V Vác – Town north of Budapest on the Danube Bend, on the left bank of the river, at the foot of Mount Naszály in County Pest, seat of a Catholic Bishopric. Most of its attractive buildings are in Baroque style, such as the Bishop’s palace, the Cathedral with its cupola, and the Holy Trinity monument. There are numerous civic, church and military offices; a number of schools, libraries, like the Episcopal Library with 60,000 volumes, as well as several museums. The town has a population of 33,223 (2008), mostly Hungarian: There are 94.9%. 59.4% Roman Catholic, 9.3% Reformed, 3.1% Lutheran, and 14.4 n non-religious denominations. Their occupation includes 13% agricultural workers, 43% tradesmen, 13% merchants, 9% in public service and 9% retired (1941). The industry of Vác includes mills, spinning-weaving works, iron-foundries, tanning, building materials, tool-making and photographic firms. It is also a popular summer resort for citizens of Budapest. It has a lively commercial life. It is an important railway junction. Its bishopric was founded by the first king of Hungary, King István I (St. Stephen, 997-1038), and its cathedral was built during the reign of King Géza I (1074-1077). The town was destroyed during the Tartar invasion (12401-1242), but it was rebuilt again. The diet of 1485 was held here. Vác was under Turkic occupation during 1544-1595, and again during 1684-1685. It was attached to County Pest in1686. Its railway line leading to Pest was opened in 1864. During the War of Independence, on 10 April 1849, it was the site of a victorious battle by the Honvéd army units against the Habsburg forces. – B: 1064, 1031, T: 7456.
Vác, Bishopric and Chapter of – The diocese created in 1008 by King István I (Stephen I) (997-1038), the first King of Hungary. He built the first church on the site, destroyed by the Mongol-Tartars during their invasion in 1241; but it was rebuilt by King Béla IV (1235-1270). The Turks occupied Vác in 1544, and the church was turned into a mosque. After the expulsion of the Turks, the church was rebuilt from 1686 on. The Cathedral Chapter ceased to exist, but was re-established in 1700. The Chapter had twelve canons and six titular canons. The number of parishes was 123, with 266 clergy. The diocese included 7 monasteries and 12 nunneries, with altogether 232 monks and nuns. The Catholic population of the Diocese was 757,827. – B: 1031, T: 7103.
Vachott, Sándor (Alexander) (Gyöngyös, 17 November 1818 – Buda, 9 April 1861) – Poet. While still a law student in Eperjes (now Prešov, Slovakia), along with fellow students, he edited and distributed the mimeographed copies of a newspaper, demanding political reforms, resulting in a near expulsion from the school. Vachott’s poetry appeared in the journal Athenaeum from 1838 on. In 1841 he received his legal qualifications, but occupied himself only with literary pursuits. In 1852 he was one of the founding members of the Kisfaludy Society. In 1843 he became a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Later, he became acquainted with poet Sándor (Alexander) Petőfi. In 1848, Vachott became secretary to Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (to whom he was related). As a consequence, he was arrested after the defeat of the War of Independence in 1849, and was released in the fall of 1850. Then they jailed him again in the New Building (Újépület) prison in Pest, because he gave asylum to the revolutionary poet Gyula (Julius) Sárosi. However, after a few months’ confinement, Vachott became mentally deranged and was released. The great poets Mihály (Michael) Vörösmarty and Sándor Petőfi influenced his poetry. He spoke with the voice of the simple folksong. In his poetry he intertwined the fate of the country, the poverty of the people, and the sentiments of love. He sang about the various episodes of the revolution, but also expressed hope in the future. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7617.→Petőfi, Sándor; Kossuth, Lajos; Vörösmarty, Mihály; Vahot, Imre; Sárosi, Gyula. Vadas, Ernő (Ernest) (Nagykanizsa, 17 December 1899 - Budapest, 30 May 1962) – Photographer and photographic artist. He was a correspondent for the Hungarian Telegraphic Agency (Magyar Távirati Iroda – MTI). He began his career as an amateur. In 1929 he became a member of the Hungarian Photographers’ National Association. Early in his career, he scored great success worldwide with his idyllic, romantically conceived pictures; they appeared in the National Geographic Magazine, Vanity Fair,Seven Seas, Harpers Bazaar, Illustrated London News, and L’Illustration. After 1945, his field of themes widened and assumed a more realistic coloring, including themes of work, workers’ portraits, and the new industrial establishment. He played an important role in amateur movements. In 1936, he formed the Modern Hungarian Photographers’ Society. After the authorities banned their activity, they continued their activities as members of the Photo-section of the Tourists’ Society of Inóc. He received numerous honors in Hungary and abroad. In 1957, the International Photo-Artists’ Association (FIAP) awarded him the highest distinction, Honoraire Excellence. From 1956, he was President of the Hungarian Photo-Artists’ Association. In 1960, he presented his works at a one-man-show in Budapest. He set forth his artistic ideas in his book: So fotografiert man das Leben(Thus is life photographed) (1959). – T: 0883, 1654, T: 7456.
Vadász, Elemér (Elmer) (Székesfehérvár, 1 March 1885 - Budapest, 30 October 1970) – Geologist. He studied at the School of Art of the University of Budapest. After his trip to Asia with Gyula (Julius) Prinz, he earned a Ph.D. in 1907. By 1913, he was an assistant lecturer at the Faculty of Geology and Paleontology of the University of Budapest, specializing in coal deposits. He had to leave his university position after the demise of the Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary on 1 August 1919, and found work as a geologist with the Hungarian General Coal Mining Co. (Magyar Általános Kőszénbánya Rt. –MÁK) until the end of World War II. From 1920 to 1945 he was engaged in bauxite research in Hungary, Greek and France, etc. From 1949 to 1958, he was President of the Geological Society, and later an honorary president for life. From 1958 to 1963, he was President of the Nature Conservation Council (Természetvédelmi Tanács) and, from 1958 to 1961, of the Hungarian-Soviet Friendship Society (Magyar-Szovjet Baráti Társaság). Until his final retirement in 1965, he was Professor of Geology at the University of Budapest. For a year, he was Dean and later Vice-Chancellor of the same University. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1948, ordinary 1954). His works include Echinoderms of Mediterranean Agein Hungary (Magyarország mediterrán tüskésbőrűi) (1914); Geology of Coal (Kőszénföldtan) (1951); Analytical Geology (Elemző földtan) (1955), and The Geology of Hungary (Magyarországföldtana) (646 pp., 1960). He received the Kossuth Prize twice (1948, 1952) – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.→Prinz, Gyula; Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary. Vadász Miklós Compendium – An outstanding example of the “textbook” literature of the Middle Ages in manuscript form, made up of 24 chapters. The work was commissioned by Miklós (Nicholas) Garai, Palatine of Hungary, and compiled between 1413 and 1428 by Miklós (Nicholas) Vadász, Bishop of the Pauline Monastery of the Bishopric of Szeret in Moldavia. The work, intended for the use of Hungarian priests in Wallachia (Havasalföld) and Moldavia, contains the two most important tenets for the officiating priest: the indispensable knowledge of Biblical Theology, and Theological Ethics. The larger part of the Compendium, especially the introduction and conclusion, discusses the Sacrament of Confession. The manuscript is held by the Bavarian National Library. – B: 1020, T: 7617.
Vadi Sura, Egypt – The Egyptian Prince Kemal el Din, who devoted his life and material possessions to the study of the Libyan Desert, discovered in 1926, near the border between Libya and Sudan, a sandstone plateau of enormous extent at 600-700 m altitude, to which he gave the name Gilf Kebir (Great Wall). An awe-inspiring rock wall, known by the local Bedouins as Djebel el Salamis, surrounds this plateau of about 30,000 km2, the size of Sicily.
In 1933, László Ede (Ladislas Edward) Almásy traversed the Gilf Kebir and the Vadi Sura (Valley of Pictures) with the assistance of Kemal el Din, and came upon cave paintings, which have become world famous since then. ”I hit upon four caves, the walls of which were covered by beautiful paintings…This vadi once must have been a lake, and indeed, in one of the caves, I found the illustrationof swimming humans” – wrote Almásy in 1933. His writings on his discovery were published in the paper of the Egyptian Geographical Society in 1936.
The Gilf Kebir Desert Expedition, organized by the Hungarian Geographical Museum, (Magyar Földrajzi Múzeum)visited the caves in Vadi Sura in March 1993. The unknown “artists” illustrated such animals as ostrich, cheetah, gazelle and antelope in large numbers, as well as cows, which have not lived in the Sahara for thousands of years. The prehistoric man at that time must still have seen palm trees, savannah vegetation and indigenous animals at the site. The expedition noted that the thick crusty layer, a few millimeters thick, which served as the base for painting the pictures on the cave walls, had been decaying for quite some time, and together with it some of the paintings have perished. – B: 1020, 1105, 1482, T: 7456.→Almásy, László Ede; Zarzura Oasis, Egypt. Vadkerty, Katalin (Catherine) (Érsekújvár, now Nové Zámky, Slovakia, 21 April 1928 - ) – Historian. Her higher studies were at the University of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) where she obtained her Degree in History in 1955. From 1953 to 1958, she taught at the Academy of Pedagogy of Pozsony. For a while she was Cultural Columnist for the paper Working Woman (Dolgozó Nő). Between 1960 and 1987, she was an Associate at the Slovak Academy of Science. Her field of research was Economic History of Hungary in the 19th century, and after 1867. Since 1990, her interest has been the persecution history of Hungarians in Slovakia between 1945 and 1948. Her works include The Economic History of the Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938) (A Csehszlovák Köztársaság gazdaságtörténete (1918–1938);The Re-Slovakization (A reszlovakizáció) (1993); The Deportations (A deportálások) (1996); Interior Deportations and the Population Exchange (A belső telepítések és a lakosságcsere) (1999), and From Deportation to Re-Slovakization (A kitelepítéstől a reszlovakizációig) (2001), in Slovakian: (Maďarská otázka v Československu 1945–1948 (2002). She is a recipient of the Fábry Prize (1996), the Dominik Tatarka Prize (2003), the Bethlen Prize (2003), the Golden Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (2008), and the János Arany Prize (2010). – B: 1890, T: 7103.
Vadnai, Károly (Charles) (Vadnay), (Miskolc, 28 April 1832 - Budapest, 27 July 1902) – Writer, journalist and member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He studied in Miskolc, and in 1848 he joined the army. After the Armistice of Világos on 13 August 1849, he was in hiding for a while, after which he was sent to join the Austrian army. After his return home in 1851, he was active as a writer and journalist in Pest. From 1856 until 1865, he was Editor of the Lady's Messenger(Hölgyfutár) and, from 1864 until 1892 he co-edited the Capital City Pages(Fõvárosi Lapok) with Kálmán (Coloman) Tóth. From 1876 he was a member of the Kisfaludy and Petõfi Societies. From 1878 he was Secretary of the Relief Society for Hungarian Writers (Magyar Írók Segélyegylete). His main works are The Little Fairy(A kis tündér) (1860); Esther the Beautiful Chorister(Eszter, a szép kardalnoknõ) (1861); Times Past(Elmúlt idõk) (1886); Eva's Daughters(Éva leányai) (1892); Countess Immaculata(Immaculata grófné) (1896), and Literary Memories(Irodalmi emlékek) (1906). - B: 0883, 1257, T: 7667.→Világos, Armistice at; Tóth, Kálmán. Vadnai László (Ladislas) (Vadnay) (Budapest, 21 March 1904 - Budapest, 18 April 1967) – Writer and playwright. Initially, he worked for the paper Morning News(Reggeli Újság) and, for a year he was Director and Announcer for the Terézkörút Stage (Terézkörúti Színpad). In the early 1920s, he emerged as a successful comic writer. He was the creator of the characters Hacsek and Sajó, the two most popular figures of the Budapest Cabaret. From 1927 he was a screenplay writer with a number of very successful films to his credit. In 1938 he emigrated to the USA, where he wrote scripts for television shows. In 1967, while visiting Hungary, he died suddenly. His main works include Where Were You in the Night? (Hol jártál az éjszaka?) (1926); Kati's Soldier(Kati katonája) (1927); The Ugly Girl(A csúnya leány) (1930); Money Talks(Pénz beszél) (1933); Vica the Canoeist (Vica a vadevezős) (1933); Hacsek and Sajó (Hacsek és Sajó) (1933); A Dream Car(Meseautó) (1934); An Income of200 a Month(Havi 200 fix) (1936); Hotel Sunrise (Hotel Kikelet) (1937); The Story of a Tailcoat(Egy frakk története) (1942); In My Father's House(Apám házában) (1946); The Stronger Sex(Az erősebb nem) (1956); Passport to Life (Útlevél az élethez) (1957); László Vadnai's Most Famous Hacsek and Sajó Dialogues (Vadnai László leghíresebb Hacsek és Sajó párbeszédei) (New York, 1959), and The Marathon Runner (A maratoni futó) (1961). Vadnai was one of the most successful comedy playwrights. – B: 0883, 1445, 1672, T: 7667.→Békeffy, István. Vadnay, Vilma (Szepán) (Sátoraljaújhely, 1862 - Budapest, 6 June 1918) – Coloratura soprano, singer of operettas and musical folk plays. Gyula (Julius) Káldy, the conductor of the Folk Theater (Népszínház) of Pest, discovered her talent and trained her voice. It was in 1880 that she first appeared on stage at the Popular Theater (Népszínház). From 1882 to 1893, she sang in country theaters with her husband, Sándor (Alexander) Somló. When he was given a contract with the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, she relinquished her career but, from time-to-time, she appeared as a guest artist, as in 1894 in the Buda Theaterette (Budai Kis Színház). She was a well-known prima donna in country theaters, with her sonorous high coloratura soprano voice. Her playing was clever and attractive. She reaped great success as a singer of folk plays and folksongs. Her roles included FiamettainSuppé’s Boccaccio; Klári in G. Csiky’s The Run-away Woman (A szökött asszony); Zsófi in F. Csepreghy’s The RedPurse (A piros bugyelláris); Adél in J. Strauss’ Die Fledermaus (Denevér); SzaffiinJ. Strauss’ TheGypsy Baron(Cigánybáró), and Lidi in A. Deréky’s The Cornflower (Búzavirág). – B: 1445, T: 7456.→Somló, Sándor, Káldy, Gyula. Vadnay, Zsuzsanna (Susan) (Zsuzsanna Rospigliosi-Pallavicini) (Budapest, 23 June 1924 - ) - Writer and journalist. She completed her high school studies in Budapest. During World War II, Raul Wallenberg, the Swedish Diplomat, sheltered her and her family. After 1945, she was Associate Editor for the papers, Hungarian Nation (Magyar Nemzet), and Present Day (Mai Nap). Late in 1949, she fled from Hungary and via Vienna she went to Rome, where she worked as tourist guide and journalist. Her reports were heard on the Hungarian broadcast of Voice of America and Radio Free Europe. At first, she worked for papers, such as Western Courier(Nyugati Hírnök), later for Illustrated Hungarian Magazine (Képes Magyar Hírlap), Literary News (Irodalmi Újság) and National Guard (Nemzetőr). She was a correspondent for Reader’s Digest, and also for American, Italian, Dutch, French and Belgian papers. In 1977, with her writer husband, Prince William Rospigliosi-Pallavicini, she moved to Locarno. For years, her writings were heard on Radio Free Europe, and also appeared in the National Guard and Chronicle (Krónika) of Toronto. Most of her books are travel guides. Her works include Sagernas Rom, travel guide, in Swedish (1960, in Danish 1961); Sagneses Athen, travel guide, in Danish (1963); Damernes Rom Guid, travel guide, in Danish (1966); Interesting People, Western Hungarian Portraits, with Éva Saáry (1981), and Story-telling Stones of Athens (1988). She is a recipient of the Politeness Prize and Diploma of Rome (1961), the Medal of the Hungarian Association of Cleveland (1982), and a member of the Árpád Academy (1982). – B: 0878, 1672, T: 7456.→Saáry, Éva; Wallenberg, Raul. Vagabund Sorcerer→Garabonciás.