16 Urban Bus and Rail Loading Standards 41

Table 3‑17 Bus Vehicle Capacity 42

Table 3‑18 Lost Time Per Cycle Due to Right Turn-Pedestrian Conflicts 45

Table 3‑19 Bus Stop Location Correction Factor 46

Table 3‑20 Right Turn Curb Lane Vehicle Capacities 46

Table 3‑21 BRT Headway Variation - Jinan, China 49

Table 3‑22 Z-statistic for One-Tailed Test 52

Table 3‑23 – Approximate Capacity of Single Berth, with Queuing Area 54

Table 3‑24 – Approximate Capacity of Single Berth, with Queuing Area 55

Table 3‑25 – Approximate Capacity of Single Berth, Without Queuing Area 56

Table 3‑26 – Approximate Capacity of Single Berth, Without Queuing Area 57

Table 3‑27 – Approximate Capacity of Double Berth, With Queuing Area 58

Table 3‑28 – Approximate Capacity of Double Berth, With Queuing Area 59

Table 3‑29 – Approximate Capacity of Double Berth, Without Queuing Area 60

Table 3‑30 – Approximate Capacity of Double Berth, Without Queuing Area 61

Table 4‑31 Hourly Passenger Volume of Rail Transit Systems in the Developing World 63

Table 4‑32 General Capacity Analysis Procedures - Existing Rail Line 64

Table 4‑33 Capacity Assessment Procedure of Proposed Rail Line 65

Table 4‑34 Components of Minimum Train Separation Time 73

Table 4‑35 Maximum Train Layover 74

Table 4‑36 Train Capacity 76

Table 4‑37 Train Car Capacity 77

Table 5‑38 Elements of Passenger Flow in a Train Station 79

Table 5‑39 Pedestrian Level of Service 82

Table 5‑40 Emergency Exit Capacities and Speeds 84

Table 5‑41 Effective Width of Emergency Exit Types 85

Table 5‑42 Stairway Flow Capacity 86

Table 5‑43 Escalator Capacity 86

Table 5‑44 Elevator Cab Capacities 87

Table 5‑45 Elevator Throughput Capacity in Passengers Per Hour Per Direction 88

Table 5‑46 Portal Capacity 89





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